0
Design Theory
Lecture 02: Design processes & problem solving
Communication &
Multimedia Design
Bas Leurs (b.l.f.leurs@hr.n...
what we discussed monday...
Today’s programme
Design processes
Design problems & Problem solving
a design process describes how
you as a designer can work.
a design process describes how
you as a designer must work.
descriptive vs prescriptive
explain what it is,
how it works. state (authoritatively)what it should be or howa course of a...
why should you have a
design process?
Why do you have a design process?
•To explain to the clients how you work?
•To ‘guarantee’ the outcome of a project?
•To p...
experiences
objects
Functional
practical / useful
tangible: can be
perceived by
the senses
intangible: can
be perceived by...
Engineering ArtDesign
High penalty
for error
Low penalty
for error
Prescriptive use
of methods
“This is how you should
des...
what is a process?
input process output
Hugh Dubberly (2008)
A process
state 1
process
a process consist of a series of actions
or steps that need to be taken to
attain a particular goal
state ...
initial
state
process
future
state
transformation functioncurrent situation desired situation
A very basal model of design...
Gabriela Goldschmidt (1997)
However, from initial state to end state is not a straightforward process
initial
state
goal
s...
A path to prefered states goes
through imagination
Ilpo Koskinen, John Zimmerman, Thomas Binder,
Johan Redstrom & Stephan ...
their form and function, their dimensions
and appearance, were determined by
technologists-craftsmen, designers, in-
vento...
Research
Ideate
Embodiment
Prototype
Research
Ideate
Embodiment
Prototype
How do you call these two types of processes?
Research
Ideate
Embodiment
Prototype
Research
Ideate
Embodiment
Prototype
Waterfall versus Iterative
http://www.frankwatching.com/archive/2010/05/19/een-website-ontwerpen-met-agile-design-en-scrum-3-teams-en-overleg/
Scrum
let’s have a look at
some design processes
breaking the problem
into pieces
putting the pieces
together in a new way
testing to discover the
consequences of putting ...
Basic Design Cycle
Roozenburg & Eekels (1995)
Form
Function
VDI (Verein Deutscher Ingenieure)
Who wants to design with
a process like this?
John Gero (1990)
FBS Model (Function-Behaviour-Structure)
Pahl & Beitz
planning &
clarifying
conceptual
design
embodiment detail design
concreteabstract
scoping
rough
concept
refined
concept
implement
comparison of design processes
Discover Define Design Deliver
Definition Concept Creation Implementation
Discover Define D...
Discover Define Design Deliver
Definition Concept Creation Implementation
Discover Define Design Develop
Discover Define D...
Discover
Research
Specify
Inspire
Ideate
Define
Direction
Concept
Embodiment
Create
Design
Envision
Develop
Deliver
Prototy...
Hogeschool Rotterdam – Communication & Multimedia Design
Versie: 2 juli, 2012, Door: Saskia Best, Tim Fleumer, Bas Leurs,
...
The primary generator
Jane Darke (1979)
Darke describes a primary generator as: a particular
objective that is strongly va...
“It's	
  weird	
  to	
  say	
  it.	
  We	
  say…	
  Wow!	
  This	
  is	
  a	
  universe,	
  
it's	
  their	
  own	
  world...
DNA of University of Twente
ideasresearch
fuzzy front end
concept prototype product
Hugh Dubberly, Shelley Evenson & Rick Robinson (2008)
Analysis-Synthesis Bridge Model
Zie N@tschool
PROBLEMS
What is
a MFP?
Major F cking Problem
MFP
=
MFP-tje = Minor F*cking Problem
the architecture of
problems
what is a
problem?
Wayne Booth, Gregory Colomb and Joseph Williams (1995)
A (practical) problem is caused by
some condition in the world that...
what is a
design problem?
design is about ‘fit’
or misfit... and hence solved
by appropriation
Sometimes (or often) there is a misfit between “use
plans” and users (Houkes & Vermaas, 2006).
Because “use plans” are aime...
retrofitted
alteration
Ikea Hacks
http://www.ikeahackers.net/2011/01/best-hack-of-2010-your-vote-needed.html
hacking
fiets parasol voor de warme zomerdagen ook te gebruiken voor regen
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8HTFK75cpHY
A tool addresses human needs by amplifying human capabilities.
Bret Victor (2011)
worrydream.com/#!/ABriefRantOnTheFutureO...
Product
Problem
User
Business
fitFIT
fit
FIT
fitFIT
Design problems occur when there is a misfit between one of these relations
John Restrepo & Henri Christiaans (2003)
Design as a unique type of problem solving
Design is a unique type of problem sol...
However, because of the very nature of design problems,
there is very often very little information about the problem,
eve...
“Design problems are largely
underdetermined”
Kees Dorst (2006)
“Design problems in general can be
characterized as not be...
Horst Rittel & Melvin Webber (1973)
Design problems are also decribed as:
Herbert Simon (1973)
ill-defined or ill-structure...
Horst Rittel & Melvin Webber (1973)
1. There is no definitive formulation of a wicked problem
2. Wicked problems have no st...
A design has to be perfect!
Designs don't have to be optimal
or perfect: results that are not
quite optimum or less than perfect
are often completely ...
“Designing is satisficing,
finding an acceptable
solution.”
Herbert Simon (1995)
Satisficing
"Since there did not seem to be any word in
English for decision methods that look for good or
satisfactory sol...
the mechanisms
of design problems
Design is a game, with unknown
rules that become apparent once you
have explored the problem and
solution space simultanio...
In design ‘perfect’ solutions do not exist.
Simply because we do not know what the
perfect solution is.
Science students Architecture students
The renowned experiment by Bryan Lawson (1979)
The renowned experiment by Bryan Lawson (1979)
During the session participants had
access to a computer to get help or
to ...
Science students Architecture students
The renowned experiment by Bryan Lawson (1979)
Adopted a problem
focusing strategy
...
Scientists versus Designers
problem focused solution focused
The problem- and solution space are interwoven. Solution
conjectures are helpful to explore and understand the
problemspac...
now... a bit of a
different problem
solving approach
Situation
30,000 young people
Every Friday and Saturday
night)
Problems
Binge drinking, fights,
pickpocketing and drugs
rel...
What would Ivo do?
More... surveillance!!!
Enforce the law... strictly!!!
Higher... penalties
The grumpy old man method
“The countermeasures that have been taken over
the years have created a slightly grim
environment, and don’t seem to help ...
What would you organize if
you were organizing a
music festival?
These are young people
wanting to have a good
time, not h...
reframing
“'Framing' is the term commonly used for the
creation of a novel standpoint from which a
problematic situation can be tack...
Salut!
Please return
the cards!
Next lecture:
Design as Learning
Design Methods & Tools
Design Theory - Lecture 02: Design processes & Problem solving
Design Theory - Lecture 02: Design processes & Problem solving
Design Theory - Lecture 02: Design processes & Problem solving
Design Theory - Lecture 02: Design processes & Problem solving
Design Theory - Lecture 02: Design processes & Problem solving
Design Theory - Lecture 02: Design processes & Problem solving
Design Theory - Lecture 02: Design processes & Problem solving
Design Theory - Lecture 02: Design processes & Problem solving
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Transcript of "Design Theory - Lecture 02: Design processes & Problem solving"

  1. 1. Design Theory Lecture 02: Design processes & problem solving Communication & Multimedia Design Bas Leurs (b.l.f.leurs@hr.nl) February 13, 2014
  2. 2. what we discussed monday...
  3. 3. Today’s programme Design processes Design problems & Problem solving
  4. 4. a design process describes how you as a designer can work. a design process describes how you as a designer must work.
  5. 5. descriptive vs prescriptive explain what it is, how it works. state (authoritatively)what it should be or howa course of actions shouldbe carried out.
  6. 6. why should you have a design process?
  7. 7. Why do you have a design process? •To explain to the clients how you work? •To ‘guarantee’ the outcome of a project? •To prevent mistakes? •To have an agreement how the team is approaching the project? •Because your teacher told you so? •Because all designers do have a process?
  8. 8. experiences objects Functional practical / useful tangible: can be perceived by the senses intangible: can be perceived by attractive / emotive Expressive Symbolic Physical Engineering ArtDesign
  9. 9. Engineering ArtDesign High penalty for error Low penalty for error Prescriptive use of methods “This is how you should design to avoid errors” Descriptive use of methods “This is how I make my design” Idiosyncratic or secret methods “I am not going to tell you how I do it... Only the inner circle of specialists know how the magic works” People can get killed People can get hurt People can get frustrated People can get confused People can get annoyed Industrial designCivil engineering Communication designInteraction design Art Belief Full control of the physical world is possible Belief Chance is the creator of beauty Functional Expressive
  10. 10. what is a process?
  11. 11. input process output Hugh Dubberly (2008) A process
  12. 12. state 1 process a process consist of a series of actions or steps that need to be taken to attain a particular goal state 2step 1 step 2 step 3 step 4
  13. 13. initial state process future state transformation functioncurrent situation desired situation A very basal model of design Doblin (1987)
  14. 14. Gabriela Goldschmidt (1997) However, from initial state to end state is not a straightforward process initial state goal state
  15. 15. A path to prefered states goes through imagination Ilpo Koskinen, John Zimmerman, Thomas Binder, Johan Redstrom & Stephan Wensveen (2011)
  16. 16. their form and function, their dimensions and appearance, were determined by technologists-craftsmen, designers, in- ventors, and engineers-using non- scientific modes of thought. Carving knives, comfortable chairs, lighting fix- tures, and motorcycles are as they are because over the years their designers and makers have established shape, style, and texture. Many features and qualities of the ob- jects that a technologist thinks about cannot be reduced to unambiguous ver- bal descriptions; they are dealt with in his mind by a visual, nonverbal process. His mind's eye is a well-developed organ that not only reviews the contents of his visual memory but also forms such new or modified images as his thoughts re- quire. As he thinks about a machine, rea- soning his way through successive steps in a dynamic process, he can turn it over in his mind. The designer and the in- material surroundings for, in their innu- merable choices and decisions, tech- nologists have determined the kind of world we live in, in a physical sense. Pyramids, cathedrals, and rockets exist not because ofgeometry, theory of struc- tures, or thermodynamics, but because they were first a picture-literally a vi- sion-in the minds of those who built them (1). This article attempts to clarify the na- ture and significance of nonverbal thought. It traces the development of nonverbal thought as practiced by tech- nologists since the Renaissance, points to the many drawings and pictures that have both recorded and stimulated tech- nological developments, and reviews the graphic inventions, such as pictorial per- spective, that have lent system and clari- ty to nonverbal thinking. A concluding section considers changing attitudes to- ward the nonverbal component of tech- nology as they have been reflected in en- gineering curricula and suggests some ef- fects of such changes upon the nature of our technology. sweep of a suspension brid ample, is much more than an geometry. The distinctive three great suspension brid York-the Brooklyn, Georg ton, and Verazzano Narro more strongly the conceptua their designers and the tim construction than they do t requirements of their respe Different builders of large po use many common elemen designs, but certain charact internal "style" distinguish of one maker from those of a opportunities for a designer his particular way of nonverb upon a machine or a structur ly innumerable. This open- cess can be seen in the desig iar, compact machine such as gine. The designer of a diesel technologist who must cont his intuitive sense of rightn ness. What will be the shape bustion chamber? Can I use The author is professor of history at the Uni- versity ofDelaware and curtor oftechnology ofthe Hagley Museum, Greenville, Delaware 19807. 26 AUGUST 1977 The Nature of Design he Mind's Eye: Nonverbal -Thought in Technology h pictures" is an essential strand in the history oftechnological development. Eugene S. Ferguson e too readily assumes ledge may be incor- ifacts of technology rom science. This as- modem folklore that nscientific decisions, all, made by tech- sign the world we in- ts of daily use have nced by science, but ion, their dimensions were determined by tsmen, designers, in- gineers-using non- of thought. Carving ventor, who bring elements together in new combinations, are each able to as- semble and manipulate in their minds de- vices that as yet do not exist. If we are to understand the devel- opment of Western technology, we must appreciate this important, if unnoticed, mode of thought. It has been nonverbal thinking, by and large, that has fixed the outlines and filled in the details of our material surroundings for, in their innu- merable choices and decisions, tech- nologists have determined the kind of world we live in, in a physical sense. Pyramids, cathedrals, and rockets exist There may well be only one acceptable arrangement or configuration of a com- plex technological device, such as a mo- torcycle, but that arrangement is neither self-evident nor scientifically predict- able. The early designers of motorcycles could not ask science to tell them where to put engine, battery, fuel tank, and spark coil; they had to make their choices on other grounds (see cover). In time, wrong choices would be revealed, but not by scientific analysis. Making wrong choices is the same kind of game as making right choices; there is often no a priori reason to do one thing rather than another, particularly if neither had been done before. No bell rings when the optimum design comes to mind. Nor has the plight of designers changed funda- mentally in the 20th century. They must still weigh the imponderable and sound the unfathomable. All of our technology has a significant intellectual component that is both nonscientific and nonliterary. The creative shaping process ofa tech- nologist's mind can be seen in nearly every man-made object that exists. The sweep of a suspension bridge, for ex- ample, is much more than an exercise in geometry. The distinctive features of three great suspension bridges in New York-the Brooklyn, George Washing- Ferguson (1977) The mind’s eye
  17. 17. Research Ideate Embodiment Prototype Research Ideate Embodiment Prototype How do you call these two types of processes?
  18. 18. Research Ideate Embodiment Prototype Research Ideate Embodiment Prototype Waterfall versus Iterative
  19. 19. http://www.frankwatching.com/archive/2010/05/19/een-website-ontwerpen-met-agile-design-en-scrum-3-teams-en-overleg/ Scrum
  20. 20. let’s have a look at some design processes
  21. 21. breaking the problem into pieces putting the pieces together in a new way testing to discover the consequences of putting the new arrangement into practice analysis synthesis evaluation John C. Jones (1970) Classic: Analysis - Synthesis - Evaluation
  22. 22. Basic Design Cycle Roozenburg & Eekels (1995) Form Function
  23. 23. VDI (Verein Deutscher Ingenieure) Who wants to design with a process like this?
  24. 24. John Gero (1990) FBS Model (Function-Behaviour-Structure)
  25. 25. Pahl & Beitz
  26. 26. planning & clarifying conceptual design embodiment detail design concreteabstract
  27. 27. scoping rough concept refined concept implement
  28. 28. comparison of design processes Discover Define Design Deliver Definition Concept Creation Implementation Discover Define Design Develop Discover Define Design Deliver Specification Concept design Detail design Manufacture Sense Interpret Decide Act Research Ideate Embodiment Prototype Creative explorations Idea generation Envisioning dreams Prototyping Inspiration Direction Creation Experience Goal Action Effect Measurement Explore Generate Evaluate Communicate Discover Identify Validate Articulate Research CreateIdeate
  29. 29. Discover Define Design Deliver Definition Concept Creation Implementation Discover Define Design Develop Discover Define Design Deliver Specification Concept design Detail design Manufacture Sense Interpret Decide Act Research Ideate Embodiment Prototype Creative explorations Idea generation Envisioning dreams Prototyping Inspiration Direction Creation Experience Goal Action Effect Measurement Explore Generate Evaluate Communicate Discover Identify Validate Articulate Research CreateIdeate Discover Research Specify Inspire Ideate Define Direction Concept Embodiment Create Design Envision Develop Deliver Prototype Articulate concretefuzzy
  30. 30. Discover Research Specify Inspire Ideate Define Direction Concept Embodiment Create Design Envision Develop Deliver Prototype Articulate What is? What if? What wows? What works? See Jeanne Liedtka & Tim Ogilvie (2011) ? $
  31. 31. Hogeschool Rotterdam – Communication & Multimedia Design Versie: 2 juli, 2012, Door: Saskia Best, Tim Fleumer, Bas Leurs, Jasper Schelling, Peter van Waart Eindkwalificaties Communication & Multimedia Design ! ken Verbeelden Realiseren Concept ontwikkelen mpathie Multidisciplinair werken Rationale & Emotionale Signatuur Adaptief leren Rotterdam – Communication & Multimedia Design door: Saskia Best, Tim Fleumer, Bas Leurs, Jasper Schelling, Peter van Waart Onderzoeken Verbeelden Realiseren Concept ontwikkelen Empathie Multidisciplinair werken Rationale & Emotionale Signatuur Adaptief leren Hogeschool Rotterdam – Communication & Multimedia Design 2 Juni, 2012, door: Saskia Best, Tim Fleumer, Bas Leurs, Jasper Schelling, Peter van Waart Hogeschool Rotterdam – Communication & Multimedia Design Versie: 2 juli, 2012, Door: Saskia Best, Tim Fleumer, Bas Leurs, Jasper Schelling, Peter van Waart Onderzoeken Verbeelden Realiseren Concept ontwikkelenHet kunnen formuleren en herformuleren van een ontwerpvraagstuk. D.m.v. van onderzoek tot de kern van dat vraagstuk kunnen komen. Informatie valideren en er conclusies uit trekken als uitgang- spunt voor het verdere ontwerpproces. Empathie Inleven in waarden, behoeften, drijfveren en ambities van klanten, en mogelijkheden tot innovatie. Sensitief zijn voor mens en omgeving. Open staan voor andere denk- en levenswijzen. Multidisciplinair werken Kunnen samenwerken in multidiscipli- nair verband en in staat zijn om daarin het (eigen) werkproces en werkomgeving te organiseren. Rationale & Emotionale Antwoord kunnen geven op de ‘waarom- ontwerpbeslissingen. De mens centraal stellen in alle ontwerpkeuzes en deze onderbouwen op basis van onderzoek, theorie, best practices en intuïtie. Signatuur Het hebben van een eigenwijze en eigentijdse kijk op ontwerpvraa- gstukken en bijbehorende oplossin- gen en deze visie kunnen uitdragen en delen met anderen. Adaptief leren Voortdurend leerdoelen formuleren door te reflecteren op leerproces, werkproces en veranderende con- text. Inspelen op kansen en ontwik- kelingen. Mogelijkheden bedenken om waarde te creëren voor gebruiker en opdrachtgever. Doelbewust experimenteren, grenzen opzoeken en overschrijden om te komen tot niet voor de hand liggende concepten. Vormgeven van plannen, ideeën en visies. Overtuigen en verleiden met inspirerende visualisaties, prototypes, verhalen en presentaties. Ideeën uitwerken naar betekenisvolle interactieve producten, diensten en belevingen. Aandacht hebben voor detail zonder de grote lijn uit het oog te verliezen. Verzorgd kunnen werken en op tijd leveren. Creatief kunnen omgaan met beperkingen, vasthoudend zijn, doorzetten. Eindkwalificaties: Communication & Multimedia Design
  32. 32. The primary generator Jane Darke (1979) Darke describes a primary generator as: a particular objective that is strongly valued and self-imposed, which heavily relies on subjective judgment. A primary generator serves as a starting point and gives the process a direction.
  33. 33. “It's  weird  to  say  it.  We  say…  Wow!  This  is  a  universe,   it's  their  own  world,  they  have  a  campus'.  We  are   creating  a  universe...  it's  Universe  Twente.  We  started   walking  around  like  Star  Trek,  we're  going  to  create   an  independent  world!  These  were  some  @irst   thoughts.” Liza Enebeis (Studio Dumbar) explaining the primary generator of the visual identity of University of Twente An example of a primary generator
  34. 34. DNA of University of Twente
  35. 35. ideasresearch fuzzy front end concept prototype product
  36. 36. Hugh Dubberly, Shelley Evenson & Rick Robinson (2008) Analysis-Synthesis Bridge Model
  37. 37. Zie N@tschool
  38. 38. PROBLEMS
  39. 39. What is a MFP?
  40. 40. Major F cking Problem MFP = MFP-tje = Minor F*cking Problem
  41. 41. the architecture of problems
  42. 42. what is a problem?
  43. 43. Wayne Booth, Gregory Colomb and Joseph Williams (1995) A (practical) problem is caused by some condition in the world that makes us unhappy because it costs us time, respect, security, pain, money or even our lives. A conceptual problem arises when we simply do not understand something about the world as well as we would like. Problems consist of two elements: undesirable consequences caused by that condition a situation or condition +
  44. 44. what is a design problem?
  45. 45. design is about ‘fit’ or misfit... and hence solved by appropriation
  46. 46. Sometimes (or often) there is a misfit between “use plans” and users (Houkes & Vermaas, 2006). Because “use plans” are aimed towards pre- determined product use. However, users appropriate the artefacts that they use and neglect the intentions that were enscribed by the designer. Let’s have a look at product use product user
  47. 47. retrofitted
  48. 48. alteration
  49. 49. Ikea Hacks http://www.ikeahackers.net/2011/01/best-hack-of-2010-your-vote-needed.html hacking
  50. 50. fiets parasol voor de warme zomerdagen ook te gebruiken voor regen http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8HTFK75cpHY
  51. 51. A tool addresses human needs by amplifying human capabilities. Bret Victor (2011) worrydream.com/#!/ABriefRantOnTheFutureOfInteractionDesign
  52. 52. Product Problem User Business fitFIT fit FIT fitFIT Design problems occur when there is a misfit between one of these relations
  53. 53. John Restrepo & Henri Christiaans (2003) Design as a unique type of problem solving Design is a unique type of problem solving. It is the maximum expression of human intelligence and the prototypical case of cognition, as it requires devising future states of the world (goals), recognizing current ones (initial states) and finding paths to bridge both (transformation functions). initial state future statetransformation function
  54. 54. However, because of the very nature of design problems, there is very often very little information about the problem, even less information about the goal (solution) and absolutely no information about the transformation function. John Restrepo, Henri Christiaans (2003) initial state future statetransformation function
  55. 55. “Design problems are largely underdetermined” Kees Dorst (2006) “Design problems in general can be characterized as not being subject to systematisation, incomplete, and vague.” John Restrepo, Henri Christiaans (2003) So... the problem with design problems is:
  56. 56. Horst Rittel & Melvin Webber (1973) Design problems are also decribed as: Herbert Simon (1973) ill-defined or ill-structured problems wicked problems The kinds of problems that planners deal with – societal problems – are inherently different from the problems that scientists and perhaps some classes of engineers deal with. Planning problems are inherently wicked.
  57. 57. Horst Rittel & Melvin Webber (1973) 1. There is no definitive formulation of a wicked problem 2. Wicked problems have no stopping rule 3. Solutions to wicked problems are not true-or-false, but good-or-bad 4. There is no immediate and no ultimate test of a solution to a wicked problem 5. Every solution to a wicked problem is a "one-shot operation"; because there is no opportunity to learn by trial-and-error, every attempt counts significantly 6. Wicked problems do not have an enumerable (or an exhaustively describable) set of potential solutions, nor is there a well-described set of permissible operations that may be incorporated into the plan 7. Every wicked problem is essentially unique 8. Every wicked problem can be considered to be a symptom of another problem 9. The existence of a discrepancy representing a wicked problem can be explained in numerous ways. The choice of explanation determines the nature of the problem's resolution 10. The planner has no right to be wrong Properties of wicked problems
  58. 58. A design has to be perfect!
  59. 59. Designs don't have to be optimal or perfect: results that are not quite optimum or less than perfect are often completely satisfactory for everyday usage. No everyday product is perfect, nor need they be. Donald Norman (2010)
  60. 60. “Designing is satisficing, finding an acceptable solution.” Herbert Simon (1995)
  61. 61. Satisficing "Since there did not seem to be any word in English for decision methods that look for good or satisfactory solutions instead of optimal ones, some years ago I introduced the term ‘satisficing’ to refer to such procedures." (p. 119) Satisfy + Suffice Herbert Simon (1995)
  62. 62. the mechanisms of design problems
  63. 63. Design is a game, with unknown rules that become apparent once you have explored the problem and solution space simultaniously.
  64. 64. In design ‘perfect’ solutions do not exist. Simply because we do not know what the perfect solution is.
  65. 65. Science students Architecture students The renowned experiment by Bryan Lawson (1979)
  66. 66. The renowned experiment by Bryan Lawson (1979) During the session participants had access to a computer to get help or to verify their solutions. There were some ‘game rules’ that were not apparent to the participant, but stored in a computer program.
  67. 67. Science students Architecture students The renowned experiment by Bryan Lawson (1979) Adopted a problem focusing strategy Made fewer structural errors Adopted a solution focusing strategy Made fewer planning errors
  68. 68. Scientists versus Designers problem focused solution focused
  69. 69. The problem- and solution space are interwoven. Solution conjectures are helpful to explore and understand the problemspace Co-evolution of problem–solution Kees Dorst (2001)
  70. 70. now... a bit of a different problem solving approach
  71. 71. Situation 30,000 young people Every Friday and Saturday night) Problems Binge drinking, fights, pickpocketing and drugs related crime Dorst & Tomkin (2011)
  72. 72. What would Ivo do? More... surveillance!!! Enforce the law... strictly!!! Higher... penalties The grumpy old man method
  73. 73. “The countermeasures that have been taken over the years have created a slightly grim environment, and don’t seem to help much in preventing crimes and anti social behavior. Increasing the police presence beyond the current level is not an attractive option.” Dorst & Tomkin (2011)
  74. 74. What would you organize if you were organizing a music festival? These are young people wanting to have a good time, not hard core criminals. But a crowd of 30,000 young people, that could be compared to a good-sized music festival Dorst & Tomkin (2011)
  75. 75. reframing
  76. 76. “'Framing' is the term commonly used for the creation of a novel standpoint from which a problematic situation can be tackled — this includes perceiving the situation in a certain way,   adopting certain concepts to describe the situation, patterns of reasoning and problem solving that are associated with that way of seeing, leading to the possibilty to act within that situation.” Dorst & Tomkin (2011)
  77. 77. Salut! Please return the cards! Next lecture: Design as Learning Design Methods & Tools
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