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Hands out in nutritions Hands out in nutritions Presentation Transcript

  • Nutrition
  • Nutrition
    • National dietary recommendations provide a target zone for healthy eating
    • RDA(Recommended Dietary Allowance)
    • -dietary guideline that specifies the amount of a nutrient needed for almost all of the healthy individuals in a specific age and gender group.
    • DRI(Dietary Reference Intake)
    • -appropriate amounts of nutrients in the diet (AI, RDA, and UL)
    • AI(Adequate Intake)
    • -dietary guideline established experimentally to estimate nutrient needs when sufficient data are not available to establish an RDA value.
    • UL(Tolerable Upper Intake Level)
    • -max level of a daily nutrient that will not pose a risk of adverse health effects for most people.
  • The ABCDS (Dietary Guidelines for Americans)
    • Aim for fitness
    • Aim for a healthy weight.
    • Be physically active each day.
    • Build a healthy base
    • Let the pyramid guide your food choices.
    • Choose a variety of grains daily, especially whole grains.
    • Choose a variety of fruits and vegetables daily.
    • Keep food safe to eat.
  • The ABCS (Dietary Guidelines for Americans)
    • Choose sensibly
    • Choose a diet that is low in sat. fat and cholesterol and moderate in total fat
    • Choose beverages and foods to moderate your intake of sugars.
    • Choose and prepare foods with less salt.
    • If you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation.
  • Six Categories of Nutrition
    • Carbohydrates
    • Fats
    • Protein
    • Vitamins
    • Mineral
    • Water
  • Carbohydrates
    • Simple sugars lead to quick increases blood sugar and tend to promote fat deposition
    • Complex carbohydrates are broken down more slowly and do not cause the same effect on blood sugar. They contribute valuable nutrients and fiber in the diet.
    • The body’s preferred form of energy for Physical Activity
    • Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load
    • Increasing Carbs in the diet is more desirable than supplementing protein or consuming higher amounts of fat.
    • RECOMMENDATIONS
    • Total carbs in the diet should account for the total calories consumed.
    • Simple carbs should be limited 15% or less of total calories consumed, except for very active people.
    • High-fiber foods should be included in the daily diet.
    • GUIDELINES
    • Consume at least five servings of veggies and/or fruits each day.
    • Consume at least six servings a day of complex carbs.
    • Limit intakes of desserts, baked goods and other foods high in simple sugars or empty calories.
    • Dietary fiber supplements other than in the form of food are not recommended unless medically prescribed.
  • FATS
    • An essential nutrient and an important energy source.
    • Carriers of vit. A, D, E, and K.
    • Have twice the cal/g as carbohydrates.
    • Saturated fats are usually solid at room temp. and come primarily from animal sources and some vegetable sources.
    • Unsaturated fats (mono/poly) are usually liquid at room temp. and come primarily from vegetable sources.
    • Trans Fatty acids- fats that result when liquid oil has hydrogen added to it to make it more solid.
    • RECOMMENDATIONS
    • Total fat in the diet should consist no more than one third of total cal consumed.
    • Sat.fat should be no more than 10% of total cal consumed.
    • Unsat. fat should be substituted for sat. fat in the diet.
    • Dietary cholesterol should be limited to 300mg/day.
    • GUIDELINES
    • Substitute lean meat, fish, poultry, nonfat milk, and other low-fat dairy products for high-fat foods.
    • Reduced intake of fried foods, especially those cooked in sat. fats(fast-food), desserts w/ high level of fat(cookies and cakes), and dressings w/ high fat ingredients.
    • Limit intake of food high in cholesterol(egg yolks, organ meats, and shellfish?
    • Use unsat. fats for cooking.
    • No sufficient evidence to endorse a fish oil dietary supplement.
    • Be careful of the total elimination of a single food source from the diet.
  • PROTEIN
    • It is the basic building block for the body, but dietary protein constitutes a relatively small amount of daily caloric intake.
    • Formed from 20 diff. amino acids, 11 can be synthesized from other nutrients, but 9 essential amino acids must be obtained directly from the diet.
    • Complete proteins contain all of the essential a. a.(meat, dairy products, fish)
    • Incomplete proteins contain some but not all(beans, nuts and rice)
    • RECOMMENDATIONS
    • Of the three major nutrients that provide energy, protein should account for the smallest%.
    • Generally, protein in the diet should not exceed twice the RDA.
    • Vegetarians must be especially careful to eat combinations of foods that assure adequate intake of essential
    • i.e., vegans should supplement their diets w/ vit.B-12.
    • GUIDELINES
    • Consume at least 2 servings a day of lean meat, fish, poultry, and dairy products (especially those low in fat content) or adequate comb. Of foods, such
    • As beans, nuts, grains, and rice, in the diet.
    • Dietary supplements of protein, such as powders and tablets, are not recommended
  • Dietary Recommendations for Vitamins
    • Adequate vitamin intake is necessary to good health and wellness but excessive vitamin intake is not necessary and can be harmful.
    • Foods rich in Carotinoid and Retinoid are suggested because these foods are associated with the reduced risk for some forms of cancer.
      • Example:
      • green and yellow vegetables (carrots and sweet potatoes)
  • Dietary Recommendations for Vitamins
    • Diets high in Vitamin C and Vitamin E are also associated with reduced risk of some forms of cancer.
    • Diets rich in Vitamin E are also associated with reduced risk of heart disease.
    • It has been hypothesized that Vitamins C and E and Carotinoid rich foods act as Antioxidants.
    • Antioxidants- help prevent cancer and other forms of disease.
  • Dietary Recommendations for Vitamins
    • The Dietary Guidelines for Americans emphasize “good food”
  • Dietary Recommendations for Minerals
    • Adequate mineral intake is necessary to good health and wellness but excessive mineral intake is not necessary and can be harmful.
    • Minerals - have no calories and provide no energy for the body but they are important in regulating various bodily
    • functions.
    • Two particularly important minerals are CALCIUM and IRON.
    • Other important minerals are PHOSPHORUS, SODIUM, ZINC and POTASSIUM.
  • Dietary Recommendations for Minerals
    • CALCIUM- important to bone, muscle, nerve, blood development and function and has been associated with reduced risk for heart disease.
    • IRON- necessary for the blood to carry adequate oxygen
    • PHOSPHORUS- builds teeth and bones
    • SODIUM- regulates water in the body
    • ZINC- aids in the healing process
    • POTASSIUM- necessary for proper muscle function
  • Dietary Recommendations for Minerals
    • Salt should be limited in the diet to no more that 4 to 6 grams per day, and even less is desirable(3 grams). Three grams equals 1 teaspoon of table salt.
  • Dietary Recommendations for Water and other fluids
    • Water is a critical component of a healthy diet.
    • Coffee, tea, soft drinks and alcoholic beverages have high caffeine.
    • Excessive consumption of:
    • ♥ Coffee and tea- causes irregular heartbeat.
    • ♥ Alcoholic beverages- associated with high risk for heart disease, high blood pressure, stroke and osteoporosis.
    • Long term excessive alcoholic consumption leads to cirrhosis of liver and increased risk for hepatitis & cancer
  • MOVABA
    • Mo deration in type serving size
    • Va riety in food types and preparations
    • Ba lance in proportions of food groups
  •  
  • 1 2 3 4
    • Nutrition Labeling – is now required on nearby all foods regulated by the FDA (exceptions include spices, food prepared in retail stores, and restaurant foods). And Foods regulated by the USDA, including meat poultry, are not covered.
    • Serving size – now requires uniformity of serving size, based on a commonly consumed portion as determined by the FDA.
    • 3. New data – amount of saturated fat, fiber, and cholesterol, plus calories from fat. Also % Daily Value gives you the % of total daily needs of each nutrient based on a 2000 calorie diet.
    • 4. The most critical vitamins and minerals are listed with the % of daily values of each.
  • Rice
  • Bread
  • Calculation
    • Carbohydrates 4g
    • Protein 4g
    • Fat 9g
    • Formula:
    • Carbs: 4g X ___g=____
    • Protein: 4g X ___g=____
    • Fat: 9g X ___g=____
  • Estimated daily calorie requirements for runners: Carbohydrate, fat and protein 270-700 350-700 405-675 525-875 1485-1890 1925-2450 2700 3500 15 to 18/Girls 15 to 18/Boys Protein (10-20%) Fat (15-25%) Carbohydrates (55-70%) Total (100%) Age/sex