Matter is the Stuff Around You
Matter is everything around you.
Matter is anything made of atoms
Matter is anything that has a mass
and occupy space.
PHASES OF MATTER
When in solid state, the molecules
of a substance are tightly bound
to each other.
As the molecules have a fixed
position in space, a solid exhibits
rigidity and possesses a distinct
The forces of attraction
between the molecules of a
liquid are less than that in a
solid and greater than that in
A substance in liquid state
does not have a defined
shape; rather, its shape is
defined by that of its
Gas molecules are in a state
of random motion.
They exhibit the least
intermolecular forces of
attraction and hence gases
lack a definite shape.
A gas that is composed of
freely floating ions.
The free-floating ions are
atoms, which obtain a
positive charge on
account of losing some of
The ions can also be in the form of
free electrons. Thus, the positive
and negative charges can move
plasma molecules electrically
Plasma does not have a
defined shape and takes the
form of gas-like clouds.
As the properties of plasma
are totally different from
those of solids, liquids and
gases, plasma is considered
as a separate state of
Bose-Einstein Condensate Phase
A substance in this state of matter
consists of bosons cooled to
temperatures nearing absolute
Most of the atoms collapse into the
lowest quantum state of external
potential. Under these conditions,
the quantum effects are seen on
a larger scale.
The scientists who worked with the
Bose-Einstein condensate received a
Nobel Prize for their work in 1995. But
what makes a state of matter? It's about
the physical state of molecules and atoms.
“Is it worth salvaging?”
Imagine yourselves being trapped in school
with an impending storm approaching.
With no chance to call for help, you will
have to rely on your group mates and your
scientific knowledge for survival. Your task
is to “hypothetically” build a raft that will let
you cross-over a safe zone and be saved
by rescuers. You are given 7 minutes
only so you have to be in a hurry!
Guide Questions for recognizing
1. What type of material is the object made
2. How will the object be used?
3. What conditions (temperature, etc.) will
the objects be used?
4. Why is the material chosen to make the
5. What are the characteristics of the
objects that are similar to other objects?
Describing objects by using
• size (place images here)
A property describes how an
object looks, feels, or acts.
The objects shown here
have different kinds of
What are Physical Properties and
Physical properties can be observed or
measured without changing the
composition of matter. Physical properties
are used to observe and describe matter.
texture, color, odor,
melting point, boiling
point, density, solubility,
polarity, and many
A physical change takes place without any changes
in molecular composition.
The same element or
compound is present before
and after the change.
The same molecule is present
through out the changes.
Physical changes are related
to physical properties since
some measurements require
that changes be made.
As solid matter is heated
it eventually melts or
changes into a liquid
state at the melting
Ice (a solid form of water)
melts at 0 o
C and changes
to the liquid state.
Carbon dioxide melts
at -56.6 o
As the liquid matter is heated further it
eventually boils or vaporizes into a gas at the
Liquid water boils and
changes into a gas, usually
called steam or water vapor
at 100 o
C. In all three states
the same molecules of
water (H2O) are present.
Carbon dioxide boils
at -78.5 o
Sublimation is the
change from solid
to gas without
CARBON Sublimation CARBON
DIOXIDE+ heat – pressure DIOXIDE
What are Chemical Properties and
its "potential" to
or reaction by
virtue of its
For example hydrogen has
the potential to ignite and
explode given the right
conditions. This is a
Examples of chemical properties are:
heat of combustion, reactivity with water,
PH, and electromotive force.
is the force of attraction between similar
Cohesion holds the water
molecules in a drop of
It is simply the force that
holds all molecules of one
type of matter or object
is the attraction shared between several
It is then the joining of different
forms of matter.
A detergent or wetting agent is a
substance that increases the adhesion
force between two different materials.
Molecules of detergent usually have a polar
and a non-polar portion.
When added, the wetting agent increases
the wetting action of water with the non-polar
material. By this action, dirt is removed when
washed with water.
the natural ability of matter to mix its
molecules with another
Diffusion is the
natural process of
intermingling of the
molecules of two
It is believed that fossils of
animals like reptiles and
leaves lie in contact with
stones and rocks for
number of years, which
leaves an impression on
the stones or rocks. This
is because of the diffusion
of the particles of the
organic matter into the
stones, which are in
effect where a fluid assumes the shape
that has the smallest possible area.
As a result of
surface tension, a
drop of liquid tends
to form a sphere,
because a sphere
offers the smallest
area for a definite
the effect due to the cohesive and
adhesive forces between molecules
if adhesion is less that
cohesion, the liquid in the
capillary tube goes down.
If adhesion is greater than
cohesion, the liquid in the
capillary tube goes up.
Capillary action is one of the factors
responsible for transport of liquid and
nutrients in plants, and sometimes in
Next time when you dip a straw into your
drink, watch the levels and explain the
Write T if the statement is correct, and write F if the statement
is incorrect and change the underlined word/s to make it
1. Diffusion is the natural process of intermingling of
the molecules of two substances.
2. If adhesion is greater than cohesion, the liquid in the
capillary tube goes down.
3. Cohesion is the attraction shared between several
4. Adhesion holds the water molecules in a drop of water
5. Capillary is the effect where a fluid assumes the shape
that has the smallest possible area.
6. A drop of liquid tends to form a sphere, because a
sphere offers the smallest area for a definite volume
due to surface tension.
7. Give an example of diffusion in gas except the fart.
8. Give an example of surface tension.
9. Cite a difference between adhesion and cohesion.
the ability of a fluid to resist changing its
Viscosity can be associated with the
word “LAPOT” in Filipino
when you try to pour water from one
container to another, the water readily
takes the shape of the container
Assumptions of Kinetic Theory
All matter is made up of particles called
molecules. In normal circumstances it
exists in three states.
All the molecules of a given substance
are alike in all respects.
The molecules are separated from one
another by the intermolecular space which is
more than the diameter of the molecule itself.
The molecules attract each other with a
force called inter-molecular force, which is
strongest in solids and weakest in gases.
Molecules are in constant motion.
The temperature of a substance is
proportional to the average kinetic energy
of all the molecules of the substance.
MATTER CAN BE PURE OR
The air you breath
The water you drink
A pure substance has only one type of
Pure water contains only one molecule.
Pure silver contains only silver atoms.
Pure gold contains only gold atoms.
A substance is considered pure if it contains
only a single type of atom, such as gold, or a
single combination of atoms that are bonded
together, such as a water molecule.
One type of pure substance is an element.
Elements are substances that cannot be
separated into simpler substances
Chemists use symbols to represent elements
A symbol is a letter or
picture used to represent
Chemists use one or two
letters to represent
The symbol for oxygen is
is a pure substance made from a
chemical combination of at least two
A compound is a
substance formed when
two or more elements are
Examples of Compound
sodium chloride (NaCl)
table sugar (C12H22O12)
carbon monoxide (CO)
carbon dioxide (CO2)
FYI: Microscopic view of the
molecules of the compound water
Oxygen atoms are red and hydrogen
atoms are white.
two or more substances that are mixed
together but not chemically joined
A good example of
a mixture is a salad
The prefixes "homo"-
mixture has the same
uniform appearance and
mixtures are commonly
referred to as solutions.
mixture consists of
substances or phases.
The three phases or
states of matter are gas,
liquid, and solid.
Homogeneous Mixture are of two
a mixture of two or more substances in a
is a homogeneous solution with
intermediate particle size between a
solution and a suspension
is a heterogeneous mixture of larger
These particles are visible and will settle out
Examples of suspensions are:
fine sand or silt in water or tomato juice.
List and classify which changes in properties
of matter are affecting the personal views
on health and the environment.
In what ways you can improve the 3 R’s in
waste management using the knowledge
you learned about the properties and
changes in matter?