Design Theory - Lecture 01: What is design?
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Design Theory - Lecture 01: What is design?

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Design Theory - Lecture 01: What is design? Design Theory - Lecture 01: What is design? Presentation Transcript

  • Design Theory Lecture 01: What is design? Communication & Multimedia Design Bas Leurs (b.l.f.leurs@hr.nl) February 10, 2014
  • Is design cognition a black box? Input Output Also see Jones (1970) on black and glass boxes
  • Design theory tries to describe or explain design activity What is design? And why do we actually design? How do designers think and act? This lecture This lecture
  • industrial design environmental design architecture software design interface design typographic design graphic design product design educational design engineering design interaction design user experience design experience design webdesign editorial design service design game design interior design database design emotional design information design Categories of Design sound design social design strategic design communication design
  • Some definitions of design...
  • Jot down three keywords that you think should be found in the definition of design
  • Design is to design a design to produce a design John Heskett (2005) a general concept an action a plan or intention the outcome/ result noun verb noun noun
  • Design is a profession that is concerned with the creation of products, systems, communications and services that satisfy human needs, improve people’s lives and do all of this with respect for the welfare of the natural environment. profession? Charles Owen (2004)
  • Koskinen, Zimmerman, Binder, Redstrom & Wensveen (2011) Designers are people who are paid to produce visions of better futures and make those things happen.
  • Page (1966) The imaginative jump from present facts to future possibilities
  • Harold Nelson & Erik Stolterman (2002) ability? "Design is the ability to imagine that-which-does-not-yet-exist, to make it appear in concrete form as a new, purposeful addition to the real world." The Design Way: Intentional Change in an Unpredictable World
  • Design is about making decisions, often in the face of uncertainty Joseph Zinter (2012) Asimow, 1962 Decision making in the face of uncertainty, with high penalties for error
  • Bryan Lawson & Kees Dorst (2009) Designers typically produce novel unexpected solutions, tolerate uncertainty, work with incomplete information, apply imagination and constructive forethought to practical problems and use drawings and other modelling media as means of problem solving
  • Herbert Simon (1969) "Everyone designs who devises courses of action aimed at changing existing situations into preferred ones." Most cited definition of design
  • initial state process future state transformation functioncurrent situation desired situation A very basal model of design Doblin (1987)
  • John Chris Jones Design Methods: Seeds of human future (1970)
  • Get ready for... the ultimate definition of design
  • John Chris Jones Design Methods: Seeds of human future (1970)
  • P R E L U D E CHANGE IS DIFFERENCE • CHANGE OF DIFFERENCE IS PROCESS • CHANGE OF PROCESS IS EVOLUTION • CHANGE OF EVOLUTION IS DESIGN Fig. I-5 Hierarchy of Change llenge to cultures, or societies, on how to deal with change at these multipl Harold Nelson & Erik Stolterman (2002/2012) Design = Change
  • However... there is even a final ultimate definition !
  • “...but now, more than thirty years later, and in a changed world, I am no longer happy with man-made nor with things...” John Christopher Jones (2002) http://www.softopia.demon.co.uk/2.2/digital_diary_02.07.14.html Design is to initiate change in man-made things
  • thoughts and actions intended to change thoughts and actions John Christopher Jones (2002) http://www.softopia.demon.co.uk/2.2/digital_diary_02.07.14.html Awesome... or not? cognitive (thinking) acting, doing Designer “User”
  • thoughts and actions intended to change thoughts and actions John Christopher Jones (2002) http://www.softopia.demon.co.uk/2.2/digital_diary_02.07.14.html
  • Design is the core of purposeful and creative action of the active building or relations between man and his world Jantsch (1975) In most people’s vocabularies, design means veneer. It’s interior decorating. It’s the fabric of the curtains and sofa. But to me, nothing could be further from the meaning of design. Design is the fundamental soul of a man-made creation that ends up expressing itself in successive outer layers of the product or service. Jobs (n.d.) Design is to initiate change in man-made things Jones (1970) thoughts and actionsintended to change thoughts and actionsJones (2002) Designers are people who are paid to produce visions of better futures and make those things happen. Koskinen, Zimmerman, Binder, Redstrom & Wensveen (2011)Designers typically produce novel unexpected solutions, tolerate uncertainty, work with incomplete information, apply imagination and constructive forethought to practical problems and use drawings ans other modelling media as means of problem solving' Lawson & Dorst (2009) Design is the translation of information in the form of requirements, constraints, and experience into potential solutions which are considered by the designer to meet required performancecharacteristics. Luckman (1984) The entire activity from the stage of realization of a need to change to translating the image of the future system into reality is termed design.Mathur (1978) Design is the solution to the sum of the needs of a particular set of circumstancesMatchett (1968) No longer associated with objects and appearances, design is increasingly understood in a much wider sense as the human capacity to plan and produce desired outcomes.Mau (2007) A designer is a planner with an aesthetic sense Munari (1966) Design is the investigation of contemplated and present systems to formulate, through the ideal systems concept, the most effective systems Nadler (1981) Design generates, organizes, and evaluates a large number of alternatives; keeping focused on the best possible or most ideal solution, rather than on collecting and analyzing data about he problem. Nadler & Hibino (1990) Design is the ability to imagine that-which-does-not-yet- exist, to make it appear in concrete form as a new, purposeful addition to the real world.Nelson & Stolterman (2002) Design is a profession that is concerned with the creation of products, systems, communications and services that satisfy human needs, improve people’s lives and do all of this with respect for the welfare of the natural environment.Owen (2004) The imaginative jump from present facts tofuture possibilies Page (1966) Design is integral to all life and human activity Papenek (1972) Design is a conscious and intuitive effort to impose meaningful order.... Design is both the underlying matrix of order and the tool that creates it. Papenek (1983) Design is the method of putting form and content together. Design, just as art, has multiple definitions; there is no single definition. Design can be art. Design can be aesthetics. Design is so simple, that’s why it is so complicated. Rand (2001) A creative activiy, design brings into being something new and useful that has not existed previously Reswick (1965) The designer intends to change a segment of the universe. His motivation is consequential action, not understanding or explanation... He designs whatever purpose he has in his mind devises a schema to accomplish this Purpose.Rittel (1973) Everyone designs who devises courses of action aimed at changing existing situations into preferred ones. Simon (1969) Design is a contiunuum of processes, an endless but moving chain of development, realization, and evaluation, directed toward purposeful creation Van der Ryn (1966) Design consists primarily of six types of activity: intelligence, analysis, synthesis, choice,communication, and interpretation. Theimplementation of design its concrete phase. The failure of any one of the six fundamental types will usually assure failure to implementWarfield (1990) Design is a new way of resolving basic human conflicts, critical for securing safe passage to a desirable human futureWeisbord (1992) Design is about making decisions, often in the face of uncertainty. Zinter (2012) Design is initiated by using a very broad brush in sketching the first version. Then details are gradually added. The process continues until a sufficiently detailed design is obtained that enables us to carry it out Ackoff, 1981 Design is the use of scientific principles, technical information, and imagination in the definition of a system to perform specific functions with maximum economy and efficiency. Archer (1966) The act of designing is the prescription or model of the finished work in advance of its embodiment. Archer (1984) Decision making in the face of uncertainty, with high penalties for error. Asimow (1962) A pruposeful activity, design is directed towards the goals of fulfilling human needs Asimow (1962) Design aims to conceive the idea of a desired system and prepare a description of it Banathy (1979) Designing is creating a structure that organizes the logic in the system. Beck (2000) Design establishes and defines solutions to and pertinent structures for problems not solved before, or new solutions to problems which have previously been solved in a different way. Blumrich (1970) Design simulates what we want to make before we make it, as many times as may be necessary to feel confident in the final result Booker (1964) Design is the human power to conceive, plan and re- alize all of the products that serve human beings in the accomplishment of their individual or collective purposes. Buchanan (2006) A designer is an emerging synthesis of artist, inventor, mechanic, objective economist and evolutionary strategist. Buckminster Fuller (n.d.) Design is primarily a thought process and communication process, tranferring ideas into action by communication. It is a natural function, expressed in the many activities we engage in. For the teleologist, design means the conscious attempt to create a better world. For the antiteleologist design is the conscious part of action. Churchman (1971) Design is “values made visible” Chick & Micklethwaite (2011) Design is what links creativity and innovation. It shapes ideas to become practical and attractive propositions for users or customers. Design may be described as creativity deployed to a specific end.’ Cox (2005) Design is seen as a process of "variety reduction" with the very large number of potential solutions reduced by external constraints and by the designer's own cognitive structures. Darke (1984) Design is an act of love. Desmet (2011) Design is more than an agent of change, it is change. Doorley & Witthoft (2012) ... a plan for arranging elements in such a way as to best accomplish a particular purpose. Eames (1989) Design is a mode of action. Eames (n.d.) Design means to map out, to plan, or to arrange the parts into a whole which satisfies the objectives involved. FitzGerald & FitzGerald (1987) Design is a quintessential cognitive task. The activity of design involves the mental formulation of future states of affairs. The products of design activity are external representations of such possible futures. Goel & Pirolli (1992). Design is to design a design to produce a design Heskett (2005) Design is the purposeful organization of resources to accomplish a goal. Hevner, March, Park & Ram (2004) Thus, labeling an activity ‘designing’ generally presupposes the existence of a use plan and a group of prospective users. Houkes (2008) A designer is anyone engaging in an intentional, purposeful activity with the aim of devising a description (plan) for a product or artefact. Hybs & Gero (2006) Design is a creative activity whose aim is to establish the multi-faceted qualities of objects, processes, services and their systems in whole life cycles. Therefore, design is the central factor of innovative humanisation of technologies and the crucial factor of cultural and economic exchange. ICSID (n.d.) A Digest: Definitions of Design By Bas Leurs – February 6, 2014 Zie N@tschool!
  • satisfy improve purposeful aims plans intentions imaginative present future prefered situation existing situation problem solution uncertainty human people users creating changing decision making problem solving Changing an existing situation into a preferred situation, requires imagination to formulate a plan that deals with uncertainty that the future holds. new innovative
  • “One of the difficulties in understanding design, is its multifaceted nature. There is no single way of looking at design that captures the 'essence' without missing some other salient aspect.” Bryan Lawson & Kees Dorst (2009), also see Buchanan (1992, 2001, p. 27) As you might have noticed... design is quite an ambiguous notion
  • Design as... • A mixture of creativity and analyses • Problem solving • Evolution • The creation of solutions to problems • Integrating into a coherent whole • A fundamental human activity • Etc... Bryan Lawson & Kees Dorst (2009)
  • let’s try to grasp the very essence of design... actually the problem designers are facing in their everyday practice
  • design = easy Yes, or no?
  • “Design is the performing of a very complicated act of faith” John Christopher Jones (1966/1970)
  • But, what makes design such a complicated activity? Write down one word!
  • What makes design so complicated according to Jones? In Design Methods (1970) “The fundamental problem is that designers are obliged to use current information to predict a future state that will not come about unless their predictions are correct.” “The designer must be able to predict the ultimate effects of their proposed design as well as specifying the actions that are needed to bring these effects about.” 47
  • effect(s)customer client business designer plan sketch/prototype production manufacturing product Design is not (only) about the product. Actually it is about the effects you want to achieve Business Competitive advantage Users Pleasurable experience Ecology/society Ecological footprint/ wellfare
  • short term effects mid term effects long term effects However, effects are not easy to predict... We cannot know what the unintended consequences of a design will be, and we cannot know, ahead of time, the full, systemic effects of a design implementation. Nelson & Stolterman (2002) See Jones (1970)
  • “If we can design our way into difficulty, we can design our way out.” John Thackara (2005) Designers are optimists
  • Designers
  • Everyone is a designer! True, or false
  • Het Beste Idee van Nederland
  • Nigel Cross (2011) "Everyone can – and does – design. We all design when we plan for something new to happen, whether that might be a new version of a recipe, a new arrangement of the living room furniture, or a new lay tour of a personal web page. […] So design thinking is something inherent within human cognition; it is a key part of what makes us human.” (p. 3) IKEA!!! “Design ability is possessed by everyone” Nigel Cross (1990)
  • http://www.ikeahackers.net/ IKEA Hackers
  • Innovative use of the BJURSTA dining table to hold two toddlers. And the best thing is, when adults need to eat, the holes can be covered. http://www.ikeahackers.net/2011/01/best-hack-of-2010-your-vote-needed.html
  • "Everyone designs who devises courses of action aimed at changing existing situations into preferred ones." Herbert Simon (1969)
  • What is the difference between an amateur designer and a professional designer?
  • Laten we eens kijken naar de ontwerpen van Ed Baars. Ed is een ontwerper/uitvinder en ontwikkelt “hulpmiddel apparaten”...
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RBP1nOXul1c “Smeer en snij spaan voor de pindakaas of de chocoladepasta voor de sneetje brood”
  • http://www.youtube.com/user/idea28ed/videos
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PeFqauOU1xk “Accuboor aardappel schilmachine”
  • “aan douw hagelslag spaan” “broodjes snijplank snel en veilig” “broodtrommel met klok” “keuken kitchen accu boor drill mixer eten food make” Mijn favorieten
  • “We must design, because we are not perfect.” Harold Nelson & Erik Stolterman (2002/2012) “On a more abstract level, we are drawn to design because we may feel a lack of wholeness—we do not find the world in a condition that is satisfying or fulfilling for us. And, ultimately, we are motivated to design because it is an accessible means to enlightenment, to bring order, and to give meaning to our lives.” “Like Hephaistos, we have to design because we want to survive, but humans also seem to have a will for continuous improvement and development.” Why do we design?
  • "Designers are change agents in society. Their goal is to improve the human condition, in all its aspects, through physical change." John Gero (1990)
  • Position of design
  • design = art True, or false
  • Bruce Archer (1979) arts design engineering useful art??? science
  • Rich Gold (2007) / John Seely Brown (2009?) Art Science Design outward focus move minds move molecules inward focus Engineering
  • Charles Owen (1991) Value freeValue driven (biased) (unbiased)
  • “Design, as a unique way of thinking and acting, does not have a long, well-developed scholarly history. Other intellectual traditions, such as science and art, have enjoyed thousands of years of considered thought...” Harold Nelson & Erik Stolterman (2002) Design Methodology Movement started in 1960’s. Since Henry Ford introduced the Model T (1908), designers helped manufacturers to produce more products for less.
  • experiences objects Functional practical / useful tangible: can be perceived by the senses intangible: can be perceived by attractive / emotive Expressive Symbolic Physical
  • experiences objects Functional practical / useful tangible: can be perceived by the senses intangible: can be perceived by attractive / emotive Expressive Symbolic Physical Engineering ArtDesign CMD
  • Art makes statements. Designs work. Donald Norman (n.d.)
  • “The natural sciences are concerned with how things are.” “Design is concerned with how things ought to be, with devising artifices to attain goals.” Herbert Simon (1969) Science vs Design
  • To conclude... Art Science Design Engineering Creating culture Creating knowledge Creating solutions???Creating meaning
  • Salut! Please return the cards! Next lecture: Design processes Problem solving