Virtual Work Teams as Self-Organizing Systems: Goals, Empowerment, and Communication as Determinants of Virtual Workers’ S...
Wholeness <ul><li>As more and more companies employ teams, and as these teams are often geographically dispersed, it is im...
Moving Towards Virtual Workers Effective Performance Best Practices <ul><li>This research was conducted to investigate a c...
Research Purpose <ul><li>To examine the relationship between virtual workers goal setting orientation and virtual worker (...
Literature Review  Searching for Predictors of Virtual  Worker’s Effective Performance <ul><li>Lurey & Raisinghani (2001) ...
Literature Review  Searching for Predictors of Virtual  Worker’s Effective Performance <ul><li>Hertel, Konradt, & Orlikows...
Main Point 1 <ul><li>The GECo model investigates goals, communication and empowerment together in virtual workers, and ind...
Survey Research Design <ul><li>Data Collection: GECo questionnaire administered to the 113 active list of virtual workers ...
Research Design <ul><li>Instrument: Internet survey with 33 questions on self-perceived effectiveness of the ITC virtual w...
Research Design: Data Analysis <ul><li>Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the statistical significance of ...
Hypotheses H1 Goal orientation will be positively related to virtual worker performance, controlling for communication, em...
Regression Model <ul><li>Log (vwp) =  β 0   +   β 1   log(goals) +  β 2  log(emp) </li></ul><ul><li>+  β 3   log(com) +  β...
Regression Model <ul><li>No hypotheses about effect of control variables on (log) virtual work performance: </li></ul><ul>...
Conclusions of Hypothesis Tests <ul><li>Hypothesis 1:  </li></ul><ul><li>A 1% increase in virtual goals orientation was as...
Conclusions of Hypothesis Tests <ul><li>Hypothesis 2: </li></ul><ul><li>A 1% increase in virtual empowerment was associate...
Conclusions of Hypothesis Tests <ul><li>Hypothesis 3:  </li></ul><ul><li>A 1% increase in virtual communication was associ...
Conclusions of Hypothesis Tests <ul><li>Hypothesis 4: </li></ul><ul><li>On average, a simultaneous 1% increase in virtual ...
Diagnostic Tests for Estimated Regression Model  <ul><li>Diagnostic  tests for model adequacy were satisfactory: </li></ul...
Diagnostic Tests for Estimated Regression Model  <ul><li>Good model fit: adjusted R 2  = .83  </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-vali...
Sensitivity Analysis <ul><li>Hypothesis tests continued to support H1-H4 when key features of analysis were altered: </li>...
Strengths <ul><li>This is the first study to empirically investigate the simultaneous impact of goals, empowerment, and co...
Psychometric Properties of Survey <ul><li>Reliability: Cronbach’s Alpha  >.80 for all measures </li></ul><ul><li>Content V...
Possible Limitations:  Construct Validity <ul><li>Self-reported performance and ratings of communication, goal orientation...
Possible Limitations: Internal Validity <ul><li>How confidently can we accept the conclusion that the change in the criter...
Possible Limitations: Internal Validity <ul><li>Selection----No treatment, therefore not relevant </li></ul><ul><li>Histor...
Possible Limitations: Internal Validity <ul><li>Testing---Not an issue because no repeated measures or multiple assessment...
Possible Limitations: External Validity <ul><li>This is an exploratory correlational study and more research is needed in ...
Possible Limitations:  Statistical Conclusion Validity <ul><li>The most common threats to statistical conclusion validity ...
Recommendations   for  Further Research <ul><li>Since this correlational study design was exploratory, not causal, and cor...
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Lecture Defense June 2011

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GECo Model for Virtual Team Performance

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  • 06/28/11 Prepared by Louis Ventura
  • 06/28/11 Prepared by Louis Ventura
  • 06/28/11 Prepared by Louis Ventura
  • 06/28/11 Prepared by Louis Ventura
  • 06/28/11 Prepared by Louis Ventura
  • 06/28/11 Prepared by Louis Ventura
  • 06/28/11 Prepared by Louis Ventura
  • 06/28/11 Prepared by Louis Ventura
  • 06/28/11 Prepared by Louis Ventura
  • 06/28/11 Prepared by Louis Ventura
  • 06/28/11 Prepared by Louis Ventura
  • 06/28/11 Prepared by Louis Ventura
  • 06/28/11 Prepared by Louis Ventura
  • 06/28/11 Prepared by Louis Ventura
  • 06/28/11 Prepared by Louis Ventura
  • 06/28/11 Prepared by Louis Ventura
  • 06/28/11 Prepared by Louis Ventura
  • 06/28/11 Prepared by Louis Ventura
  • 06/28/11 Prepared by Louis Ventura
  • 06/28/11 Prepared by Louis Ventura
  • 06/28/11 Prepared by Louis Ventura
  • 06/28/11 Prepared by Louis Ventura
  • 06/28/11 Prepared by Louis Ventura
  • 06/28/11 Prepared by Louis Ventura
  • 06/28/11 Prepared by Louis Ventura
  • 06/28/11 Prepared by Louis Ventura
  • 06/28/11 Prepared by Louis Ventura
  • 06/28/11 Prepared by Louis Ventura
  • 06/28/11 Prepared by Louis Ventura
  • 06/28/11 Prepared by Louis Ventura
  • Lecture Defense June 2011

    1. 1. Virtual Work Teams as Self-Organizing Systems: Goals, Empowerment, and Communication as Determinants of Virtual Workers’ Self-Perceived Performance Presented by Louis Ventura May, 2011 Maharishi University of Management © by Louis Ventura BSc (Econ); PH.D. Researcher – Maharishi University of Management. All rights reserved
    2. 2. Wholeness <ul><li>As more and more companies employ teams, and as these teams are often geographically dispersed, it is important to understand the variables that support virtual work performance. </li></ul><ul><li>This is the goal of this dissertation, which points to the goal of virtual intelligence, the ability to engender a positive collaboration in a virtual context. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Moving Towards Virtual Workers Effective Performance Best Practices <ul><li>This research was conducted to investigate a comprehensive framework model that organizations could use to measure and evaluate virtual workers performance. </li></ul><ul><li>To determine variables that correlate with performance in virtual environments. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Research Purpose <ul><li>To examine the relationship between virtual workers goal setting orientation and virtual worker (vw) performance </li></ul><ul><li>To examine the relationship between vw empowerment and vw performance </li></ul><ul><li>To examine the relationship between vw communication and vw performance </li></ul><ul><li>To examine the relationship between simultaneous increase in goals, empowerment, communication (GECo), and the increase in virtual workers effective performance. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Literature Review Searching for Predictors of Virtual Worker’s Effective Performance <ul><li>Lurey & Raisinghani (2001) empirically studied best practices of virtual workers in two dimensions: process improvement and customer satisfaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Workman (2007) examined several factors of technology-mediated interaction that have strong effects on performance measures of virtual workers. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Literature Review Searching for Predictors of Virtual Worker’s Effective Performance <ul><li>Hertel, Konradt, & Orlikowski (2004), measured the effect of virtual goal setting orientation on the management of workers separated by distance. </li></ul><ul><li>Kirkman & Rosen (2004) measured virtual empowerment in dispersed locations and found a strong relationship between the factors of empowerment and performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Jarvenpaa & Leidner (1999) investigated the effect of communication, collaboration, and trust on performance of virtual workers. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Main Point 1 <ul><li>The GECo model investigates goals, communication and empowerment together in virtual workers, and independently </li></ul><ul><li>as predictors of self reported performance, </li></ul><ul><li>which is a contribution to the literature; </li></ul><ul><li>heretofore, these variables were not studied together in the virtual work environment. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Survey Research Design <ul><li>Data Collection: GECo questionnaire administered to the 113 active list of virtual workers (86% male, 14% female; average age = 33.3 years) chosen from the 345 employees of an International Technology Company (ITC) ambassadors program. </li></ul><ul><li>This active list rotates in such a way that it is reasonable to assume that active members are not different from temporarily inactive members. All ambassador go through this active/non-active cycle. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Research Design <ul><li>Instrument: Internet survey with 33 questions on self-perceived effectiveness of the ITC virtual workers. </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaire: Standardized questionnaire modified to measure three explanatory variables—GECo . </li></ul><ul><li>All variables were measured using a modified five-point Likert scale version of Kirkman & Rosen (1999) and Lurey & Raisinghani (2001). </li></ul>
    10. 10. Research Design: Data Analysis <ul><li>Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the statistical significance of the relationship between the GECo predictor variables and effective performance of virtual workers. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Hypotheses H1 Goal orientation will be positively related to virtual worker performance, controlling for communication, empowerment, age, gender, and years in the ITC Ambassador program. H2 Empowerment will be positively related to virtual worker performance, controlling for goals, communication, age, gender, and years in the ITC Ambassador program. H3 Communication between workers will be positively related to virtual worker performance, controlling for worker goals, empowerment, age, gender, and years in the ITC Ambassador program. H4 A simultaneous increase in worker communication, goal orientation, and empowerment will significantly increase virtual work performance, controlling for age, gender, and years in the ITC Ambassador program.
    12. 12. Regression Model <ul><li>Log (vwp) = β 0 + β 1 log(goals) + β 2 log(emp) </li></ul><ul><li>+ β 3 log(com) + β 4 age + β 5 female </li></ul><ul><li>+ β 6 yramb + ε 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Natural log transformations to satisfy assumption of linear relationships and constant variance of residuals </li></ul><ul><li>β 1 , β 2 and β 3 hypothesized positive and significant (H1, H2, H3) </li></ul><ul><li>Sum of 3 coefficients hypothesized positive and significant (H4) </li></ul>
    13. 13. Regression Model <ul><li>No hypotheses about effect of control variables on (log) virtual work performance: </li></ul><ul><li>age (in years) </li></ul><ul><li>female (equals 1 if female, 0 if male) </li></ul><ul><li>yramb (years in ambassador program) </li></ul><ul><li>All control variables not significant in estimated regression equation </li></ul><ul><li>Total sample size N = 113 </li></ul>
    14. 14. Conclusions of Hypothesis Tests <ul><li>Hypothesis 1: </li></ul><ul><li>A 1% increase in virtual goals orientation was associated with a 0.254% increase in virtual worker performance, on average, controlling for other variables in the model. </li></ul><ul><li>Estimated β 1 = 0.254, p < 0.001 , t = 3.38 </li></ul><ul><li>Effect size f 2 = 0.11, where 0.01 is small, </li></ul><ul><li>0.15 medium, 0.35 large. </li></ul>
    15. 15. Conclusions of Hypothesis Tests <ul><li>Hypothesis 2: </li></ul><ul><li>A 1% increase in virtual empowerment was associated with a 0.244% increase in virtual worker performance, on average, controlling for other variables in the model. </li></ul><ul><li>Estimated β 2 = 0.244, p < 0.001, t = 3.30 </li></ul><ul><li>Effect size f 2 = 0.10, where 0.01 is small, </li></ul><ul><li>0.15 medium, 0.35 large. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Conclusions of Hypothesis Tests <ul><li>Hypothesis 3: </li></ul><ul><li>A 1% increase in virtual communication was associated with a 0.291% increase in virtual worker performance, on average, controlling for other variables in the model. </li></ul><ul><li>Estimated β 3 = 0.291, p < 0.001, t = 3.30 </li></ul><ul><li>Effect size f 2 = 0.10, where 0.01 is small, </li></ul><ul><li>0.15 medium, 0.35 large. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Conclusions of Hypothesis Tests <ul><li>Hypothesis 4: </li></ul><ul><li>On average, a simultaneous 1% increase in virtual goals, virtual empowerment, and virtual communication was associated with a significant 0.789% increase in virtual work performance, controlling for age, gender, and years in ambassador program. </li></ul><ul><li>Estimated sum of β 1 + β 2 + β 3 = 0.789, </li></ul><ul><li>p < 0.001 , t = 21.32 </li></ul>
    18. 18. Diagnostic Tests for Estimated Regression Model <ul><li>Diagnostic tests for model adequacy were satisfactory: </li></ul><ul><li>The Breusch-Pagan test for non-constant error </li></ul><ul><li>variance (p = .146) </li></ul><ul><li>The RESET test for misspecification of mathematical form of regression equation (p = .194) </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnostic plots of residuals indicated assumptions of approximate linearity and constant residual variance were satisfied </li></ul>
    19. 19. Diagnostic Tests for Estimated Regression Model <ul><li>Good model fit: adjusted R 2 = .83 </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-validation indicated regression equation likely to give good fit in a new random sample of data: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Predicted R 2 = .82, Stein R 2 = .82 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Shapiro-Wilk test for normality of the regression residuals indicated significant non-normality (p = 0.002) </li></ul><ul><li>Because large sample size (N = 113), all hypothesis tests approximately valid despite non-normality (Wooldridge, 2002). </li></ul>
    20. 20. Sensitivity Analysis <ul><li>Hypothesis tests continued to support H1-H4 when key features of analysis were altered: </li></ul><ul><li>1. No natural log transformation </li></ul><ul><li>(with t-tests and F-tests robust to </li></ul><ul><li> non-constant residual variance) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Omitted 1 moderately influential outlier </li></ul><ul><li>3. Tested for interactions between significant </li></ul><ul><li> predictor variables (not significant) </li></ul><ul><li>In sum: diagnostic tests and sensitivity analysis indicate study has good statistical conclusion validity </li></ul>
    21. 21. Strengths <ul><li>This is the first study to empirically investigate the simultaneous impact of goals, empowerment, and communication on virtual work performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Response rate was 100% due to the virtual workers commitment of the ITC ambassadors volunteers program and the close administration of the survey. </li></ul>
    22. 22. Psychometric Properties of Survey <ul><li>Reliability: Cronbach’s Alpha >.80 for all measures </li></ul><ul><li>Content Validity: Approved by ITC’s HR research committee </li></ul><ul><li>Criterion Validity: Not assessed </li></ul><ul><li>Construct Validity: See next slide </li></ul>
    23. 23. Possible Limitations: Construct Validity <ul><li>Self-reported performance and ratings of communication, goal orientation and empowerment are not objective </li></ul><ul><li>Reactivity to the experimental situation (Shadish, Cook, & Campbell, 2002): Participant responses may reflect the participant’s perceptions of the demand characteristics of the experimental situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Assurance of confidentiality may not have been believed. </li></ul>
    24. 24. Possible Limitations: Internal Validity <ul><li>How confidently can we accept the conclusion that the change in the criterion variable was produced by the predictor variables? </li></ul><ul><li>This is an exploratory correlational study </li></ul><ul><li>Following are the possible threats to internal validity </li></ul>
    25. 25. Possible Limitations: Internal Validity <ul><li>Selection----No treatment, therefore not relevant </li></ul><ul><li>History---nothing special in environment, data gathering period was three weeks </li></ul><ul><li>Regression---did not use extreme data values and no repeated measures, therefore not important </li></ul><ul><li>Attrition---none because no post test </li></ul>
    26. 26. Possible Limitations: Internal Validity <ul><li>Testing---Not an issue because no repeated measures or multiple assessments </li></ul><ul><li>Instrumentation---Not using human observers or repeated measures </li></ul><ul><li>Ambiguous Temporal Precedence, where it is not clear which variable was the cause and which the effect does not make sense because of the strong literature review and basic logic e.g. it makes sense that goal setting is the predictor of performance and not vice versa. </li></ul><ul><li>Additive and interactive---(one threat can add to another threat) since there are no internal validity threats, this is not applicable. </li></ul>
    27. 27. Possible Limitations: External Validity <ul><li>This is an exploratory correlational study and more research is needed in different settings to determine generalizability, or external validity. </li></ul><ul><li>Highly IT trained survey participants from Brazil, a Latin culture, extremely committed with the volunteer program of the ITC </li></ul><ul><li>37% are “Certified Technical” . 86% are Male, the average age is 33.29 (18-58), 42% over a year (yamb), 32% over 2 years, and 27% marked over 3 years, yamb. </li></ul><ul><li>It may not be possible to generalized to other population. </li></ul>
    28. 28. Possible Limitations: Statistical Conclusion Validity <ul><li>The most common threats to statistical conclusion validity are related to violated assumptions of the statistical tests. </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnostic tests and sensitivity analysis indicate study has good statistical conclusion validity </li></ul>
    29. 29. Recommendations for Further Research <ul><li>Since this correlational study design was exploratory, not causal, and correlation doesn’t necessary shows causation, it is necessary in further research to develop a research design with treatment group and control group using an intervention, such as Transcendental Meditation, that may impact goal setting, empowerment and an objectively scored measure of performance </li></ul>
    30. 30. Thank you

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