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Study Unit 3.1
CONSCIOUS
What is conscious?
Awareness of internal & external stimulus.
Includes:
1. external events
2. Awareness: internal sensatio...
Levels of Conscious
 Awareness Stream
 Attention wanders
 Daydreaming
 Levels of consciousness:
 Freud: Different dep...
Conscious and
Brain Activity
• Brain Activity = Consciousness
• Nerve networks
• EEG: Brain Waves:
• Height and frequency
...
Does the conscious change
through biological rhythms?
 Biological rhythms:
 Periodic changes
 Physiological functioning...
Physical path of the biological
clock
 Light  Retina  Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the Hypothalamus gland pineal g...
Circadian Rhythms ignored
 Jet lag
 Shift work
 Annoyed, tired, sluggish
 Dangerous and tumors, ulcers, cancer and hea...
Sports
 Perform better than east west
 Oos/East- one day per time zone adjustment
 West / West - 2/3 days per time zone
Levels of conscious
• Sleep
• Dream
• Hypnoses
• Meditation
Sleep cycle
• Several physical and spiritual
• Activity - 5 phases (X4)
• Sleep Laboratory :
• (EMG): Muscles and tension
...
Fase / Phase Beskrywing / Description Fisiologies / Physiology
Fase 1/
Phase 1
• Begin van slaap / Start of sleep
• Tussen...
REM Sleep
 5th Sleep Phases.
 Rapid eye movement.
 Deep sleep stage, difficult person to wake from it.
 Muscles very r...
 Brain:
 Important for sleep = reticular formation in brainstem.
 The ARAS (ascending reticular Activating System) invo...
 Reason for sleep:
 1. Energy savings and mountain
 2. Protection against predators and capture information
 3. Rebuil...
 Memory Consolidation: Sleep helps with memory
 Sleep Restriction – Increases hunger
 Sleeploss – Low immune system
Age/Culture and sleep
 50% of babies sleep = REM
 20% of adult = REM sleep
 "Slow wave" sleep less -
 Aging, sleep lig...
Sleep patterns
 Insomnia: Can not sleep
 do not get enough sleep.
 Narcolepsy: Go to sleep suddenly while awake.
 Nigh...
Insomnia
 3 patterns:
 Unable to sleep
 Unable to sleep would not
 Waking up early in the morning
 Causes: Depression...
RDB
 RDB( REM sleep behaviour disorder)
 Speak, scream, jump etc. in sleep
Dreams
• Global change:
• Gandhi, Lyndon Johnson, Frankenstein,
• Dali, Bergman, "The American Dream
• Lucid Dreaming = kn...
• Dream is a story-like mental
• experience during REM sleep
• intense visual and sometimes
• bizarre material are seen
• ...
Inhoud van Drome
• Everyday content: Familiar environment . Every day people- we remember
bizarre things
• Themes: Mostly ...
Dream Theory
Freud
• Wensvervulling & Onderdrukte
begeerts / Wish fulfillment &
Unconscious urges
• Hoofweg na die onbewus...
Cartwright
Kognitief, probleem-oplossend
/ Cognitive and Problemsolving
Kreatiewe drome: Los probleme op
/ Creative dreams...
Hobson
Aktivering-sintese model /
Activation – synthesis model
Drome newe effekte van
neurale aktivering van Beta-
golwe t...
Hypnoses
• History: Mesmer
• Braid (Scotland) – Anesthesia in operations. Hypnosis as anesthesia
1843
• Clinical tool vs e...
How?
 Hypnotic induction: Pendulum,
 Relaxation of whole body
 Braid & Eye
 Different levels of openness:
 Spiegel: "...
Effect
• Analgesia
• Sensory distortions and hallucinations
• Post-hypnotic suggestion & amnesia
• Medical: Smoking
• Weig...
Theory of hypnoses
 Role play vs. Change in consciousness
 Hilgard: "Dissociation. Splitting off of mental processes int...
Meditation
 Focus - increased awareness
 Awareness - better voluntary control over mental processes is
obtained.
 "Pure...
 Mindful Meditation in Zen Buddism anchored and Transcendental
Meditation in Hinduism
 Alpha and Theta waves more promin...
Drugs
 Control consciousness
 Psychoactive drugs: Chemical substances that
are mental, emotional, behavioural function c...
 MDMA - hallucinogens & Amphetamines
 Feel warm, friendly, Insightful and empathy, but conscious and full of
energy.
 P...
 Overdose: All but sedatives, and alcohol narcotics greatest risk.
 Direct effect: Tissue damage eg. Cocaine, crack.
 I...
Psychoactive Drugs
 Narcotics (opiate) - pain
 Sedatives - sleep inducing
 Stimulants - increase CNS activity
 Halluci...
Psyc 111 study unit 3.1
Psyc 111 study unit 3.1
Psyc 111 study unit 3.1
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Transcript of "Psyc 111 study unit 3.1"

  1. 1. Study Unit 3.1 CONSCIOUS
  2. 2. What is conscious? Awareness of internal & external stimulus. Includes: 1. external events 2. Awareness: internal sensations; 3. Awareness: self as being unique in experience; 4. Awareness of mind of these experiences.
  3. 3. Levels of Conscious  Awareness Stream  Attention wanders  Daydreaming  Levels of consciousness:  Freud: Different depths  Consciousness: Sleep,  Anesthesia  Parents - = Babies consciousness during sleep Bewustheidstroom Vlakkevan bewustheid
  4. 4. Conscious and Brain Activity • Brain Activity = Consciousness • Nerve networks • EEG: Brain Waves: • Height and frequency • In 1952 Kleitman & Aserinsky discover REM
  5. 5. Does the conscious change through biological rhythms?  Biological rhythms:  Periodic changes  Physiological functioning = Biological Clock  eg Cicada Circadian rhythms: 24 - hour biological cycles in living Creatures : Blood Pressure, Hormones, Digestion, Memory, cognitions, Body temp. Experiments without external stimuli Biological rhythms: Melatonin
  6. 6. Physical path of the biological clock  Light  Retina  Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the Hypothalamus gland pineal gland  melatonin melatonin
  7. 7. Circadian Rhythms ignored  Jet lag  Shift work  Annoyed, tired, sluggish  Dangerous and tumors, ulcers, cancer and heart attacks can be caused.  Stabilize: Melatonin  Solution: Clear light for shift workers, but not realistic option
  8. 8. Sports  Perform better than east west  Oos/East- one day per time zone adjustment  West / West - 2/3 days per time zone
  9. 9. Levels of conscious • Sleep • Dream • Hypnoses • Meditation
  10. 10. Sleep cycle • Several physical and spiritual • Activity - 5 phases (X4) • Sleep Laboratory : • (EMG): Muscles and tension • (EOG): Eye movement • Hart, sleep, temperature, etc. monitored
  11. 11. Fase / Phase Beskrywing / Description Fisiologies / Physiology Fase 1/ Phase 1 • Begin van slaap / Start of sleep • Tussen wakker en slaap / Between awake and asleep • Vat sowat 10 – 25 minute om aan slaap te raak / Takes 10 – 25 minutes to fall asleep • Duur / Duration: 10 - 12 min: Theta golwe • Hartklop, asemhaling, temp neem af / Heartbeat, breathing and temeparture • Hipnic jerk : - spier sametrekkings Fase 2/ Phase 2 Kort periodes van hoër breinfrekwensies (slaap “spindle”) / Short period of higher Brain frequencies (Sleep spindels) 10-25 min Fase 3& 4 Phase 3 & 4 “Slow wave sleep” Hoër amplitudes, laer frekwensie / High Amplitudes, Low frequencies Delta golwe / waves Na / After 30 min Duur / Duraion: 30 min Fase 5: REM/ Phase 5: REM
  12. 12. REM Sleep  5th Sleep Phases.  Rapid eye movement.  Deep sleep stage, difficult person to wake from it.  Muscles very relaxed.  Breathing and heartbeat unusual  High frequency beta waves, as if waking  REM: Most dreams often are remembered.
  13. 13.  Brain:  Important for sleep = reticular formation in brainstem.  The ARAS (ascending reticular Activating System) involves the incoming nerve tissues by the reticular formation run and influence psychological arousal.  If the part (reticular Activating System) in a cat is cut = sleep. Experiment.  Electronic stimulus produce awareness and arousal.
  14. 14.  Reason for sleep:  1. Energy savings and mountain  2. Protection against predators and capture information  3. Rebuild body cells  Sleep restriction:  More negatively than people realize  Influence:  Attention  Reaction Time  Accuracy  Coordination  Decision Making
  15. 15.  Memory Consolidation: Sleep helps with memory  Sleep Restriction – Increases hunger  Sleeploss – Low immune system
  16. 16. Age/Culture and sleep  50% of babies sleep = REM  20% of adult = REM sleep  "Slow wave" sleep less -  Aging, sleep light  Sleep pretty similar in cultures  Sleeping Arrangements and naps - Differ  Research: sleep deprivation Baby's sleep 6-8 times a day Older people may sleep less get along.
  17. 17. Sleep patterns  Insomnia: Can not sleep  do not get enough sleep.  Narcolepsy: Go to sleep suddenly while awake.  Nightmares: Bad dreams, anxiety, REM  Sleep Anxiety: Wake up in NREM sleep, intense anxiety  Sleep apnea: gasped, interrupts sleep  Somnabulisme: Walk in sleep 4% male. 2% female Increase risk of stroke
  18. 18. Insomnia  3 patterns:  Unable to sleep  Unable to sleep would not  Waking up early in the morning  Causes: Depression, fatigue, anxiety, reduced productivity, drugs.  Cause:  Stress, Biological Clock, depression, health  30-35% Adults - Insomnia  Treatment: Medication: Sedative benzodiazepine for anxiety.  Nonbenzodiazepine Sedative for insomnia  Meditation
  19. 19. RDB  RDB( REM sleep behaviour disorder)  Speak, scream, jump etc. in sleep
  20. 20. Dreams • Global change: • Gandhi, Lyndon Johnson, Frankenstein, • Dali, Bergman, "The American Dream • Lucid Dreaming = know that you are dreaming in your dream
  21. 21. • Dream is a story-like mental • experience during REM sleep • intense visual and sometimes • bizarre material are seen • as truth by the dreamer • and the dreaming experience. • NREM - Not as visually & Intense
  22. 22. Inhoud van Drome • Everyday content: Familiar environment . Every day people- we remember bizarre things • Themes: Mostly Internal conflicts and self-centered: • External stimuli: Water on hand • Differences men and women • "Day residuals" eg Finance • Culture and dreams: • Western vs others: Nb info themselves, and spiritual future Consistent with life Remains of the Day (Freud) Eg: Alarm clock ringing in dreams. Western is not as important as in other cultures
  23. 23. Dream Theory Freud • Wensvervulling & Onderdrukte begeerts / Wish fulfillment & Unconscious urges • Hoofweg na die onbewuste / Highway to the unconscious • Manifeste(Storielyn van droom) en Latente inhoud (versteekte betekenis)/ Manifest and latent content
  24. 24. Cartwright Kognitief, probleem-oplossend / Cognitive and Problemsolving Kreatiewe drome: Los probleme op / Creative dreams: Solve problems Bevorder leer / Enhances learning
  25. 25. Hobson Aktivering-sintese model / Activation – synthesis model Drome newe effekte van neurale aktivering van Beta- golwe tydens REM slaap / Dreams side effects of neural activation that produces Beta- waves during REM.
  26. 26. Hypnoses • History: Mesmer • Braid (Scotland) – Anesthesia in operations. Hypnosis as anesthesia 1843 • Clinical tool vs entertainment • Hypnosis: A systematic procedure that a person is more receptive to suggestions. • Passive recreation, • Restricted attention • Advanced Fantasies Today: Clinical tool also psychologists. Must receive training Leads to relaxation and imagination 10-20% of population can not be hypnotized. Mesmer cured patient in 18de century= mesmerize
  27. 27. How?  Hypnotic induction: Pendulum,  Relaxation of whole body  Braid & Eye  Different levels of openness:  Spiegel: "Eyeball Test"
  28. 28. Effect • Analgesia • Sensory distortions and hallucinations • Post-hypnotic suggestion & amnesia • Medical: Smoking • Weightloss • Treatment for pain • ? Memories of past • Entertainment Under hypnosis can resist treatment and can cause pain. Suggestions made under hypnosis influence behaviour. Disinhibition: Convince to do things that are usually unacceptable to do.
  29. 29. Theory of hypnoses  Role play vs. Change in consciousness  Hilgard: "Dissociation. Splitting off of mental processes into two separate and simultaneous streams of awareness. "  Eg. highway hypnosis Socio-cognitive viewpoint in social context Hypnosis as an Altered states of consciousness Higard - hypnosis causes a dissociation divided mental processes, communicate, observe = difficult
  30. 30. Meditation  Focus - increased awareness  Awareness - better voluntary control over mental processes is obtained.  "Pure Consciousness - quite Depths Of The Mind"  Yoga, Zen, Transcendental Meditation? Possible psychological benefits  Similar to deep relaxation procedures
  31. 31.  Mindful Meditation in Zen Buddism anchored and Transcendental Meditation in Hinduism  Alpha and Theta waves more prominent meditation.  Long-term benefits:  Reduce stress  Increase self-esteem  Control of blood pressure  Benefit sleep patterns
  32. 32. Drugs  Control consciousness  Psychoactive drugs: Chemical substances that are mental, emotional, behavioural function changes.  Non-medical purposes - entertainment and recreation: Severe damage
  33. 33.  MDMA - hallucinogens & Amphetamines  Feel warm, friendly, Insightful and empathy, but conscious and full of energy.  Problems: high blood pressure, muscle cramps, sweating, blurry vision, insomnia and anxiety.  Tolerance - how the drug affects you. Must therefore take more feeling.  Pshyco active affects neurotransmitters. And brain.  Physically dependent, should not take withdrawal symptoms experienced. Eg. Chills, throwing up, cramps, fever,  Psychologically dependent must take psychological and mental tendencies to satisfy.
  34. 34.  Overdose: All but sedatives, and alcohol narcotics greatest risk.  Direct effect: Tissue damage eg. Cocaine, crack.  Indirect effects: behaviour. Sleeping and eating patterns.
  35. 35. Psychoactive Drugs  Narcotics (opiate) - pain  Sedatives - sleep inducing  Stimulants - increase CNS activity  Hallucinogens - distorted sensory and perceptual experience  Cannabis - produces light, relaxed euphoria  Alcohol - produces relaxed euphoria, reduced inhibitions  MDMA - produces a warm, friendly euphoria
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