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Grunig’s 4 PR models Characteristic Press agentry / Publicity Public Information Two-way asymmetric Two-way symmetric Purpose Propaganda Dissemination of information Scientific persuasion Mutual understanding Nature of communication 1 way, truth inessential 1 way, truth important 2 way, imbalanced effects 2 way, balanced effects Philosophical worldview asymmetrical Pluralistic/ asymmetrical asymmetrical symmetrical Mono/dialogic monologic monologic Unbalanced monologic dialogic Habermasian equivalent Strategic action Strategic action Strategic action Communicative action Game theory outcome Zero sum Zero sum Zero sum Positive sum
“ Organisations get more of what they want when they give up some of what they want” – Excellence study findings
Limits to potential for collaboration - inhibiting scenarios
Mixed motive model – hybrid “co-operative antagonists”
Murphy (1999) – game theory approach
“ PR increases organisational effectiveness when builds long term relationships based around trust and mutual understanding with strategic publics and symmetrical or asymmetrical, either alone or used together as the mixed motive model would be most effective in achieving these goals.” Grunig
Target publics Corporations seeking to shape and influence relevant discourse Media offers legitimacy and advocacy with 3 rd party influence Messages Information negotiation Evaluation and choices Messages Individual and collective voices - strengthening Output = Altered social perspectives - New ideas, objects of desire, discourses social representations, myths REPUTATION MANAGEMENT REPRESENTATIONAL PROCESS Wider Society
REPUTATION IMAGE IDENTITY Immediate mental picture held by an individual Lasting belief, held by an individual and shaped by group’s past experience, WOM, endorsements, experiences Stakeholders and media can influence perception (reputation) Aka corporate brand. Value rooted in difference
Fombrun “a perceptual representation of a companies’ past actions and future prospects that describe the firm’s overall appeal to all of its key constituents when compared to other key rivals”
reputation signals firms’ status within the industrial social system.
Pre-requisites: legitimacy and transparency (alignment with corporate identity)
“ Good reputation is very useful for an organisation: it may enable it to charge premium prices for its products, enter into favourable financial arrangements with banks, attract graduates from top universities, get in touch with customers easily, and so on, such that good reputation constitutes a valuable asset to the organisation.” (Fombrun and Shanley, 1990; Shapiro, 1983)
“ You and I have heard about the work we each have been doing and a mutual friend has been trying to get us to meet for over a year. Finally we are both at the same conference and our friend brings us together at the reception. You introduce yourself and say a few words….I stop you and say I’ve only got a few minutes to spare and I want to tell you all the good things I do and how fortunate you are to have me around.
Valid for 95% of corporate communication scenarios