Design Scripts: Designing (inter)actions with intentions (version 2.0)

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Presented to Lahti University of Applied Sciences (Oct 6, 2011)

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Design Scripts: Designing (inter)actions with intentions (version 2.0)

  1. 1. Design ScriptsDesigning (inter)actions with intentionsBas Leurs (October 6, 2011) 1
  2. 2. What makes designso complicated? 2
  3. 3. Most inspring book on Design I have ever read:Design Methods (seeds of human future)John Chris Jones1970 3
  4. 4. InterfacesSocial Experiences Brandsnetworks Food John C. Jones (1970) 4
  5. 5. What makes designso complicatedaccording to Jones?In Design Methods (1970)“The fundamental problem isthat designers are obliged touse current information topredict a future state that willnot come about unless theirpredictions are correct.” 5
  6. 6. Other problems thatdesigners have...In Design Methods (1970)“The designer must be able topredict the ultimate effects oftheir proposed design as wellas specifying the actions thatare needed to bring theseeffects about.” 6
  7. 7. Specifying actions...So design has somethingto do with plans? 7
  8. 8. current desiredsituation situationHow do designers plan theiractions to accomplish the futurestate that they desire? 8
  9. 9. 9
  10. 10. My ambition: to understand howdesigners think and how they canimprove the way they learn andwork, so they can make better(meaningful) products and services INPUT OUTPU T 10
  11. 11. Spending time in the pub issometimes useful. 11
  12. 12. Bruno Latour’s scriptsLatour’s concept fordescribing the Br u no Lato urdelegation of actionby artifacts is calleda ‘script’. Like a t he t he s atre cript of a movi can ‘ play, e or presc an a to ac ribe’ r tifac t whe its us t n t he ers h y use ow it . 12
  13. 13. I consider scripts a bit like ‘Automator’ scriptsWhat if...Scripts are programs ofactions. These programsof actions (or agency ofthings) shape humanbehaviour. 13
  14. 14. Examples of scriptsSpeed bumps, the scriptsays: ‘Slow down!’ 14
  15. 15. Examples of scriptsPaper coffee cup, thescript is: ‘dispose meafter use’ 15
  16. 16. Which one do you prefer? Which one would you buy?A B 16
  17. 17. You’ll find scripts throughout the life of a productConception Manufacturing Distribution Sales Installation Maintenance DisposalSelling it to the Should be possible Should be Should catch the Should be easy to Should it be easy Should be goodclient and cheap to lightweight attention of the install to clean or to for theBuilding prototypes produce and easy buyer replace the bulb? environment to assemble How can it be repaired when it breaks? 17
  18. 18. Examples of scriptsStriping of DutchPolice cars 18
  19. 19. Examples of scriptsStriping of Dutch Police cars:Roadblocks, visual presence,applicable to many types ofvehicles 19
  20. 20. Examples of scriptsPassword strength indicator 20
  21. 21. Examples of scriptsPassword strength indicator:Persuade or challenge peopleto select a safe password 21
  22. 22. Examples of scriptsWii 22
  23. 23. Examples of scriptsWii: playing together andmoving instead of sittingon a couch? 23
  24. 24. Examples of scripts 24
  25. 25. Examples of scriptsDon’t stand too close! 25
  26. 26. Examples of scriptsPrevent people to lay down and take nap. 26
  27. 27. Examples of scriptsNo parking for camping cars 27
  28. 28. Examples of scripts 28
  29. 29. Examples of scripts 29
  30. 30. Examples of scriptsPrevention of cameras being attachedto the machine that record the keypadinput 30
  31. 31. Designing (inter)actions 31
  32. 32. P ERIEN X C E humans E INTERACTION TE GY CH LO NO NO LO TECH GY N human IN IO TE CT RA RA CT TE IO IN N TECH NOLOGYproducts / artefacts / environments brands / organisations / companies 32
  33. 33. Context = Any factor that influences the interaction 33
  34. 34. In essence, scripts areabout intentions (aims)How the designer intends the artefact to interact withits user(s) and context (or vice versa). 34
  35. 35. 35
  36. 36. Theory of planned behavior (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1975) 36
  37. 37. inside the designer’s mind outside in de real world 37
  38. 38. Inside the designer’s mind outside in de real worldValues: what I find The position I take as The aim or plan I have The actual behaviourimport as human a designer towards a as a designer to get to that my designedbeing or designer situation (problem) the desired situation artefact induces.(professional ethics) 38
  39. 39. Inside the designer’s mind outside in de real worldValues: what I find The position I take as The aim or plan I have The actual behaviourimport as human a designer towards a as a designer to get to that my designedbeing or designer situation (problem) the desired situation artefact induces.(professional ethics) human-ce or tive reward patients ntered self supp when they take the are , doing g ood medical c iraltruism medication at the righ moment. 39
  40. 40. an ution of hum ct Th e attrib cs to an obje risti aracteAnthropomorphism ch (Latour, 1992) 40
  41. 41. the designer is delegated My intentions as designer as another human are ‘enscribed’ in the (services) or non-human artefact and shape the character (products) actions of the user. Inside the designer’s mind outside in de real worldValues: what I find The position I take as The aim or plan I have The actual behaviourimport as human a designer towards a as a designer to get to that my designedbeing or designer situation (problem) the desired situation artefact induces.(professional ethics) 41
  42. 42. Anthropomorphism and Service Design 42
  43. 43. Elements of scripts Objective / Aim Context (Scene)Artefact (Product/Service) Sequence of (inter)actions Actor (User) 43
  44. 44. But... scripts can haveerrors (bugs)... 44
  45. 45. But scripts can go wrong...If the context is not taken into account for instance 45
  46. 46. Or scripts can have flaws 46
  47. 47. Or scripts can have flawsIf users are creative... or magicians... 47
  48. 48. Or scripts can be hacked 48
  49. 49. Scripts can be hacked...Fooling other scripts 49
  50. 50. Scripts can be hacked...Fooling other scripts 50
  51. 51. Scripts can be hacked...Examples of scripts Bypassing other scripts 51
  52. 52. Scripts can be hacked...Bypassing other scripts 52
  53. 53. Or scripts can be just misplaced 53
  54. 54. Or scripts can be just misplaced 54
  55. 55. Service Scriptsbe just misplacedOr scripts canCustomer Service Scripts 55
  56. 56. Or scripts can be just misplaced EGBG Counterscript How to deal with direct marketing strategies http://egbg.home.xs4all.nl/counterscript.html 56
  57. 57. You will find theprinciples of scriptsin many fields Cognition & Economics & Political Sciences Schemata theory Event schemata (Scripts) Choice architecture Usecues Mandler, Schank & Abelson Richard Thaler, Cass Sunstein, Kanis, Rooden, A ordances John Balz Green Donald Norman Behavioural Scripts Craig Anderson Usability Cognitive structures In uencing public of knowledge behaviour Legislation Error prevention, ease of use Architectures of control Lawrence Lessig Education In uencing public behaviour Persuasive Intervention scripts Barnett, Bauer, Bell, et al technology Acquisition of knowledge, Persuasive technology skills and values BJ Fogg Design with Philosophy Intent Dan Lockton Game ‘Enscription of artefacts’ Bruno Latour, Madeleine Akrich Design Change attitudes or behaviors Serious games through persuasion How technology a ects Educating, training and peoples life developing behaviour , mindsets 57
  58. 58. Persuasive Technology Shaping Technology / Influence: The Physchology Nudge: Improving decisionsBJ Fogg Building Society of Persuasion about Health, Wealth and Wiebe Bijker, John Robert Cialdini Happines Law Richard Thaler, Cass Sunstein This paper describes scripts as event schemata and tion not as design ifica intentions! GamDesign with Intent: Patterns for Influencing The potential of using script theory inBehaviour Through Design consumer behaviour researchDan Lockton (architectures.danlockton.co.uk) Ersmus, Boshof, Rousseau 58
  59. 59. Have fun withscripting!And keep ethics in mind! (nudge, don’t use coercion) 59

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