PHASES OF MATTER Solid Phase When in solid state, the molecules of a substance are tightly bound to each other. As the molecules have a fixed position in space, a solid exhibits rigidity and possesses a distinct shape .
The forces of attraction between the molecules of a liquid are less than that in a solid and greater than that in a gas. A substance in liquid state does not have a defined shape; rather, its shape is defined by that of its container .
Gas molecules are in a state of random motion . They exhibit the least intermolecular forces of attraction and hence gases lack a definite shape.
A gas that is composed of freely floating ions . The free-floating ions are atoms, which obtain a positive charge on account of losing some of their electrons The ions can also be in the form of free electrons . Thus, the positive and negative charges can move independently, making plasma molecules electrically conductive .
Plasma does not have a defined shape and takes the form of gas-like clouds . As the properties of plasma are totally different from those of solids, liquids and gases, plasma is considered as a separate state of matter.
Bose-Einstein Condensate Phase
A substance in this state of matter consists of bosons cooled to temperatures nearing absolute zero . Most of the atoms collapse into the lowest quantum state of external potential. Under these conditions, the quantum effects are seen on a larger scale.
The scientists who worked with the Bose-Einstein condensate received a Nobel Prize for their work in 1995. But what makes a state of matter? It's about the physical state of molecules and atoms.
“ Is it worth salvaging?”
Imagine yourselves being trapped in school with an impending storm approaching. With no chance to call for help, you will have to rely on your group mates and your scientific knowledge for survival. Your task is to “hypothetically” build a raft that will let you cross-over a safe zone and be saved by rescuers. You are given 7 minutes only so you have to be in a hurry!
Guide Questions for recognizing the materials
What type of material is the object made of?
How will the object be used?
What conditions (temperature, etc.) will the objects be used?
Why is the material chosen to make the object?
What are the characteristics of the objects that are similar to other objects?
Describing objects by using
size (place images here)
A property describes how an object looks, feels, or acts. The objects shown here have different kinds of properties:
What are Physical Properties and Changes?
Physical properties can be observed or measured without changing the composition of matter. Physical properties are used to observe and describe matter.
Physical properties include: appearance, texture, color, odor, melting point, boiling point, density, solubility, polarity, and many others.
A physical change takes place without any changes in molecular composition. The same element or compound is present before and after the change. The same molecule is present through out the changes. Physical changes are related to physical properties since some measurements require that changes be made.
As solid matter is heated it eventually melts or changes into a liquid state at the melting point.
Ice (a solid form of water) melts at 0 o C and changes to the liquid state. Carbon dioxide melts at -56.6 o C
As the liquid matter is heated further it eventually boils or vaporizes into a gas at the boiling point.
Liquid water boils and changes into a gas, usually called steam or water vapor at 100 o C . In all three states the same molecules of water (H2O) are present. Carbon dioxide boils at -78.5 o C
Sublimation is the change from solid to gas without passing through liquid form.
Chemical properties of matter describes its " potential " to undergo some chemical change or reaction by virtue of its composition .
For example hydrogen has the potential to ignite and explode given the right conditions. This is a chemical property.
Examples of chemical properties are: heat of combustion, reactivity with water, PH, and electromotive force.
INTERMOLECULAR ATTRACTION OF MATTER
is the force of attraction between similar molecules
Cohesion holds the water
molecules in a drop of water together
It is simply the force that
holds all molecules of one
type of matter or object
is the attraction shared between several
It is then the joining of different
forms of matter.
A detergent or wetting agent is a substance that increases the adhesion force between two different materials.
Molecules of detergent usually have a polar
and a non-polar portion.
When added, the wetting agent increases
the wetting action of water with the non-polar
material. By this action, dirt is removed when
washed with water.
the natural ability of matter to mix its molecules with another
Diffusion is the
natural process of
intermingling of the
molecules of two
It is believed that fossils of animals like reptiles and leaves lie in contact with stones and rocks for number of years, which leaves an impression on the stones or rocks. This is because of the diffusion of the particles of the organic matter into the stones, which are in contact.
effect where a fluid assumes the shape that has the smallest possible area.
As a result of surface tension, a drop of liquid tends to form a sphere, because a sphere offers the smallest area for a definite volume.
the effect due to the cohesive and adhesive forces between molecules
if adhesion is less that
cohesion, the liquid in the
capillary tube goes down.
If adhesion is greater than
cohesion, the liquid in the
capillary tube goes up.
Capillary action is one of the factors responsible for transport of liquid and nutrients in plants, and sometimes in animals.
Next time when you dip a straw into your
drink, watch the levels and explain the
Write T if the statement is correct, and write F if the statement is incorrect and change the underlined word/s to make it correct.
Diffusion is the natural process of intermingling of the molecules of two substances.
If adhesion is greater than cohesion, the liquid in the capillary tube goes down .
Cohesion is the attraction shared between several dissimilar molecules
Adhesion holds the water molecules in a drop of water together.
Capillary is the effect where a fluid assumes the shape that has the smallest possible area.
6. A drop of liquid tends to form a sphere, because a sphere offers the smallest area for a definite volume due to surface tension .
Give an example of diffusion in gas except the fart.
Give an example of surface tension.
Cite a difference between adhesion and cohesion.
the ability of a fluid to resist changing its shape
Viscosity can be associated with the
word “LAPOT” in Filipino
when you try to pour water from one container to another, the water readily takes the shape of the container
Assumptions of Kinetic Theory of Matter
All matter is made up of particles called molecules. In normal circumstances it exists in three states.
All the molecules of a given substance
are alike in all respects.
The molecules are separated from one
another by the intermolecular space which is
more than the diameter of the molecule itself.
The molecules attract each other with a force called inter-molecular force, which is strongest in solids and weakest in gases.
Molecules are in constant motion.
The temperature of a substance is
proportional to the average kinetic energy
of all the molecules of the substance.
MATTER CAN BE PURE OR MIXED!
The air you breath
The water you drink
A pure substance has only one type of
Pure water contains only one molecule.
Pure silver contains only silver atoms.
Pure gold contains only gold atoms.
A substance is considered pure if it contains
only a single type of atom, such as gold, or a
single combination of atoms that are bonded
together, such as a water molecule.
One type of pure substance is an element.
Elements are substances that cannot be separated into simpler substances
Chemists use symbols to represent elements
A symbol is a letter or
picture used to represent
Chemists use one or two
letters to represent
The symbol for oxygen is
is a pure substance made from a chemical combination of at least two different elements
A compound is a
substance formed when
two or more elements are
Examples of Compound
sodium chloride (NaCl)
table sugar (C 12 H 22 O 12 )
carbon monoxide (CO)
water (H 2 O)
carbon dioxide (CO 2 )
FYI: Microscopic view of the molecules of the compound water (liquid phase). Oxygen atoms are red and hydrogen atoms are white.
two or more substances that are mixed together but not chemically joined
A good example of
a mixture is a salad
MIXTURES ARE OF TWO KINDS
A heterogeneous mixture consists of visibly different substances or phases. The three phases or states of matter are gas, liquid, and solid.
A homogeneous mixture has the same uniform appearance and composition throughout. Many homogeneous mixtures are commonly referred to as solutions.
The prefixes:"hetero"- indicate difference
The prefixes "homo"- indicate sameness
HETEROGENEOUS MIXTURES HOMOGENEOUS MIXTURES
Homogeneous Mixture are of two Kinds
a mixture of two or more substances in a
is a homogeneous solution with intermediate particle size between a solution and a suspension
is a heterogeneous mixture of larger particles
These particles are visible and will settle out
Examples of suspensions are:
fine sand or silt in water or tomato juice.
List and classify which changes in properties of matter are affecting the personal views on health and the environment.
In what ways you can improve the 3 R’s in waste management using the knowledge you learned about the properties and changes in matter?