What is conscious?
Awareness of internal & external stimulus.
1. external events
2. Awareness: internal sensations;
3. Awareness: self as being unique in experience;
4. Awareness of mind of these experiences.
Levels of Conscious
Levels of consciousness:
Freud: Different depths
Parents - = Babies consciousness during sleep
• Brain Activity = Consciousness
• Nerve networks
• EEG: Brain Waves:
• Height and frequency
• In 1952 Kleitman & Aserinsky discover REM
Does the conscious change
through biological rhythms?
= Biological Clock
24 - hour biological cycles in living
Creatures : Blood Pressure,
Digestion, Memory, cognitions,
Experiments without external stimuli
Biological rhythms: Melatonin
Physical path of the biological
Light Retina Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the Hypothalamus gland pineal gland
Circadian Rhythms ignored
Annoyed, tired, sluggish
Dangerous and tumors, ulcers, cancer and heart attacks can be
Solution: Clear light for shift workers, but not realistic option
Perform better than east west
Oos/East- one day per time zone adjustment
West / West - 2/3 days per time zone
• Several physical and spiritual
• Activity - 5 phases (X4)
• Sleep Laboratory :
• (EMG): Muscles and tension
• (EOG): Eye movement
• Hart, sleep, temperature, etc. monitored
Fase / Phase Beskrywing / Description Fisiologies / Physiology
• Begin van slaap / Start of sleep
• Tussen wakker en slaap / Between awake and asleep
• Vat sowat 10 – 25 minute om aan slaap te raak /
Takes 10 – 25 minutes to fall asleep
• Duur / Duration: 10 - 12 min: Theta
• Hartklop, asemhaling, temp neem af
/ Heartbeat, breathing and
• Hipnic jerk : - spier sametrekkings
Kort periodes van hoër breinfrekwensies (slaap
“spindle”) / Short period of higher
Brain frequencies (Sleep spindels)
Fase 3& 4
Phase 3 & 4
“Slow wave sleep”
Hoër amplitudes, laer frekwensie /
High Amplitudes, Low frequencies
Delta golwe / waves
Na / After 30 min
Duur / Duraion: 30 min
Fase 5: REM/
Phase 5: REM
5th Sleep Phases.
Rapid eye movement.
Deep sleep stage, difficult person to wake from it.
Muscles very relaxed.
Breathing and heartbeat unusual
High frequency beta waves, as if waking
REM: Most dreams often are remembered.
Important for sleep = reticular formation in brainstem.
The ARAS (ascending reticular Activating System) involves the
incoming nerve tissues by the reticular formation run and influence
If the part (reticular Activating System) in a cat is cut = sleep.
Electronic stimulus produce awareness and arousal.
Reason for sleep:
1. Energy savings and mountain
2. Protection against predators and capture information
3. Rebuild body cells
More negatively than people realize
Memory Consolidation: Sleep helps with memory
Sleep Restriction – Increases hunger
Sleeploss – Low immune system
Age/Culture and sleep
50% of babies sleep = REM
20% of adult = REM sleep
"Slow wave" sleep less -
Aging, sleep light
Sleep pretty similar in cultures
Sleeping Arrangements and naps - Differ
Research: sleep deprivation
Baby's sleep 6-8 times a day
Older people may sleep less
Insomnia: Can not sleep
do not get enough sleep.
Narcolepsy: Go to sleep suddenly while awake.
Nightmares: Bad dreams, anxiety, REM
Sleep Anxiety: Wake up in NREM sleep, intense anxiety
Sleep apnea: gasped, interrupts sleep
Somnabulisme: Walk in sleep
4% male. 2% female
Increase risk of stroke
Unable to sleep
Unable to sleep would not
Waking up early in the morning
Causes: Depression, fatigue, anxiety, reduced productivity, drugs.
Stress, Biological Clock, depression, health
30-35% Adults - Insomnia
Treatment: Medication: Sedative benzodiazepine for anxiety.
Nonbenzodiazepine Sedative for insomnia
RDB( REM sleep behaviour disorder)
Speak, scream, jump etc. in sleep
• Global change:
• Gandhi, Lyndon Johnson, Frankenstein,
• Dali, Bergman, "The American Dream
• Lucid Dreaming = know that you are dreaming in your dream
• Dream is a story-like mental
• experience during REM sleep
• intense visual and sometimes
• bizarre material are seen
• as truth by the dreamer
• and the dreaming experience.
• NREM - Not as visually & Intense
Inhoud van Drome
• Everyday content: Familiar environment . Every day people- we remember
• Themes: Mostly Internal conflicts and self-centered:
• External stimuli: Water on hand
• Differences men and women
• "Day residuals" eg Finance
• Culture and dreams:
• Western vs others: Nb info themselves, and spiritual future
Consistent with life
Remains of the Day
Eg: Alarm clock ringing
Western is not as
important as in other
• Wensvervulling & Onderdrukte
begeerts / Wish fulfillment &
• Hoofweg na die onbewuste /
Highway to the unconscious
• Manifeste(Storielyn van
droom) en Latente inhoud
Manifest and latent content
/ Cognitive and Problemsolving
Kreatiewe drome: Los probleme op
/ Creative dreams: Solve problems
Bevorder leer / Enhances learning
Aktivering-sintese model /
Activation – synthesis model
Drome newe effekte van
neurale aktivering van Beta-
golwe tydens REM slaap /
Dreams side effects of neural
activation that produces Beta-
waves during REM.
• History: Mesmer
• Braid (Scotland) – Anesthesia in operations. Hypnosis as anesthesia
• Clinical tool vs entertainment
• Hypnosis: A systematic procedure that a person is more receptive to
• Passive recreation,
• Restricted attention
• Advanced Fantasies
Today: Clinical tool also psychologists.
Must receive training
Leads to relaxation and imagination
can not be
Mesmer cured patient in 18de century= mesmerize
Hypnotic induction: Pendulum,
Relaxation of whole body
Braid & Eye
Different levels of openness:
Spiegel: "Eyeball Test"
• Sensory distortions and hallucinations
• Post-hypnotic suggestion & amnesia
• Medical: Smoking
• Treatment for pain
• ? Memories of past
can cause pain.
Convince to do
things that are
Theory of hypnoses
Role play vs. Change in consciousness
Hilgard: "Dissociation. Splitting off of mental processes into two
separate and simultaneous streams of awareness. "
Eg. highway hypnosis
Socio-cognitive viewpoint in social context
Hypnosis as an Altered states of consciousness
Higard - hypnosis causes a dissociation
divided mental processes, communicate, observe = difficult
Focus - increased awareness
Awareness - better voluntary control over mental processes is
"Pure Consciousness - quite Depths Of The Mind"
Yoga, Zen, Transcendental Meditation? Possible psychological
Similar to deep relaxation procedures
Mindful Meditation in Zen Buddism anchored and Transcendental
Meditation in Hinduism
Alpha and Theta waves more prominent meditation.
Control of blood pressure
Benefit sleep patterns
Psychoactive drugs: Chemical substances that
are mental, emotional, behavioural function changes.
Non-medical purposes - entertainment
and recreation: Severe damage
MDMA - hallucinogens & Amphetamines
Feel warm, friendly, Insightful and empathy, but conscious and full of
Problems: high blood pressure, muscle cramps, sweating, blurry
vision, insomnia and anxiety.
Tolerance - how the drug affects you. Must therefore take more
Pshyco active affects neurotransmitters. And brain.
Physically dependent, should not take withdrawal symptoms
experienced. Eg. Chills, throwing up, cramps, fever,
Psychologically dependent must take psychological and mental
tendencies to satisfy.
Overdose: All but sedatives, and alcohol narcotics greatest risk.
Direct effect: Tissue damage eg. Cocaine, crack.
Indirect effects: behaviour. Sleeping and eating patterns.