Name: Leroy Walker<br />Subject: Agricultural Science<br />Teacher’s name: Miss Peters <br />Form: 4R15<br /><ul><li>(I) Introduction(ii) Complete budget(iii) Actual income and expenditure(iv) Analysis Name of project: The Production of TomatoesLocation: ST Clair Dacon Secondary SchoolDuration: 10-14weeksDescription of activitiesSketch layout of activities Drain 35cm Walk way 60cm walk way Drain Description: clearing of the land was done. Lines were set from one end to another. The construction of drains and bed were done, at a length of 38ft and and a width of 5ft. Fertilizer (NPK) was in corporated into the soil. The bed was watered and holes were dug about 1 inch deep and 38 cm between plants and 60cm between rows. Seedlings were transplanted from the seed trays to the holes which was covered with soil and watered. Materials: Lines, seed, Fertilizer (NPK), Insecticides (Diazioan) and weed control (Gramoxone). Equipment: cutlass, hoe, wheel borrow, hand scoop ,watering cans ,stick and hand fork Week one (1): Land Preparation of bedsDate: 15/01/09Clearing, ploughing and construction of drainsWeek two (2): Construction of drains and bedDate: 20/01/09Week three (3): Seedlings transplanted. Date: 20/01/09How: Removed plants from tray, dug holes, placed plants in the holes and applied pesticide (Diazioan) Week four (4): watered seedlingsDate: 29/01/09 – 12/05/09 (Daily activity) Week five (5) Application of Fertilizer to the planting seedDate: 03/02/09Week six (6): Daily observationDate: 19/02/09Week seven (7) Weed bed, Pruning and Staking pruning: 25/02/09 and 11/03/09 Staking: 28/02/09and 10/03/09 Weeding: 28/02/09, 10/03/09 and 20/04/09Week eight (8) Application of Fertilizer to the plantingDate:25/04/09 Week nine (9)weeding and wateringDate:30/04/09 Week ten (10)waterDate:05/04/09 Week eleven (11) Harvesting and MarketingDate:08 /04/09 Land Preparation The location where land preparations were to be situated was very bushy. A cutlass was used to clear the high grass. The grass was taken away in a wheel burrow and was disposed of .The rake was used to get rid of roots left behind by plants. The soil was then softened with a fork; the soil was very turgid. A hoe was used to form the bed and construct a drainage path for water during torrential rainfall to help prevent erosion.Transplanted tomato seedlings. The tomato seedlings were in a tray containing many plants, but before they could be planted in the bed, the bed was to be properly prepared meaning; it was soaked with water from watering cans and ploughed to specification. A hand scoop was used to dig five (5) holes for the seedlings to be placed in, measured one hand fork or scoop apart. One tomato seedling was placed in each hole with soil covering its roots. After transplanting the plants were sprayed with an insecticide called malathion which was mixed with water in watering cans to prevent pest and insects from destroying the young seedlings.A picture showing a tomato seedling in a trayNB: The number of tomato seedlings to be planted on the bed was planted according to the size of the bed which was measured by using hand forks. Watering tomato plants This was a daily activity which was very important. It was so important that it had to be done every day except on rainy days.Water was taken to the field via watering cans which were filled from a nearby tap. When watering the plants, the cans were to be a certain height level from the plant to prevent the plant from being damaged. When the soil seemed soaked a stick was used to turn the soil (plough) so that the water can pass though the soil.NB: most tomatoes from other beds died as a result of water logging – where by too much water was given to the plant. Daily Observations This was done from the day of transplanting until the day of harvesting, monitoring the plant for an update on their conditions – meaning noticing if the plant is suffering from any disease, making note of changes happening to the plant, when certain processes were to be taken place e.g. pruning, and make records of stolen produce.NB: observations were not done on weekends.Application of Fertilizer This activity was to apply fertilizer (NPK) to the tomato plants. The band application method was done in applying fertilizer to the tomato plants.Weed bed, pruning and staking Weeding was done due to the extensive amount of grass growing upon the bed throughout the past weeks. This was done manically by the use of hands and sometimes a hand fork to prevent the bed from being overcrowded with weeds. After this was done the tomato plants were pruned, meaning the tomato suckers, or side shoots, that appears in the crotch between the stem and a branch were removed. If left to grow, they will become another main stem with branches, flowers, fruit and more suckers of their own. Harvesting and MarketingHarvesting was done in preparations for marketing. Most of the tomatoes in the field were ripe. The ripe and half ripe tomatoes were picked by the stalk, washed and bagged then were taken away in boxes for sale.Projected incomeCropNo of plantsNo ofFruitsPer lbUnit CostTotal CostTomato1575$4.00 per lb$300.00Projected ExpenditureItemQuantityUnit CostTotalSeed25$0.10c$22.50Fertilizer(NPK)18lbs$3.00$54.00Insecticides(Malathion)½ tsp$5.00$2.50Water20 g$10.00$10.00Labour2 days$10.00$20.00Bags¼ lb$12.00$3.00Transportation3 trips$15.00$45.00Herbicide(Gramoxine)½ tsp$10.00$5.00Total$162.00Projected income: $300.00Projected expenditure: $162.00Projected surplus PI – PE =$138(surplus)Actual incomeCropNo of plantsNo ofFruitsPer lbUnit CostTotal CostTomato1880$5.00 per lb$400.00Actual expenditureItemQuantityUnit CostTotalSeed25$0.80c$2.50Fertilizer(NPK)18lbs$2.50$20.00Insecticides(Malathion)½ tsp$21.00$3.72Water20 g$10.00$10.00Labour2 days$10.00$20.00Bags¼ lb$10.00$10.00Transportation3 trips$15.00$45.00Herbicide(Gramoxine)½ tsp$48.00$3.57Total$114.57Actual income: $400.00Actual expenditure: =$114.57Actual surplus AI – AE = $285.43 Projected income was $300 and the actual income was $400 by $100Actual expenditure was less then the projected expenditure by $ 47.43Projected surplus was less than the Actual surplus by $52.57General CommentsTwo major problems were encountered throughout this project, that of spoilage of the tomato fruits and theft of these fruits by individuals. Conclusion The project was a successful one due to the amount of fruits produced and the profit made. RecommendationsThe area should be fenced to prevent the entrance of thieves.Fertilizer(NPK) application must be done frequently for the plants to grow seedlings need to be transplanted in favorable weather conditions Insecticides(Diazinon) should be applied more frequently to protect the plants from insects and pests.