Ccslc syllabus (integrated science) Leroy walker

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Ccslc syllabus (integrated science) Leroy walker

  1. 1. CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL CARIBBEAN CERTIFICATE OF SECONDARY LEVEL COMPETENCE Integrated Science    Effective for examinations from May/June 2007 Correspondence related to the programme of study should be addressed to: The Pro-Registrar Caribbean Examinations Council Caenwood Centre 37 Arnold Road, Kingston 5, Jamaica, W. I. Telephone: (876) 920-6714 Facsimile Number: (876) 967-4972 E-mail address: cxcwzo@cxc.org Website: www.cxc.org Copyright © 2006, by Caribbean Examinations Council The Garrison, St. Michael BB 11158, BarbadosCCSLC/IS/02/2006 CXC CCSLC/IS/02/2006
  2. 2. First issued 2006. Please check the website, www.cxc.org for updates on CXC’s syllabuses. HU UHCCSLC/IS/02/2006
  3. 3. ContentsRATIONALE .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1AIMS ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1GENERAL OBJECTIVES................................................................................................................................................................. 2THE SKILLS AND ABILITIES TO BE ASSESSED ........................................................................................................................ 2ORGANIZATION OF THE PROGRAMME.................................................................................................................................... 3ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES ......................................................................................................................................................... 3 - 5FORMAT OF THE EXAMINATION ............................................................................................................................................... 5 - 6MODULE 1 - WORKING LIKE A SCIENTIST ............................................................................................................................. 7 - 11MODULE 2 - INVESTIGATING MATTER................................................................................................................................... 12 - 22MODULE 3 - UNDERSTANDING LIFE....................................................................................................................................... 23 - 35MODULE 4 – FOCUSING ON ME ................................................................................................................................................. 36 - 44MODULE 5 – EXPLORING ENERGY............................................................................................................................................ 45 - 52RESOURCES..................................................................................................................................................................................... 53APPENDIX I – LEARNING GRID.................................................................................................................................................. 54 – 56APPENDIX II – CARIBBEAN SCIENTISTS AND THEIR AREA OF WORK............................................................................. 57 CCSLC/IS/02/2006
  4. 4. Caribbean Certificate of Secondary Level CompetenceINTRODUCTIONThe Caribbean Examinations Council (CXC) in consultation with policy makers and educators in CXC Participating Territories identified the need for a newprogramme that will respond to the changing demands of the education sector. A major development is the move by all territories to universal secondaryeducation, and so, to enable persons with a wide range of abilities to benefit from education provision at this level. The decision to implement programmes toachieve universal secondary education is based on an understanding that the region needs a well educated and trained labour force for an increasingly competitiveglobal environment. A sound secondary education foundation is imperative for further education and training at the tertiary and para-professional levels.Several territories, recognizing the need for a programme that will meet the new needs in secondary education, had embarked on the development of nationalprogrammes. However, through consultations at the regional level, policy makers and educators recognized that a regional intervention by CXC will have severalbenefits including cost-effectiveness, standard-setting, portability of certification and regional and international recognition.CXC has responded to the regional need for a new secondary programme that will meet the needs of the majority of students at secondary level. Through theconsultative processes employed in syllabus development, a new programme was developed by CXC for first examination in 2007. The new programme which iscompetency-based comprises a core of subjects – English, Integrated Science, Mathematics, Modern Languages and Social Studies. Through this core, the learnershould acquire the knowledge, skills, competencies, values and attitudes that are desired in a secondary school leaver. The core developed by CXC subject panelswill be examined by CXC. In addition, learners can gain additional benefit through special programmes that may be added as electives to the core at national level.Policy makers and educators have noted that, ideally, this core programme could be taken by all students at the stage when they are ready. However, the decision,on who should take the examination and in what year it will be taken, will be decided at national level in consultation with CXC. A person who successfullycompletes this core should have the foundation for further education and training and for entry level employment. In developing and implementing thisprogramme at the secondary level, CXC, working with its partners, took into consideration the cultural context and the aspirations of regional governments for awell educated and trained labour force to meet the targets set for social and economic development. A sound secondary education which this programme willprovide is an imperative as a base for the development of citizens as the most valuable resource of the small states of the region. CCSLC/IS/02/2006 i
  5. 5. The main focus of this new programme is derived from the aspirations of regional governments and the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) which acknowledgethat education is the route to healthy democracies and sustainable development. The curriculum is, therefore, competency based and encompasses the knowledge,skills, attitudes, values and attributes expected of high school graduates, by regional Governments. Some of these knowledge, skills, attitudes, values and attributesor competencies are generic and cut across all five subjects, whilst others are peculiar to each of the five subjects of the curriculum. The generic and subject specificcompetencies targeted for development in the curriculum are given below. GENERIC COMPETENCIES SUBJECT-SPECIFIC COMPETENCIES PROBLEM SOLVING ABILITY TO COMMUNICATE ORALLY AND IN WRITING CRITICAL THINKING ABILITY TO FUNCTION IN A FOREIGN LANGUAGE INFORMED DECISION MAKING MATHEMATICAL LITERACY MANAGEMENT OF EMOTIONS SCIENTIFIC LITERACY POSITIVE SELF CONCEPT SOCIAL AND CITIZENSHIP SKILLS WORKING IN GROUPS HANDLING CONFLICT DEALING WITH DIVERSITY AND CHANGE INDEPENDENT LEARNING STRATEGIES COMPUTER LITERACY TECHNOLOGICAL LITERACYCOMPETENCIESThe structure of the programme takes into consideration that the attainment of the competencies identified is the result of processes that require life-long learningand that mastery is attained by progressive steps over differing periods of time. Bearing in mind that one of the main purposes of the curriculum is to prepareindividuals to participate fully as productive members of society, key competencies have been identified that are essential for daily living with emphasis on theworkplace. A Learning Grid (Appendix I) lists the key competencies across the five subjects of the curriculum, identifies a reference number and indicates thesubjects or group of subjects that specifically engage the learner in its development. CCSLC/IS/02/2006 ii
  6. 6. OUTCOMES OF THE CURRICULUMThe curriculum hinges on the realization that teaching and learning are essential instruments for the development of autonomous individuals who will be able tofunction effectively as productive members of society. In this regard, the curriculum has identified knowledge, skills, attitudes, values and attributes orcompetencies that students who master the programme should have attained. These include: a positive image of self, family, community, region and world; respect for others irrespective of age, class, creed, gender, ethnicity, physical disabilities or nationality; an abhorrence of violence in all its forms and commitment to settle disputes through arbitration and conciliation; the capacity to understand that individual freedom is consonant with the acceptance of personal responsibility for one’s own actions; commitment to ethical and moral societies that recognize equality of opportunity, freedom of expression and association, and the right to fair judicial process.Main Elements of the Curriculum It provides the foundation for further education and training and for entry level employment. It provides articulation between and within subject groups offered in the Caribbean Secondary Education Certificate (CSEC) examination by catering for students who continue at secondary school to take General Proficiency examinations in academic or technical and vocational or a mix of academic and technical and vocational subjects. It meets the needs of students who may not wish to advance to the CSEC examination, but wish to seek entry-level training for employment on leaving school. It provides opportunity for students who wish to exit secondary school for first level entry jobs and to continue their education and training on the job or on their own out of school. It facilitates articulation within the wider school curriculum and responds to the developmental needs of the region. CCSLC/IS/02/2006 iii
  7. 7. INTEGRATED SCIENCE♦ RATIONALE ♦ AIMSIntegrated Science is an interdisciplinary subject which provides students The study of Integrated Science is intended to assist students to:with the opportunity to study issues relevant to Science in everyday life.Such study integrates perspectives from various disciplines including 1. develop knowledge, skills, attitudes and values of science for lifelongBiology, Chemistry, Physics, Earth Science and others. learning;The inclusion of Integrated Science in the school curriculum is influenced 2. develop an appreciation of the role of science in fostering a safe andby the premise that knowledge of an organism and its interaction with the healthy lifestyle;environment will enhance the application of Science in shaping the qualityof life, through promotion of personal health practices and respect for the 3. develop an awareness of the value of science in solving everydayenvironment. The programme, therefore, aims at producing young adults problems;with the knowledge, skills, values and attitudes that would help themnegotiate an increasingly complex and dynamic technological environment 4. function effectively within an increasingly technological andin which they have to live and work. scientific global environment;Students, who successfully complete this programme, will have developed 5. appreciate the need to contribute to sustainable developmentan understanding of how science affects their daily lives and acquiredlifelong learning skills that will allow them to solve everyday problems.This programme will provide the knowledge, shills and abilities necessaryfor further education and training in institutions and in the workplace. CCSLC/IS/02/2006 1
  8. 8. ♦ GENERAL OBJECTIVES ♦ SKILLS AND ABILITIES TO BE ASSESSEDAt the end of this course of study students should: 1. RECORDING AND COMMUNICATION (RC)1. be aware of the contributions of the Caribbean to Science and The student will be able to record scientific data and communicate information Technology; effectively orally, graphically and in writing.2. appreciate the dynamic nature of Science and the impact of Science and Criteria --makes accurate observations, accurately recorded data in table and Technology on the world in the twenty first century ; graph. classifies substances, uses scientific format, appropriate language and content,3. understand the importance of quantifying the dimensions of matter; and demonstrates creativity. Table and graph—titles, correct axes, plot accurately, suitability of scale.4. appreciate the particulate nature of matter, and its chemical and physical properties; 2. MANIPULATION AND MEASUREMENT (MM)5. understand the relationship between structure and function for selected The student will be able to safely use appropriate instruments to accurately body systems; measure various physical qualities.6. understand that there is interdependence between living organisms; Criteria --demonstrates competence and safety for self and others in the sequencing of events; the selection and use of appropriate instruments; takes7. appreciate the components of the physical environment and their inter- accurate readings; number of trials and drawing. relationship; Drawing -- makes large, clear, accurate representations; uses adequate labelling; uses pencil to make smooth lines, indicates magnification and view where8. understand the need to practise a healthy lifestyle; appropriate.9. appreciate the role each individual must play in preserving the 3. INVESTIGATION(IN) environment; The students will be able to carry out investigations and design and carry out10. understand the impact of energy on man’s activities and the interchange experiments to solve problems. among the different forms of energy; Criteria -- identifies relationships and patterns; makes logical inferences, valid11. appreciate the need for responsible use of energy. predictions, and evaluation of data; conclusion related to aim; statement of problem; hypothesis stated; method appropriate; variables identified; controls present; limitations stated. 4. GROUP WORK (GW) The student will be able to function efficiently and effectively within a group setting, while collaborating to achieve a common goal. Criteria -- shows cooperation and responsibility to group; assists in resolving conflict and achieving consensus in group decisions, shows respect for others. CCSLC/IS/02/2006 2
  9. 9. ♦ ORGANIZATION OF THE PROGRAMME The programme of study is arranged in five Modules, namely: Module 1 - Working like a scientist Module 2 - Investigating Matter Module 3 - Understanding life Module 4 - Focusing on me Module 5 - Exploring energy♦ ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES Assessment is an integral component of the programme of studies. Its major functions include facilitating learning, providing information which may be used by students and teachers in the planning of subsequent instructional experiences, and providing information on the highest level of proficiency demonstrated by the student. Teachers are encouraged to take advantage of the flexible structure of the programme to ensure that students demonstrate mastery of each increment of the programme before going on to the next. A student who has attained mastery should, on any subsequent occasion, and without assistance, be able to demonstrate the highest levels of proficiency on the same or an equivalent task. The assessment for each syllabus comprises two major components: Teacher Assessment (TA) and External Assessment (EA). TEACHER ASSESSMENT (TA) This assessment spans two phases. Phase 1:- Formative Assessment Teachers assess students to identify their areas of strength and weakness. This assessment may be formal or informal, and is usually continuous and integrated with teaching and learning. Some teaching and learning activities are suggested in this programme of study and the assessment tasks may either be designed or sourced by the teacher, or may be selected or adapted from the examples provided in the assessment column of this programme of study. Information derived from this type of assessment should be used by teachers and students in planning subsequent action. Students should be encouraged to assess themselves (self- and peer- assessment) and, wherever practical, to participate in the planning of subsequent activity. The effectiveness and management of this approach may be enhanced by sharing the assessment criteria with students before the assessment is done, or by engaging them in the development of these criteria. CCSLC/IS/02/2006 3
  10. 10. Phase 2:- Summative AssessmentTeachers assess students in order to create an objective record of the highest level of proficiency demonstrated. Students may be assessed any time after theteacher deems that they have attained mastery. Teachers may also provide practice exercises which integrate skills across the Modules. The students may beassessed individually or in groups, and the arrangements and scheduling may be influenced by the nature of the task, and logistical and administrativeconsiderations. A single standardized summative task is required for each Module. Each subject has five modules, and for each student, the teacher will submit to UCXC a single total score representing the sum of the student’s scores on the five modules. UThe following three specifications facilitate the standardization of the summative assessments: (i) A generic task is outlined at the end of each Module. This task provides general specifications, and conditions which must be satisfied by the assessment undertaken by all students. However, within the limits specified, teachers may adapt the tasks to reflect local or individual interests. For each assignment, one example of an adaptation is given. (ii) A standardized rubric or mark scheme is defined and is to be used by the teacher in scoring all students’ work. This rubric/mark scheme is designed to clearly indicate the dimensions of interest and the relative importance of each; consequently, it may be used by teachers to verify the appropriateness of their adapted task. While the generic task may be adapted, the mark scheme is not to be adjusted. The same mark scheme is to be used by all teachers and students across all centres and territories. (iii) It is expected that quality control and monitoring of teachers’ adherence to the specifications will be arranged and managed at local level.In order to ensure that students have reasonable opportunity to achieve and demonstrate mastery, teachers can afford their students multiple opportunities to Uretake or resubmit, the summative assessment for any Module. Feedback and suggestions for improvement may be provided between attempts, however, the Uprocess should be transparent and objective, and the mark awarded should be indicative of the level of proficiency that the candidate would be able to demonstrateindependently. The achievement of mastery is emphasized in this programme; thus, a student will be expected to achieve a minimum of 50% of the marksavailable for the teacher assessment component that will be completed in preparation for taking the external examination.EXTERNAL ASSESSMENTAt any given sitting, candidates may register to write the external examination in one or more subjects. The external assessment will be a multiple-choiceexamination comprising 50 items.Grading SchemeScores from the Teacher Assessment (TA) and the External Assessment (EA) will be combined to give a composite score with a maximum of 100. A single subjectgrade will be reported. The grade boundaries are listed overleaf: Composite Score Grade Master CCSLC/IS/02/2006 4
  11. 11. 75 - 100 50 - 74 Competent 0 - 49 Developing Competence Reporting 1. The results of any sitting are valid for a three-year period. 2. A result slip will be provided after every sitting for which a candidate registers for the external examination in one or more subjects.♦ FORMAT OF THE EXAMINATIONS External Assessment Fifty multiple-choice items. (1 hour 15 minutes) Teacher Assessment Five assignments – one at the completion of each Module. NOTES ON THE EXAMINATION 1. CXC will set and mark the external assessment. 2. The teacher will set and mark the assignments that make up the internal assessment of each Module using the Guidelines provided. 3. The teacher will combine the marks given for each Module to give a single total mark. 4. The teacher will submit the total mark to CXC no later than May 31. 5. CXC will combine the marks earned on the internal and the external assessment to produce the candidate’s overall grade. 6. The mark allocation for this syllabus is shown below: Component Marks Allocated Total Marks CCSLC/IS/02/2006 5
  12. 12. % Module Module Module Contribution Module 3 Module 5 1 2 4 to Composite Score Teacher 20 20 20 20 20 100 50 Assessment External 10 10 10 10 10 50 50 Assessment % Contribution to Composite 20 20 20 20 20 100 ***** Score7. The results of any sitting are valid for a three-year period.8. A result slip will be provided after every sitting for which a candidate registers for the external examination in one or more subjects. CCSLC/IS/02/2006 6
  13. 13. ♦ MODULE 1: WORKING LIKE A SCIENTIST This Module contains the following topics: (a) Science and Technology; (b) Safety; (c) Responding to challenges using Science and Technology. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES CONTENT SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING ASSESSMENT ACTIVITIES Students should be able to: (a) Science and Technology 1. distinguish between Science - tools for Teacher organizes students into groups and has each Students write one paragraph science and development of technology. group consider what life would be like without some explaining the difference between technology; Technology - application of aspects of technology, for example, pen, electricity, Science and Technology. Teacher science. shoes, television, ploughs, fly swatter, cellular phones, assesses the paragraph for accuracy. X Ray machine, automobiles. Groups should give a statement about what technology is. Teacher leads the discussion on the role of science in the development of technology. Teacher could ask students to propose how a named technological device or process was developed, for example, pen, shoes, television and automobile. Students are asked to hypothesize why the technology was created and how it might have been developed. 2. describe ways in which Scientists: observe, Teacher provides activities for students to develop Students state five ways in which scientists do their experiment, measure, record skills in observing, classifying, inferring, measuring, scientists work and explain why it is work; results, interpret results and predicting, interpreting data, forming hypothesis, necessary for scientists to work in share findings. separating and controlling variables and these ways. experimenting. CCSLC/IS/02/2006 7
  14. 14. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES CONTENT SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING ASSESSMENT ACTIVITIESStudents should be able to:3. apply the scientific The scientific method The teacher talks through the planning and designing of Each learner will be presented with a method in a given involves an problem situation (and may also get situation. experiment to investigate a problem suggested by the the resources to utilize), and will be - Hypothesising class. required to plan and design an - Experimenting The teacher highlights the scientific method used and experiment to investigate this - Controlling variables asks problem. Examples of problems - Recording students to record the example as it is being developed. 1. When green fruits are - Drawing conclusions wrapped in a newspaper - Redesigning if necessary they ripened faster than - Communicating results. when left unwrapped. Investigate why this is so. 2. Objects painted black dry faster than objects painted white. Plan and design an experiment to demonstrate this. 3. Iron objects close to the sea rust faster than those further inland. Plan and design an investigation to see if this is so. Solutions presented should be assessed on criteria for Investigation including plausibility, use of control and limitations. Please note that it is sufficient for the students to do the planning and design aspects only. U U(b) Safety4. discuss the importance Home – practices and Class discussion for road safety to identify the need to Have students draw a representation of maintaining a safe household safety symbols. follow rules and the importance of obeying signs for of an unsafe practice and the environment; School – laboratory rules the safety of self and others. Students in groups will corresponding safe practice. Teacher Community – road safety write three (3) laboratory rules. Class discussion on assesses the drawing for correctness rules and rules on the importance of laboratory rules. of content. playground.5. state the meaning of Safety symbols: corrosive, Students may be asked to collect labels from common Teacher will give students a matching common safety radioactive, flammable, household containers and products and bring them to activity using five (5) symbols with symbols; explosive, harmful, class. Students will compare the symbols found and list their meanings. CCSLC/IS/02/2006 8
  15. 15. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES CONTENT SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING ASSESSMENT ACTIVITIESStudents should be able to: poisonous, danger. the symbols and their meanings.(c) Responses to challenges using Science and Technology6. identify two (2) Examples: Students will collect newspaper clippings that highlight Students to create collage depicting challenges specific to a)loss of agricultural land; some of the challenges experienced in the Caribbean common challenges in the Caribbean. the Caribbean; b)decrease in potable water region. Discussion session follow to prioritise these Teacher to assess the pieces for sources; challenges. content, relevance and creativity. c)limited physical resources; d) costly energy supplies; e) lower agricultural yields; f) increased susceptibility of crops and livestock to diseases; g) susceptibility of structures to hurricane damage.7. discuss how science Examples: Students in small groups, to research changes in Teacher will assess reports using and technology a. soil conservation methods technology that have been utilised to solve one of the criteria for Recording and have been utilised to terracing and crop rotation; challenges. Report on the Science and Technology Communication solve one (1) of b. desalination, recycling involved. the challenges; waste water; c. hydroponics, tissue culture; d. wind farms, biogas, gasohol, solar devices, hydroelectricity, natural gas, bagasse; e. cloning, genetically modified organisms; f. stem cell research; g. new roof designs, building codes.8. describe the work of at The names of selected Learners, in groups, research and present a display on Use a scoring rubric to assess display least two (2) Caribbean scientists and the work of a Caribbean scientist. Each group should with criteria related to accuracy of Caribbean scientists; their areas of work for research a different scientist. content, breath of information and example (see appendix II). creative use of material. CCSLC/IS/02/2006 9
  16. 16. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES CONTENT SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING ASSESSMENT ACTIVITIESStudents should be able to:9. describe the work of one Suggestions: Jonas Salk, Individual learners to research non-Caribbean Use of matching-activity to relate (1) non- Caribbean George Washington Carver, scientists and present the information on a table. scientists to area of work. scientists. Albert Einstein, Madam Curie. SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENTGeneric TaskUKey skills to be assessed are Recording and Communication, Investigation and Group work.Create a portfolio of student’s best work by selecting(i) one sample from presentations and reports (5 marks)(ii) one from investigations (Planning and designing Activity) (10 marks)(iii) one reflective piece based on group work (5 marks)Scoring RubricU (i) Recording and Communication key skills Presentation/ report (Maximum 5 marks) • accuracy of content (3 marks) - Content completely accurate 3 marks - Content with minor errors 2 marks - Content with major errors 1 mark - Content completely inaccurate 0 mark • correct use of scientific terms (2 marks) - Correct use of scientific terms always 2 marks - Correct use of scientific terms sometimes 1 mark CCSLC/IS/02/2006 10
  17. 17. - No use of scientific terms 0 mark(ii) Investigation key skillPlanning and designing activity (Maximum 10 marks)• hypothesis (2 marks) - Testability of hypothesis is clear 2 marks - Testability of hypothesis is unclear 1 mark - Testability of hypothesis is not possible 0 mark• appropriate method (5 marks) - Appropriate methods used always to test hypothesis 5 marks - Appropriate methods used mostly to test hypothesis 3 - 4 marks - Appropriate methods used rarely to test hypothesis 1 - 2 marks - Inappropriate methods used to test hypothesis 0 mark• controls present (2 marks) - Relevant controls stated 2 marks - Some controls stated are not relevant 1 mark - Controls either not stated or not relevant 0 mark• limitation(s) stated (1 mark)(iii) Group Work key skillReflective piece done in groups (assessed by peers and self) (Maximum 5 marks)• co-operation (1 mark)• responsibility to group (2 marks) - Each individual completed his/her task to contribute to group effort 2 marks - Some of the group members completed their task to contribute to group effort 1 mark - None of the group members completed their task to contribute to group effort 0 mark• consensus for group decision (1 mark)• respect for others (1 mark) CCSLC/IS/02/2006 11
  18. 18. ♦ MODULE 2: INVESTIGATING MATTER This Module contains the following topics: (a) Measurement; (b) States of Matter; (c) Water; (d) Metals and Non-Metals; (e) Acids and Bases; (f) Separating Mixtures. SUGGESTED TEACHING AND ASSESSMENT SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES CONTENT LEARNING ACTIVITIES Students should be able to: (a) Measurement 1. state two reasons why The importance of measurement Students will place a finger, simultaneously Students are asked to write a measurement is - accuracy into separate containers of warm and cold sentence giving two reasons for the important; - unreliability of senses water for one minute, then place both fingers importance of measurement. - standardization in another container of water and estimate its temperature. Teacher needs to use estimates from students to emphasize the unreliability of the senses and the need to use aids to measure. 2. explain the concepts of length, mass, volume, temperature, and time; 3. state the SI units and Length - distance between two points. Students are given stimulus material to check Student completes a table instrument used to The units for length - metre (m), for understanding of the concepts of length, summarizing the information and measure length, mass, centimetre (cm) and millimetre (mm). mass, volume, temperature and time. For teacher will check the accuracy of the volume, temperature, Instrument – metre rule example, objects of different lengths or information. and time; containers of different sizes. Mass - amount of matter in an object. The units for mass - grams (g) and kilograms (kg) Instrument – laboratory balances CCSLC/IS/02/2006 12
  19. 19. SUGGESTED TEACHING AND ASSESSMENTSPECIFIC OBJECTIVES CONTENT LEARNING ACTIVITIESStudents should be able to: Volume - amount of space taken up by an object. The units for volume - cubic centimetre (cm3) or millilitres (ml) Instrument – measuring cylinder Time - measurement period. The units of time - seconds(s) minutes (min) and hour (hr) Instrument – timers, stop clocks Temperature - how hot a substance is. The unit for temperature - degrees Celsius (°C) Instrument - thermometer4. demonstrate the Review, demonstrate and allow students to Teacher develops and shares a correct use of practise the correct procedures for the use of checklist to evaluate students’ measuring instruments; the instruments listed. mastery in using the measuring devices. Teacher monitors students Use the equipment listed to measure length, as various items are measured and mass, volume, temperature of various objects assess using criteria for Manipulation and time. and Measurement Skills Student completes a table recording their measurements. The teacher will assess the accuracy of the information5. compare the densities Fluids of lesser density float on those Students place equal volumes of cooking oil Teacher will assess laboratory report of different substances. of greater density. and water into a measuring cylinder, shake, using criteria for Investigation Skill. allow to stand for thirty (30) minutes. Students discuss observations and prepare laboratory report. Students are asked to give examples of devices or situations where this science concept is applied. CCSLC/IS/02/2006 13
  20. 20. SUGGESTED TEACHING AND ASSESSMENTSPECIFIC OBJECTIVES CONTENT LEARNING ACTIVITIESStudents should be able to: SUGGESTED TEACHING AND ASSESSMENT SPECIFIC CONTENT LEARNING ACTIVITIES OBJECTIVESStudents should be able to:(b) States of Matter6. explain the Matter - anything that has mass and occupies space Teacher gives examples of matter and asks Students will write a sentence defining concept of (has a volume). students to say what they believe matter mass. Teacher assesses for correctness. matter; is.7. classify Matter exists in three (3) states – solid, liquid, and Teacher can give students substances to Students should create posters with substances gas. describe. Students list the properties and examples of the three states of matter. into the sort the substances into three (3) groups. Teacher assesses accuracy of content three states; Students will identify the characteristics of and creativity. the three groups during class discussion.8. explain how Properties Solid Liquid Gas Activity to demonstrate the arrangement Assess students’ observations and particle Arrangement Particles Particles Particles of particles, for example, the packing of explanations for understanding of arrangement of particles packed further Maximum marbles in jar of varying numbers to concepts. influence close apart distance illustrate the three states. together apart physical Shape Fixed No No properties; and volume shape, definite fixed definite shape but shape or volume definite volume volume Movement of Unable Random Rapid, free particles to move movement Movement CCSLC/IS/02/2006 14
  21. 21. SUGGESTED TEACHING AND ASSESSMENT SPECIFIC CONTENT LEARNING ACTIVITIES OBJECTIVESStudents should be able to:9. explain Diffusion - movement of substance particles from The teacher explains the concept of Assess students’ observations and diffusion and higher to lower concentration. diffusion and osmosis. Use perfume explanations for understanding of osmosis in activity (or using other everyday activities) diffusion. terms of Osmosis - movement of water particles across a as stimulus for class discussion. Have particle membrane from a higher water concentration to students investigate food dye in water and movement low water concentration. record observations from areas of higher Ask students to investigate osmosis – concentration Place berries in a bowl and sprinkle sugar to areas of over it. Observe after a day. lower concentration ; Ask students to explain the following : Red kidney beans left to soak overnight in distilled water take a shorter time to soften during cooking than beans not soaked at all.10. name the Terms – freezing, melting, evaporation, Students can heat ice cubes and measure Students’ laboratory reports should processes for the temperature periodically at each explain the processes. each change change of state to demonstrate the of state; Condensation of water vapour on mirrors. processes involved when matter changes Assess using criteria for Investigation. state and to identify the temperatures at Toilet bowl fresheners (sublimation). No new which water changes states. substances are formed. Laboratory activity – finding the boiling point of water.11. identify Class discussion on the examples of everyday sublimation – mothballs, smoke machine. examples of changes of state.(c) Water12. discuss the Water cycle: evaporation, condensation, melting Students can make a model to illustrate Evaluate the accuracy of the model and CCSLC/IS/02/2006 15
  22. 22. SUGGESTED TEACHING AND ASSESSMENT SPECIFIC CONTENT LEARNING ACTIVITIES OBJECTIVESStudents should be able to: uses of and freezing. the water cycle. student’s explanations of the processes water; in the cycle.13. carry out Water: colour, odour. Provide students worksheet with leading Use criteria for Recording and investigations Properties of water: melting and boiling points, questions to complete the following Communication, and Investigation to to show the surface tension of water. activities with water. assess completed worksheets from physical (i) dissolve salt students. properties of (ii) float paper clip water; (iii) describe given sample of water Students will record the results or activities and give brief explanations. Teacher makes reference to previous activity that investigated melting and boiling points.14. relate the Water – As a solvent – washing, drinking Refer to the results of the worksheets Assess using criteria for Investigation. properties of Habitat given in the other activity. water with its uses;15. explain the (a) Pollution from domestic and industrial In groups of four (4), students research Presentations should be assessed using effects of sources and make presentations on the effects of criteria from Recording and pollution on (b) Deforestation and erosion. pollution on aquatic life in the water ways Communication. aquatic life. found in their surroundings, or parish or Effects of pollutants: detergents, hot water, silt (for district or country. corals), pesticide, raw sewage and fertilizer run off, waste from cruise ships, oil spills. Students may collect samples and do observations or measurements of these to include in their presentation.(d) Metals and Non-Metals CCSLC/IS/02/2006 16
  23. 23. SUGGESTED TEACHING AND ASSESSMENT SPECIFIC CONTENT LEARNING ACTIVITIES OBJECTIVESStudents should be able to:16. distinguish An element contains one type of particle (atom). Teacher lists the names and formulae of Students are provided with a list of between an elements and compounds. Teacher places substances and are asked to classify element and a A mixture contains two or more elements that can the substances into two groups and asks them into the three groups. Teacher compound; be easily separated. students to state the criteria used for the checks classification for correctness. A compound contains two or more elements that placements. are chemically combined. Teacher provides mixture(s) and lead class discussion on the differences between mixtures and compounds17. distinguish between a mixture and a compound18. identify the Na, K, Mg, Ca, Fe, Pt, Cu, Aq, Au, Zn, Hg, Al, C, Si, Use the previous activity to identify the Students bring in five (5) labels from chemical Pb N, O, S, F, Cl, I, He, Ne. chemical symbols of elements. common household items and list as symbols of many elements as possible and their commonly symbols. found Teacher checks that students correctly elements; match names with the symbols.19. classify Provide students with examples of Assess the justification of the grouping. substances as substances and ask them sort them in two metals and (2) groups. Students describe the non-metals; characteristics of the groups and justify the grouping.20. relate the Metals: good conductors of heat and electricity, Group discussion follows to illicit and list Teacher monitors the discussions. Ask properties of ductile, malleable, sonorous, have lustre. Non- properties of metals and non-metals. students to share their ideas on the use metals and metals: poor conductors of heat and elctricity, dull of metals and non-metals. Evaluate non in appearance, light, soft, brittle. In pairs, students can compare the student presentation. metals to their advantages and disadvantages of using uses. Uses differ due to properties. metals and non- metals for various uses, for example, car bodies, food containers. Exceptions: silicon Present findings to peers. CCSLC/IS/02/2006 17
  24. 24. SUGGESTED TEACHING AND ASSESSMENT SPECIFIC CONTENT LEARNING ACTIVITIES OBJECTIVESStudents should be able to: mercury Group discussion on exceptions. Assess the flyer and its content for accuracy, visual impact and creativity. Students could select a product and create a flyer advertising the superior quality of the material for the particular product compared to a product made of an alternative type of material.(e) Acids and Bases21. name some Examples of acids: vinegar, Ascorbic Acid, sting of Students should be prompted to recall the List generated check by students from common acids ants (Formic Acid), Hydrochloric Acid (HCl), names of common acids and alkalis. discussion. Teacher asks questions to and bases; Sulphuric Acid (H2 SO4). check for understanding. Bases: for example Sodium Hydroxide NaOH, Sodium Bicarbonate NaHCO3, Magnesium Hydroxide Mg(OH)222. define acids Acids - taste sour, have low pH. Students read text to list characteristics of Teacher administers a test on the and bases; Most bases - insoluble in water and are soapy. acids and bases. common names of acids and bases and Alkalis - bases soluble in water. their characteristics.23. recall the characteristics of acids and bases;24. use the pH pH – indicates level of acidity and alkalinity Students are provided with common Completed worksheet with table of scale to 0---------------------------7------------------------14 household products. pH is measured and results assessed for accuracy. classify Acidic Neutral Basic recorded in a table. In laboratory report common students should classify the products as household acidic or basic. products; CCSLC/IS/02/2006 18
  25. 25. SUGGESTED TEACHING AND ASSESSMENT SPECIFIC CONTENT LEARNING ACTIVITIES OBJECTIVESStudents should be able to:25. state the Acids and Bases: Have students perform neutralization Teacher observes and assesses the meaning of reactions using diluted acid and alkali activity on use of dropper, recognizing the term - neutralize to form salt and water with an indicator. Use indicator to test the point of neutralization and other neutralization acid, base and solution formed by criteria from Manipulation and ; Cause of heartburn and indigestion: neutralization. Measurement. - treatment Teacher can demonstrate neutralisation process using standard equipment. Neutralization reactions can be done with dilute ethanoic acid and seltzer tablets or powder.26. cite examples Discuss simple treatment for wasps and of bees sting, and the use of lime with acid neutralisation soil. .(f) Separating Mixtures27. describe Mixtures - substances physically combined and can Teacher demonstration and questioning. Review students’ responses to ensure mixtures; be separated. Teacher adds sugar and water and asks understanding of the definition of students to explain observations. Prompt mixture. students to explain whether the sugar can be removed. Teacher should heat sugar with high heat until blackened. Students are prompted to explain observations and consider how or if sugar crystals can be obtained from the result. Teachers could repeat the activity using salt and note any differences. CCSLC/IS/02/2006 19
  26. 26. SUGGESTED TEACHING AND ASSESSMENT SPECIFIC CONTENT LEARNING ACTIVITIES OBJECTIVESStudents should be able to:28. classify Definitions of solution and suspension. Teacher guides students through Assess the classification table for mixtures as Emphasis on particle size. definitions in class discussion. Students accuracy. solutions or rotate through a circus of workstations suspensions; with samples of mixtures and complete a classification table.29. perform i) filtration ii) decanting iii) evaporation Teacher demonstrations followed by Checklist used for assessment should simple iv) chromatography student practice. Teacher shares check list include proper use of equipment, safety separation for assessment with students. Students when handling chemicals and techniques. Separation method used is dependent on the write up laboratory reports of the practical equipment and other criteria from particle size, difference in density or other physical activities. Manipulation and Measurement Skills. differences. Teacher may assess reports using Use chalk and water; inks; salt solution, criteria for Investigation Skills. oil and water.SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENTGeneric TaskKey skills to be assessed are Investigation, and Measurement and Manipulation.(i) Give students an unknown substance (for example, an acid or a metal) and ask them to test it and then classify it as metal, non-metal, acid or base. Students should be required to identify another substance that behaves counter to the unknown substance (a non-metal or metal, base or acid). For example, provide students with an unknown substance and ask them to test the pH and then to select an appropriate substance to remove the unknown substance if it stains your clothing. The table below gives examples of substances that may be used. Known Unknown Vinegar Bicarbonate Rust Citric acid Tannic Acid Borax 10 marks(ii) Present students with a scenario or problem and ask them to plan and design an investigation to solve the problem. Example: Astronauts on a space mission, to Mars, discovered a transparent, odourless liquid without taste and decided that it was water. Design an experiment to ascertain if the substance is indeed water.Scoring Rubric CCSLC/IS/02/2006 20
  27. 27. (i) Manipulation and Measurement key skillsPractical Activity (Maximum 10 marks)• safety for self and others (2 marks) - Demonstrates safety to self and others at all times 2 marks - Demonstrates safety to self and others sometimes 1 mark - Demonstrates safety to self and others rarely 0 mark• appropriate instrument used (2 marks) - Appropriate instrument used always 2 marks - Appropriate instrument used sometimes 1 mark - Appropriate instrument used rarely 0 mark• accuracy of readings (3 marks) - Readings always accurate 3 marks - Readings mostly accurate 2 marks - Readings rarely accurate 1 mark - Readings never accurate 0 mark• competence in use of materials (3 marks) - Competent in the use of materials always 3 marks - Competent in the use of materials usually 2 marks - Competent in the use of materials rarely 1 mark - Competent in the use of materials never 0 marks CCSLC/IS/02/2006 21
  28. 28. Investigation key skillPlanning and Designing activity (Maximum 10 marks)• hypothesis (2 marks) - Testability of hypothesis is clear 2 marks - Testability of hypothesis is unclear 1 mark - Testability of hypothesis is not possible 0 mark -• appropriate method (5 marks) - Appropriate methods used always to test hypothesis 5 marks - Appropriate methods used mostly to test hypothesis 3 - 4 marks - Appropriate methods used rarely to test hypothesis 1 - 2 marks - Inappropriate methods used to test hypothesis 0 mark• control present (2 marks) - Relevant controls stated 2 marks - Some controls stated are not relevant 1 mark - Controls either not stated or not relevant 0 mark• limitation(s) stated (1 mark) CCSLC/IS/02/2006 22
  29. 29. ♦ MODULE 3: UNDERSTANDING LIFE This Module contains the following topics: (a) Living organisms; (b) Plants; (c) Pests and pesticides; (d) Soils; (e) Air. SPECIFIC CONTENT SUGGESTED TEACHING & LEARNING ASSESSMENT OBJECTIVES ACTIVITIES Students should be able to: (a) Living organisms 1. describe Respire, excrete, move, feed, reproduce, In small groups, ask students to identify features of a the character- and respond to stimuli, growth. car and an animal, for example, a cat. Students istics of should give reasons why the cat is alive and not the living car. Each group reports on their list of reasons and things; teacher will record reasons presented and focus discussion to ascertain the characteristics. 2. classify Differences between plants and animals. On the school compound, students in groups of four Teacher develops a test to assess living Animals Plants (4) will make observations of living things during a students’ knowledge of things as Cannot make Make their own food 10-minute period and compile a list. On their return characteristics of living things and plants or their own food (green and have to the classroom, each group should categorize the the differences between plants and animals; leaves) list into plants and animals giving reasons for their animals. Can move Plants cannot move choices. from one place from one place to The teacher will guide class discussion to ensure to another another understanding of basic differences stated in the Generally Generally responds content. respond slowly to stimuli speedily to stimuli CCSLC/IS/02/2006 23
  30. 30. SPECIFIC CONTENT SUGGESTED TEACHING & LEARNING ASSESSMENT OBJECTIVES ACTIVITIESStudents should be able to:3. explain the Cell - basic unit of living things Students will use puzzle pieces or toy building blocks concept of (Leggo) to put together a shape or structure. Teacher a cell; will use this activity to guide discussions to focus on a cell as the basic unit of living things.4. state one Common cell structures: cell membrane- Students draw and label a typical cell. Teacher gives Have students complete a matching function of contains the cell contents, nucleus- students a selected narrative that discusses the activity that requires them to match each major controls all cell functions, cytoplasm- site functions of the major cell structures. the cell structures with their cell part; where all cell activities occur, vacuole- functions. Teacher checks results of storage of substances, mitochondrion- the matching activity for correctness. produce energy for cell activities; In plant cell only: cell wall- provides support and shape chloroplast- site for food production5. differentiat Students will be asked to observe diagrams or Students construct a model of a e between drawings of a typical plant and animal cell. Students typical plant and animal cell and plant and will compare and record the observations. label the cell parts. Teacher assesses animal model for correctness of labelling and cells; accurate representation of cell.6. describe Cells Tissues Organs Use the building block activity from Objective 3 to the Systems Organism explain the relationships. relationshi p from cells through tissues and organs to systems; CCSLC/IS/02/2006 24
  31. 31. SPECIFIC CONTENT SUGGESTED TEACHING & LEARNING ASSESSMENT OBJECTIVES ACTIVITIESStudents should be able to:7. state at System Function Some Students in groups of four (4) will research one of Teacher assesses the presentation for least Major the major systems of plants and/or animals to find the correct identification of organs in one Organs out about major organs involved and at least one the system, correctly stated functions function of Digestive Breaks mouth function of the system and make a presentation of and use of visual aids. the major down food stomach, findings to the class. systems in intestines an Excretory Eliminates kidneys, organism. metabolic leaves, wastes stems Nervous Coordinate brain, s responses spinal cord, sense organs Reproductiv Produces flowers, e off springs testes, uterus, ovary, penis Skeletal Provides limbs support facilitates movement Transport Facilitates stem, movement root, of heart, substances blood vessels Respiratory Facilitates leaf, lung exchange of gases(b) Plants CCSLC/IS/02/2006 25
  32. 32. SPECIFIC CONTENT SUGGESTED TEACHING & LEARNING ASSESSMENT OBJECTIVES ACTIVITIESStudents should be able to:8. explain the Plants as producers of food and animals In small groups have students identify food chains Teacher provides students with a importance as consumers. from a food web. For each food chain, students simple two-chain food web and asks of plants to should explain how each organism is dependent on them to explain the impact of the humans; Example: Food Chain the other. elimination of a named organism from the web. Grass cow man producer primary secondary consumer consumer9. draw and External leaf parts: stalk, margin, vein, Students provide samples of simple leaves. The Students are asked to draw and label label a midrib, lamina. teacher leads discussion on identifying the parts. a diagram of a leaf. diagram of a simple leaf; Teacher assesses drawing for accuracy, correct labels, correct label lines and appropriate title. sunlight Teacher assesses the laboratory10. describe Carbon dioxide + Water Food + report using the Investigation and the process of Oxygen Reporting and Communication chlorophyll photo- criteria. synthesis; Use simple diagram illustrating photosynthesis as shown above to stimulate discussion on the raw materials and products of photosynthesis. Students will test plant leaves for starch and investigate the need for light and chlorophyll for photosynthesis. The investigation is to be written up as a laboratory practical in the report format. N.B. Use water bath when heating alcohol. CCSLC/IS/02/2006 26
  33. 33. SPECIFIC CONTENT SUGGESTED TEACHING & LEARNING ASSESSMENT OBJECTIVES ACTIVITIESStudents should be able to:11. explain the Respiration - process by which energy is Students will do a number of activities as instructed At the end of the class, each student importance released in stored food. by the teacher for example: lifting objects, walking, should write two paragraphs of breathing deeply. Teacher will use these activities to explaining the importance of respiration Food + Oxygen ∏ Energy + Water + Carbon Dioxide initiate discussion to elicit that energy is needed to respiration. Teacher assesses the ; carry out all activities for both plants and animals. narrative for accuracy. The discussion on respiration follows. CCSLC/IS/02/2006 27
  34. 34. SPECIFIC CONTENT SUGGESTED TEACHING & LEARNING ASSESSMENT OBJECTIVES ACTIVITIESStudents should be able to:12. carry out Students will be asked to carry out the following Students will construct a table to investigatio Content Inhaled Air Exhaled activities. compare the composition of inhaled n to compare Air 1. Use apparatus shown below to compare the and exhaled air. inhaled Carbon Less More cloudiness of the limewater. and exhaled air. Dioxide Teacher assesses table for accuracy of Oxygen More Less content. Warmth Less More Moistur Less More e 2. Collect exhaled air and placed a lit candle in it to see if the candle remains burning. Repeat using ordinary air instead and compare the results. 3. Measure the surrounding temperature and record the temperature. Breathe on the bulb of a thermometer to measure the temperature of exhaled air and note differences. 4. Breathe on a mirror and note observations. CCSLC/IS/02/2006 28

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