C X C I n t e g r at e d S c i e n c e June Mitchelmore Formerly Education Ofﬁcer (Science) Ministry of Education, Kingston, Jamaica John Phillips Formerly Science Teacher Harrison College, Bridgetown, Barbados John Steward Formerly Science Adviser Ministry of Education, Georgetown, Guyana and Curriculum Consultant, Dominica
ContentsIntroductionMatter, energy and living thingsLiving and non-living things 6 How does our blood circulate? 94What are the units of measurement? 8 Problems with our circulatory system 96How are living things built up? 10Whos who among living things? Parts 1 and 2 12 RespirationWhat is matter made of? Parts 1 and 2 16 How do we breathe? 98What is energy? 20 How are gases exchanged? 100How can matter change? 22 Problems with our respiratory system 102Why is carbon so important? 24 What is respiration? 104 What are aerobic and anaerobic respiration? 106Studying scienceWhy study science? 26 ExcretionHow do we use information? 28 How do organisms get rid of waste? 108Practical work 30 What do the kidneys do? 110Setting up experiments 32 How do the kidneys work? 112How do we use equipment and materials? 34How do we use our results? 36 Temperature control Why do temperatures change? 114Living things Can we control heat transfer? How do living things control their temperature? 116 118Reproduction and growth How do human temperatures vary? 120How do organisms reproduce? 38What are ﬂowers? 40 Interdependence of life processesHow are fruits and seeds formed? 42 What is the nervous system? 122How do plants grow? 44 What are involuntary and voluntary actions? 124How do we grow? 46 What is the endocrine system? 126What changes occur in adolescence? 48 How are life processes interrelated? 128How do we reproduce? 50What are sexually transmitted diseases? 52Is there a population problem? 54 Our environmentHow can we control population numbers? Parts 1 and 2 56Why are you just like you are? 60 The physical environment How do we measure and regulate temperature? 130What were you like before you were born? 62 How do we use light to see? 132Why are pre- and post-natal care important? 64 Why is ventilation important? Parts 1 and 2 134Food and nutritionHow are plants able to make food? 66 Water and the aquatic environment Why is water important for life? 138How do substances move? 68 How do we obtain the water we need? 140What is a leaf like inside? 70 Would you rather be a ﬁsh? 142How is food used by the plant? 72 Where do ﬁsh ﬁt into food chains? 144What are you eating? 74 Should we try to keep water clean? 146What are you really eating? 76What is a balanced diet? 78Use and abuse of drugs 80 Health and hygieneHow do we use our teeth? 82 What are parasites? 148How do we digest our food? 84 Which parasites might we ﬁnd in humans? 150How do enzymes help in digestion? 86 What are the dangers of poor sanitation? 152How do enzymes work? 88 How can we control pests? 154 How can we keep our surroundings clean? 156 How can we stop food from spoiling? 158Transport How can we be protected against disease? 160How are substances moved around in plants? 90What is our blood made of? 924
ContentsSafety Interacting with our environmentHow can we avoid accidents? 162 RecreationWorking safely Parts 1 and 2 164 Why do we need exercise? 250How can we control ﬁres? 168 How can we train our bodies? 252How do we give ﬁrst aid? 170 What kinds of objects ﬂoat? 254 How can we survive under water? 256Electricity How are objects affected by moving through air? 258Which substances conduct electricity? 172 What do you expect from sports equipment? 260What are the characteristics of electricity? 174Is resistance important? 176 Gathering informationHow much does electricity cost? 178 How can we ﬁnd out about our surroundings? 262How do we use electricity safely? Parts 1 and 2 180 Can waves transfer energy? 264Magnets and electromagnets 184 What are sounds? 266How do we get and use electricity? 186 How do our ears work? 268 How is sound recorded? 270Sources of energy Can we extend the range of sound? 272How can we make crude oil useful? 188 How do we communicate via radio waves? 274How can we get energy from fuels? 190 How does light behave? 276What are the effects of using cars? 192 How do our eyes work? 278How do we use solar energy? 194 Problems with our eyes 280How can we make better use of solar energy? 196 What is colour? 282 How are images reproduced? 284MaterialsHow reactive are some of the metals? Parts 1 and 2Why do we use metals and alloys in the home? 198 202 MovementWhy do we use plastics in the home? 204 Movement within living thingsWhat do we use for washing and cleaning? 206 Why do we need transport systems? 286How can we keep ourselves clean? 208 How are transport systems protected? 288How can we keep household appliances clean? 210What causes rusting? 212 Movement on land, in water and in airHow can we try to prevent iron from rusting? 214 How do collisions transfer energy? 290What happens when we try to dissolve things? 216 Does gravity affect balance? 292What do we mean by hard and soft water? 218 Which objects are most stable? 294Why are acids and alkalis important? 220 How is movement opposed? 296Household chemicals Parts 1 and 2 222 How do objects and animals ﬂy? 298 Movement in spaceMachines How can we travel in space? 300How do machines make work easier? Parts 1 and 2 226 Where are we in space? 302How efﬁcient are machines? 230 How is Earth affected by other bodies? 304 How are organisms affected by the sea? 306SoilsWhat is soil? 232 Land and air movementsHow do soils differ? 234 How does pressure vary? 308How can we use our knowledge about soil? 236 What causes changes in the weather? 310How do we get the best out of the soil? 238 What are hurricanes? 312How can we conserve the soil? 240 What are earthquakes? 314 What are volcanoes? 316 Living in the Caribbean 318Interdependence of living thingsWhat organisms live in the soil? 242What organisms live round about us? 244 The electromagnetic spectrum 320How are materials recycled in nature? 246 Sample questions in Integrated Science 321Pollution and conservation 248 Index 328 5
Living and non-living thingsLook around you in the classroom and outside. Think about Living things respirewhat you can see, hear, smell, touch and feel. How are the The food which an organism makes or eats is taken into thethings similar and different? What are the things made of? cells of its body. As energy is needed, for example for move-How do they work? How can we use them …? These are some ment or response, some of the food is broken down byof the questions you will be answering as you go through this respiration to release the trapped energy. At the same timecourse. carbon dioxide and water are produced. As you look at the things around you, the most important All living cells of plants and animals carry out respiration all thedifferences you will notice are those between living and non- time. Respiration is similar to burning: the combination ofliving things. oxygen with a fuel to release energy. In living things respira- tion is brought about by special substances called enzymesActivity | Living and non-living things and can happen without high temperatures.1 Look carefully at the photograph below. Make a list of all Non-living things like cars and machines cannot make the things you can see. their own food, nor do they go around eating other things! Humans have to put fuel, such as diesel and gasoline, into them. The fuel does not become a part of their ‘body’, it just stays in the engine. The fuel is burned to release energy for the movement of the car or the work of the machine. This burning involves high temperatures and is not brought about by enzymes. Living things excrete A living organism is a bit like a chemical factory. Different raw materials arrive (such as carbon dioxide and water in plants, and foods in animals) and they are changed or processed in a variety of chemical reactions to make new products. At this very moment there are millions of chemical reactions going on inside you! These chemical reactions take place inside the cells. In plants, for example, photosynthesis occurs in the chloro-2 Make a table in your notebook with two columns. Use the plasts which contain chlorophyll, while respiration occurs in headings Living things and Non-living things. Write the very small structures called mitochondria. Not all of the names of the things into the correct columns. products of these reactions are useful, and some of them may3 Discuss your completed table with a friend. Have you put be harmful if they accumulate. Living things therefore get rid the same things in the same columns? Discuss any of, or excrete, these waste materials. Excretion is the removal differences you notice. of waste products made by the activity of living cells. Cars also get rid of exhaust gases, but the fuel has never been partLet’s look at the characteristics of living things, which distin- of the car’s body.guish them from non-living things. Living things respondLiving things make or eat food (nutrition) Living things are affected by changing conditions around themAll living things need food. Food is the fuel they use for all and inside them. These changing conditions are called stimuli.their activities. Organisms have to respond correctly in order to stay alive. Plants can make their own food from simple substances: Plants growing in the soil have to grow their roots near tocarbon dioxide, water and mineral salts. They are ‘self- sources of water and mineral salts. They have to grow theirfeeding’ or autotrophic. They contain chlorophyll (a green leaves so that they can catch the rays of the sun. Somepigment) and carry out photosynthesis. This means that they plants, such as the sensitive plant, also respond to touch, anduse energy from the sun to make their own food (pages 66–7). sunﬂowers twist each day to face the sun. Animals cannot make their own food. They need complex Animals respond to their surroundings, for example bycompounds that contain energy. They eat plants, or animals looking for food, while also avoiding being eaten themselves.which have eaten plants (pages 74–5). They are ‘other feeding’ They usually have special sense organs to help them pick upor heterotrophic. stimuli, and muscles with which to respond.6 introduction | matter, energy and living things | living and non-living things
(a) A praying mantis (b) Fish(c) Sunﬂowers facing the sun (d) A pig with her litterLiving things move Living things reproduceWithin plant and animal cells the material or protoplasm New organisms are formed by reproduction. To reproducemoves continually. The main way in which living things means to ‘make again’. It means that another organism,respond to stimuli is by the movement of parts of themselves. similar in many ways to the parent, is made and can liveIn contrast, a car moves when we make it move, it cannot separately. It would be very convenient if cars could alsomove on its own. reproduce, but unfortunately this is only a characteristic of Movement in living things may be easy to see, for example, living things.you move your hand away from a hot object, or an animal Organisms need to grow before they can reproduce. Theymoves around in search of food. The movement may also be have to become mature. We have seen that growth is a char-inside you, for example, the movement of your jaw or of your acteristic of living things. For example, ﬂowering plants growstomach as it churns up your food and helps to digest it. ﬂowers which produce pollen and eggs before they can repro- Plants have roots and they do not move around from one duce. Animals, such as ourselves, have to reach pubertyplace to another. But they can move parts of themselves. A before they are able to produce the sperm and eggs necessaryplant’s movements are usually very slow and they are for reproduction. This is called sexual reproduction (page 38).brought about by growth. A plant’s stem bends towards the Some organisms reproduce asexually. A part of the organ-light because it grows more on one side of the stem than on ism grows and becomes a new, separate organism (pages 39the other. and 73).Living things growLiving things can grow if they make or eat more food than is Questionsneeded for staying alive. New substances are built up in the 1 What is meant by (a) a living thing and (b) a non-livingbody, and the organism grows: it becomes bigger or more thing? Give an example of each.complex and increases in mass, length or width. 2 What are the seven characteristics of living things? Cars certainly do not grow, but we can say that crystals How is a non-living thing, such as a car, different from agrow (page 16). Crystals are non-living and they ‘grow’ in the living thing for each characteristic?sense that extra substances of the same kind are just added 3 What characteristics of living things are shown in pictures (a) to (d) above? (Note: each picture may show more thanto the outside. However, this is not at all like the growth in one characteristic.)living things.introduction | matter, energy and living things | living and non-living things 7
What are the units of measurement?A system of measurement mass, length (distance), time, force, pressure, energy, temper-There is a system of measurement which is used by most of ature and electricity. The table below gives the different typesthe leading nations of the world. The system is called the of measurements with their units and symbols which you areSystème International d’Unités or SI (metric) system and its likely to ﬁnd in the text. These units have been adopted by allunits are meant to replace all other types of units of meas- scientists and are essential for accuracy in the recording,urement. These measurements include measurements of transfer and interpretation of data. SI units Measurement Quantity Unit Symbol length, mass and time length metre m area square metre m2 volume cubic metre m3 mass kilogram kg density kilogram per metre cubed kg/m3 time second s frequency hertz (= per second) Hz force and pressure force newton N weight newton N moment of force newton metre Nm pressure pascal (= newton per square metre) Pa energy and heat energy joule J work joule (= newton metre) J power watt W temperature degree Celsius °C absolute temperature Kelvin K electricity electric current ampere A electromotive force volt V potential difference volt V resistance ohm Ω electrical energy joule JThere are certain preﬁxes that can be used to change the The table below gives a few examples of the powers of ten ofstandard unit of measurement. For example, the term kilo is large numbers and shows how the preﬁxes are used.used with metre to derive the term kilometre. Since kilo standsfor 1 000, a kilometre = one thousand metres. Multiple Preﬁx Symbol Example Often scientists use short forms of mathematical expres- 109 giga G gigawattsion to deal with very large or very small numbers. Numbers 106 mega M megajouleare expressed as powers of ten. For example, one hundred is 103 kilo k kilometreten to the power two (or ten squared): 100 10 10 102.8 introduction | matter, energy and living things | what are the units of measurement?
One metre can be divided into smaller units, for example into longer taught in our schools, they remain part of our every-one thousand parts, each of which is called a millimetre. The day experience and we still need to know how they relate topreﬁx milli means that the particular unit to which it is the new units we use more often. Here is how some of theattached is divided by one thousand. In the short form of older units relate to the metric system (SI units).mathematical expression, one hundredth is ten to the powerminus two: Unit How used Metric equivalent 1 1 2 Inch Length measure 2.54 cm 10100 102 Foot Length measure 30.48 cm Yard Length measure 0.9144 mThis table gives a few examples of the powers of ten for Furlong Length/distance measure 201.18 msmaller numbers and shows how the preﬁxes are used. Mile Length/distance measure 1.6093 km Mile per hour Speed measure 1.61 km/h Multiple Preﬁx Symbol Example Knot Speed measure 1.85 km/h 1 Pint (US) Volume measure 0.473 l 10 deci d decimetre 2 Gallon (US) Volume measure 3.79 l 10 centi c centimetre 3 Gallon (Imperial) Volume measure 4.55 l 10 milli m millimetre 6 Ounce Weight/mass measure 28.38 g 10 micro µ micrometre 9 Pound Weight/mass measure 0.454 kg 10 nano n nanosecond Pound/square inch Pressure measure 7.038 kPa Ton Weight/mass measure 1016.05 kgAre there other measurements in general use?A visit to the local grocery store or market place will soon Astronomical distancesreveal that many things are still sold in pounds and pints. Light year 9.45 1015 kmTailors still use inches, cloth is sold in yards and gallons of (The distance light travels in a year.)paint can be bought from the hardware store. Racehorses still Astronomical unit 149.6 106 kmrun furlongs, weather reports often give wind speeds in miles (The average distance of the Earth from the sun.)per hour and ships travel in knots. While these units are no Venus Mercury Sun Earth Mars astronomical unitintroduction | matter, energy and living things | what are the units of measurement? 9
How are living things built up?What are living things like inside? How do the various parts Inside the nucleuscarry out the processes of life? On pages 8–9 you saw how we Each cell has a dark area – the nucleus. The nucleus controlsmeasure in science. The cells which are the building blocks of the activities or processes of the cell. When we magnify theliving things are very small. We need to use a microscope to nucleus we see thread-like chromosomes. Below is a diagramsee them. of human chromosomes.Activity | Looking at plant and animal cells1 Pull away a little piece of the purple skin from the lower side of the long, green and purple leaf of Moses-in-the- 1 2 3 4 5 bulrushes (Rhoeo).2 Put it onto a microscope slide with a drop of water and 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 cover it with a cover-slip (see page 34).3 Examine your slide under the low power of the micro- 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 scope (see page 35) and see how many of the features shown in the plant cell below, you can see. Notice also 21 22 XY how the cells are ﬁtted together to make a tissue, in this case the lining skin of the plant. The diagram shows the chromosomes in the cells of a male.4 Your teacher will give you a slide with animal cells on it. There are 22 pairs (the ordinary chromosomes) and two chro- Examine your slide under the low power of the micro- mosomes left over, one of which is larger than the other. scope and see how many of the features shown in the These last two chromosomes are called the sex chromo- animal cell below, you can see. somes which are responsible for the differences between the sexes. The long one is called an X chromosome, and the Plant cell Animal cell shorter one is called a Y chromosome. All males have 22 pairs of chromosomes plus XY. All females have 22 pairs of chro- mosomes plus two X chromosomes, or XX.cellulosecell wall cell membrane Inside the chromosome mitochondria When scientists look at some chromosomes under greater magniﬁcation they see dark bands called genes. It is the cytoplasm genes which have the instructions for giving us our various characteristics. The picture below shows some genes on thelarge nucleus chromosomes of the fruit ﬂy, Drosophila.vacuole chlorophyll in small vacuoles chloroplastsSimilarities between plant and animal cells Both have anucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane and mitochondria. bands associated with particular genesDifferences Copy the table into your practical notebook andﬁll in the right-hand side by looking at the pictures above. Typical plant cells Typical animal cells Building up 1 Have a cellulose cell s Genes are found on chromosomes inside the nucleus of wall outside cell membrane cells. 2 Contain chlorophyll s Living cells are grouped together to make tissues, such as in chloroplasts packing tissue in plants, and muscles in animals. s Tissues are grouped together to make organs such as 3 Have large vacuoles with cell sap leaves in plants, and the stomach in animals. s Organs working together make up the whole organism.10 introduction | matter, energy and living things | how are living things built up?
Organs and systems in a mammal Matter, energy and living thingsThe photograph below shows a model of an elephant, cut Matter and energy make up our whole universe and make itaway to show the inside. The organs (complicated structures possible for things to work.made up of many tissues) carry out one or more jobs or func- Matter Matter is the material of which everything is made –tions. Examples of organs are the heart (pumping blood) and both living and non-living things. Matter makes up the thingsthe stomach (digesting food). around us. We can see matter, even though we need to uses Identify as many parts of the model as you can and talk special microscopes to look at cells, chromosomes and genes, with a partner about their functions. or to investigate the chemicals of which things are made. Matter has mass – though this mass may be very, very small. We will be introduced to what matter is made of on pages 16–19 and 22–5, and learn more throughout the course. Matter is the chemicals which are the building blocks that are put together in various ways to make living and non- living things. Energy We cannot see energy; we can only see or feel what it does. Energy also does not have mass. We see or feel the effect of different forms of energy, such as light, heat, sound, electricity and the energy of movement. Energy allows things to work. We will be introduced to the forms of energy on page 20, and learn more throughout the course. Activity | Matter and energySeveral organs also work together to make systems, such as 1 Look around you in the classroom and outside. Look forthe digestive system, the circulatory system, the nervous things made of matter – living and non-living. Search forsystem and the reproductive system. In this course you will different forms of energy that you cannot see, but knowlearn more about organs and systems, and their functions. are there because they are having some effect, such ass With a partner list the systems you know in a mammal, the wind blowing the trees. the organs which make them up, and the functions. 2 Copy this table into your notebook. A few examples of matter and energy have been ﬁlled in for you. Find otherOrgans and systems in a ﬂowering plant examples and put them in the correct columns.When we look at plants we can identify important organs,such as ﬂowers, leaves, stems and roots. The organs working Matter Energytogether above ground are sometimes called the shoot (material, things (the power to do worksystem – these are shown below in the photograph of Cassia that have mass) of some kind)(also known as the Pride of Barbados). The organs working Living things Non-living thingstogether underground are called the root system. Yourself Your desk Sound from a CDs With a partner list the organs in a ﬂowering plant and the Birds Your clothes Light from a bulb Flowers Clouds Warmth and light functions of each one. from the sun Trees Stones Living things Living things have a special ability: they are able to take their own energy from their surroundings – either by photosynthesis, or by taking in ready-made food. They then use this energy for all their activities, and for growth and reproduction. When living things lose this ability, they die. The variety of living things is introduced on pages 12–15, and you will learn more about the life processes throughout the course.introduction | matter, energy and living things | how are living things built up? 11
Who’s who among living things?Living things have basic characteristics which make them A typical plant A typical animaldifferent from non-living things (pages 6–7). All but the Uses simple inorganic Feeds on complexsimplest of living things are also built up from cells, tissues substances (page 66) to organic substances (page 66)and organs (pages 10–11). But living things show a great make its own food containing trapped energyvariety in their appearance and structure. These differences Has chlorophyll and can Does not have chlorophyllallow us to separate or classify them into many different carry out photosynthesis and cannot photosynthesisegroups. Does not digest food Has structures to digest food We will ﬁrst look at the important similarities and differ- Usually rooted in the ground Not rooted in the groundences between a plant (Pride of Barbados, which is a ﬂoweringplant) and an animal (a ﬁsh, which is an example of a verteb- Does not usually move Moves around to get foodrate). from place to place Has no nerve or muscle cells Has nerve and muscle cellsActivity | Comparing a plant and an animal Does not have special senses Has special sense organs1 Look back at the characteristics of living things (pages 6–7). Describe in your notebook why you think the plant and animal shown below are living. Classifying living things Viruses Coelenterates Algae Bacteria Roundworms Mosses Protists Flatworms Ferns Fungi Ringed worms Conifers Plants Molluscs Flowering plants Echinoderms Invertebrates Animals Arthropods Fish Amphibians Vertebrates Reptiles Birds Mammals Plants and animals make up a large part of the living things around us. There are also many other organisms which we cannot see unless we use an ordinary microscope or a micro- scope which uses electrons instead of light rays. Instrument Magniﬁcation Can see Naked eye Life size ( 1) Many multicellular organisms Hand lens 10 Cell as a dot Low power 100 Nucleus in a cell microscope High power 400 to 1 000 Some cell structures microscope2 Write down the different ways in which the plant and Electron 40 000 to 500 000 Internal structure animal carry out the characteristics of living things. For microscope of mitochondria example, how does each carry out nutrition? How do 100 cm = 1 m 1 000 µm (micrometres) = 1 mm their differences in appearance and structure affect how 10 mm = 1 cm 1 000 nm (nanometres) = 1 µm they carry out the characteristics of living things?12 introduction | matter, energy and living things | who’s who among living things? part 1
Part 1Viruses about 100 nm, seen only with electron microscope, no cell Protists about 10 µm–1 mm, some seen with low power, single-structure, can only reproduce inside living organisms. celled, with nucleus. Plant-like with chlorophyll, or animal-like. Inﬂuenza virus Tobacco mosaic disease virus Plant-like: diatom Animal-like: EntamoebaBacteria about 0.001 mm, seen under high power, single-celled or Fungi about 5 µm–20 cm, mostly many-celled with nuclei. Nojoined in chains, no nuclei. chlorophyll. Bacillus typhosus Vibrio (cholera) Pin mouldStreptococcus (sore throat) Yeast Mushroom (typhoid fever) on a banana PLANTS Small to very large, visible to the naked eye (i.e. without a microscope), many-celled with nuclei, chlorophyll, mostly stationary and rooted in the ground.Algae about 5 mm–100 cm, mostly small, no roots, stems or leaves. Flowering plants 5 cm–30 m, small to tree-like, roots, stems andThreads or divided sheets. leaves, reproduce by seeds inside ﬂowers. Monocotyledons Dicotyledons Spirogyra Narrow leaves with parallel Broad leaves with branching Sargassum veins. veins. green threads brown seaweed Bunch of small roots (ﬁbrous Main (tap) root with manyMosses about 5 mm–15 cm, simple roots, stems and leaves, repro- roots). branches.duce by spores. One seed leaf (cotyledon) in Two seed leaves (cotyledons) seed, for example, grass, in seed, for example, balsam, banana, coconut palm. Hibiscus, mango tree. Grass Moss ‘leaves’ Spore caseFerns about 5 cm–10 m, small to tree-like, roots, stems and leaves,reproduce by spores. Balsam Fern Spore cases Tree fern Banana HibiscusConifers about 5 m–30 m, mainly tree-like, roots, stems and leaves,reproduce by seeds inside cones. Coconut palm Pine tree Cone Mango treeintroduction | matter, energy and living things | who’s who among living things? part 1 13
Who’s who among living things? ANIMALS Small to large, visible to the naked eye, many-celled with nuclei, no chlorophyll, usually move around and feed on other organisms. INVERTEBRATES Animals without backbones. Mostly small. Either soft-bodied or with a hard outer case (exoskeleton).Coelenterates about 1 cm–many metres. Bag-like with tentacles Roundworms (nematodes) about 100 mm–30 cm. Body long andaround mouth, no legs. Live singly or in groups (coral). Most live thin, round in cross-section, no legs, no rings. Most are parasites,in the sea. others live in the soil. Hookworm Jellyﬁsh Coral Threadworm Sea anemoneMolluscs about 3 cm–30 cm. Soft body, undivided and often inside a Flatworms about 10 mm–5 m. Body long and thin, ﬂat in cross-shell, no legs. Some with tentacles. Most live in water, a few on land. section, no legs, no rings. Have hooks and suckers. Most are parasites of animals. Squid Blood ﬂuke Sea snail Slug TapewormEchinoderms about 10 cm–15 cm. Ball-shaped or star-shaped based Ringed worms about 5 cm–1 m. Body long and divided up by rings,on a ﬁve-part pattern, no legs, tough outer skin with spines. Live in round in cross-section, no legs. Most aquatic, others live in the soil.the sea. Leech Starﬁsh Sea urchin Sea worm Pheretima, an earthworm14 introduction | matter, energy and living things | who’s who among living things? part 2
Part 2INVERTEBRATES (continued)Arthropods Mainly small, crawling animals with a hard outer case (exoskeleton). The only invertebrates with jointed legs.Insects 3 pairs of legs, body Arachnids 4 pairs of legs, head Crustacea 4–10 pairs of legs, Myriapods More than 10 pairs ofdivided into head,thorax, and thorax joined, no wings. usually with shield over legs, body long and dividedabdomen, 2 pairs of wings. Some are parasites. Live on front of body, no wings, into segments, no wings.Live on land, for example, land, for example, spiders, breathe with gills. Mostly live Live on land, for example,butterﬂies, roaches, beetles, ticks and mites. in water, for example, crabs, centipedes and millipedes.termites and lice. shrimps, woodlice. Spider Centipede Butterﬂy CrabVERTEBRATES Animals with backbones. Skeleton inside the body (endoskeleton). Mostly large. Some live in water and have gills.Others live on land or in the air and have lungs. Land forms have four limbs.Fish Covered in scales. Live in water and breathe with gills. Stream- Birds Covered in feathers. Breathe with lungs. Live on land and inlined body and ﬁns for swimming. Eggs laid and develop in water, the air. Have wings for ﬂying. Eggs laid inside a hard shell in nests,for example, Nile perch, ﬂying ﬁsh, seahorse, shark. for example, vulture, egret, chicken, owl. Nile perch VultureAmphibians No skin outgrowths. Young stage (tadpole) lives in Mammals Covered in hair. Breathe with lungs. Most live on land,water, breathes with gills. Adult lives on land and in water, has 4 some live in water. Either walk (dog) or swim (whale). Eggs developlimbs and breathes with lungs. Eggs laid and develop in water or inside female, and the young are born. The young are fed on milk.moist places, for example, toads and frogs. Tadpole Dog Human Adult toadReptiles Covered in scales. Breathe with lungs. Most live on land,others in water. Either slide (snakes), swim (turtles), or walk Activity | Classifying organisms Look at pages 13–15. Read through the descriptions and look(lizards). Eggs laid inside a leathery shell on land. at the pictures of the organisms belonging to each of the groups. 1 Your teacher will give you some pictures or diagrams of living things. You should try to ﬁnd out which of the Lizard groups each one belongs to. 2 Collect pictures of living things and prepare some classiﬁ- Crocodile cation charts to stick on your classroom wall.introduction | matter, energy and living things | who’s who among living things? part 2 15
What is matter made of?Why do we need to know about matter? 3 Pour 1 cm3 of the diluted solution into the measuringThe world around us is made up of a vast number of different cylinder and dilute that to 10 cm3 by adding water.substances. Scientists want to know what both the similarit- 4 Repeat step 3 until the colour of the solution has disap-ies and the differences between substances are. They also peared.want to know why there are these similarities and differ-ences. They search for patterns in the behaviour of thesesubstances. For example, there may be substances which Questionsbehave in the same way – this may suggest that these contain 1 Do the crystals you have seen all have regular shapes?matter that behaves in the same way. To ﬁnd out about this 2 What happens to the potassium manganate(VII) as thewe need to investigate the substances in more detail to ﬁnd solution becomes more and more diluted?out what they are made of. This may help us to explain theproperties we observe. Activity | A crystal in water 1 Pour about 200 cm3 of water into a 250 cm3 beaker. Very carefully add one crystal of blue copper(II) sulphate. Leave the beaker for a few days. 2 Record your observations. Activity | Looking at bromine 1 Your teacher will place a drop of bromine at the bottom of a gas jar, and place another gas jar upside down on top of the ﬁrst. 2 Record your observations. Activity | Hydrogen chloride gas and ammonia gas 1 Your teacher will clamp a long glass tube horizontally and place one piece of cotton wool at each end of the tube. One piece of cotton wool is soaked in concentrated ammonia solution and the other in concentratedQuartz crystals which have grown naturally. Note the regular hydrochloric acid.shapes 2 The pieces of cotton wool will each give off a vapour – either ammonia gas or hydrogen chloride.Activity | Growing crystals 3 Record your observations. Do you think there has been a1 Make up some very concentrated solutions of copper reaction? sulphate and potassium aluminium sulphate (potash alum) in warm water. The white substance, ammonium chloride, is formed by the2 As the warm solutions cool, use a glass rod to put a few reaction of ammonia and hydrogen chloride. drops of each solution onto a glass slide and observe them using a microscope (page 35). These different Activities help us to think about matter. We3 Allow the solutions to cool and observe them every day can summarise as follows: for 4 to 5 days. You may need to use a seed crystal to Solid crystals form in regular shapes. When a coloured encourage crystal growth. crystal dissolves, the solution becomes less coloured (fainter)4 Record your observations. as it is diluted. The colour of a solid crystal spreads very slowly through water if it is left without stirring. However,Activity | Diluting a solution gases seem to move very quickly.1 Dissolve a small crystal of potassium manganate(VII) One way to explain these observations is to suggest that (potassium permanganate) in a small volume of water – matter is made up of very small particles. We can try to build about 10 cm3. up a picture of what is happening with these small particles.2 Pour 1 cm3 of the diluted solution into a small measuring We shall think further about what these particles might be in cylinder. Make this up to 10 cm3 by adding more water. Part 2.16 introduction | matter, energy and living things | what is matter made of? part 1
Part 1Solid crystals We can imagine that crystals are built up from HEATparticles arranged in regular patterns. As more and more Solid Liquid Gasparticles are joined together, the crystals get bigger and (ice) (water) (steam)bigger. The crystals grow until we see the regular shapeswhich are formed. We should also include what happens when steam is cooled to form water and water is frozen to form ice. HEAT Solid Liquid Gas (ice) (water) (steam) COOL Solid, liquid and gas are called the three states of matter. We know that we have to supply heat energy to change a solid into a liquid and a liquid into a gas. We can use this informa- tion to help us think about the way the particles are arranged in each of the three states of matter.This is how a crystal growsDiluted solutions Any one crystal of a solid such as potassium meltingmanganate(VII) may contain a large number of particles. Asthe solutions are made more and more dilute, there are fewerand fewer particles in each successive 10 cm3. This may Solid freezing Liquid Particles closeexplain why the colour of the solution gets fainter and Particles arranged but moving regularly. Very little quite freelyfainter. movementLiquids Particles in a liquid seem to move more slowly than condensing boilingthose in a gas. The colour of the blue copper sulphate spreadsslowly through water.Gases The colour of the bromine spreads quickly through thegas jar. This rapid spread suggests that the particles in a gas Gas Particlesmove quickly. far apart, The white ring of ammonium chloride is formed where the movingammonia particles collide and react with the hydrogen chlo- rapidlyride particles.Activity | What are the states of matter?1 Put a small cube of ice in a small beaker. Heat gently Particle arrangements in solids, liquids and gases until the solid becomes liquid. Now heat more strongly until the liquid boils. Stop heating and allow the liquid to cool. QuestionWhen ice (solid water) is heated, liquid water is formed.When water is boiled, steam is formed. Ice is a solid, water is 3 How would you deﬁne (a) a solid (b) a liquid and (c) a gas?a liquid and steam is a gas (vapour). We can summarise the 4 What kind of energy is needed to change a solid into a liquid and a liquid into a gas?changes you see in the states of matter in a diagram like theone in the next column.introduction | matter, energy and living things | what is matter made of? part 1 17
What is matter made of?What are the particles in matter? A molecule is the smallest part of a substance which can exist byIn the previous two pages we have looked at some of the itself and still show all the properties of that substance. Moleculesevidence for the existence of particles in matter. We have may contain atoms of the same element (an oxygen moleculeseen that the idea of particles can be used to explain our contains two atoms of oxygen) or atoms of different elements (aobservations. At this stage, even if we assume that there are carbon dioxide molecule contains one atom of carbon andparticles in matter, we cannot say anything about what these two atoms of oxygen).particles are. Scientists always search for explanations ofobservations, and a more detailed examination of matter Activity | What happens when elementsshows that we need to go beyond the simple idea of particles. combine? The idea of a basic building block in nature is very strong, We can examine the reaction between iron and sulphur asand the ﬁrst complete theory of matter was put forward by one example. The elements iron and sulphur contain atoms.John Dalton in the early 19th century. He proposed that the When the elements react, as we have seen, a new substance,smallest particles found in matter were atoms. An atom may iron sulphide, is formed. This new substance has propertiesbe thought of as the smallest particle of an element which can take which are different from those of either iron or sulphur.part in a chemical reaction. This deﬁnition assumes that you 1 Make a list of the obvious physical properties of both ironknow about elements. An element is a substance in which all of and sulphur.the atoms are the same.This means that the properties of the 2 Examine a sample of iron(II) sulphide.atoms of any one element should be the same, as well as 3 How would you try to test whether the properties ofdifferent from the properties of the atoms of any other iron(II) sulphide are different from those of iron andelement. Examples of some common elements are hydrogen, sulphur?copper, oxygen, carbon, iron, nitrogen, aluminium and silicon. We can consider a very simple reaction of two elements, Iron(II) sulphide contains two elements combined in someiron and sulphur. If these two elements are heated together way. It is a compound. Compounds are substances in which twostrongly, a new substance, iron sulphide, is formed. We can or more elements are combined in deﬁnite proportions by mass.display this information in the form of a word equation. You should notice that this deﬁnition does not tell usWord equations tell us what we start with and what new anything about the nature of the particles when a newsubstances are formed. Here the reactants are on the left- substance (compound) is formed by the reaction of two orhand side and the product(s) are on the right. In this case we more elements. In many cases, these may be molecules.have: 4 Consider the reactions of the following elements: iron sulphur → iron sulphide (a) Carbon and oxygen (b) Hydrogen and oxygenThe particles which take part in this reaction are atoms of (c) Aluminium and iodineiron and atoms of sulphur. The elements carbon and oxygen (d) Iron and chlorine.react together to form the new substance, carbon dioxide: 5 What would you expect to be the name of the new substance (compound) formed in each case? carbon oxygen → carbon dioxide 6 Write a word equation for each reaction.Atoms of carbon react with molecules of oxygen to form Many of the common gases are elements, such as oxygen,molecules of carbon dioxide. In the Activities you carried out nitrogen and chlorine. In these elements, the particles foundin Part 1, the particles are mostly molecules. are molecules, in which two atoms are combined. Questions 3 Hydrogen chloride and ammonia are gases. Each is a compound 1 How would you deﬁne (a) an atom (b) an element and containing hydrogen. What would you expect to be the nature of (c) a molecule? the particles in these gases? 2 Name as many elements as you can that exist as gases at 4 When sodium reacts with chlorine, sodium chloride (common room temperature. salt) is formed. Write a word equation for this reaction.18 introduction | matter, energy and living things | what is matter made of? part 2
Part 2What are atoms made of?Atoms were thought of as very small particles once Dalton’stheory had been accepted. However, towards the end of the electron19th century, there was evidence to suggest that there might nucleusbe smaller particles still. A series of key experiments wascarried out early in the 20th century by Rutherford. In one ofthese, he started with a very, very thin piece of gold foil anddirected a stream of radioactive particles at the foil. There hydrogen atomwere some very interesting observations:1 Many of the particles passed through the foil without being deﬂected at all.2 A very small number of the particles (which were posi- tively charged) were reﬂected back in the direction from which they had come.Rutherford needed to ﬁnd an explanation of these observa-tions and he developed a model of the atom which is still thebasis for much of our understanding of basic chemistry. helium atomFirstly, he assumed that most of the mass of the atomconsists of a small, dense nucleus. (If the nucleus is positivelycharged, this would account for the reﬂection of a smallnumber of positively charged particles – like charges repel.) This small, dense nucleus is surrounded by much smallerparticles, mostly at a considerable distance from the nucleus.(This would leave a good deal of empty space, and couldaccount for the fact that most particles passed through thefoil.) This model is often called the solar system model of theatom, since it is similar to the model of our solar system in carbon atomwhich the sun can be thought of as the ‘nucleus’ of thesystem of planets. One of the problems with the early Rutherford model wasthat no-one was sure what would happen to the very small,negatively charged particles outside the nucleus. Commonsense suggested that these should be attracted towards thesmall positively charged nucleus – unlike charges attract –and then the atom would collapse! Further development of the model involved the followingideas:1 The small, positively charged nucleus contained two different particles: (a) Protons, with a single positive charge and a mass of 1 on a given scale. (b) Neutrons, with no charge and a mass the same as that of the proton.2 The particles outside the nucleus were very light (mass very much less than that of the protons and neutrons) and bromine atom had a single negative charge. These electrons were found at ﬁxed distances from the nucleus, such that successive Electron arrangements are often represented by diagrams. These are shells of electrons were built up as atoms became heavier. not meant to be like photographs, showing exactly what real atoms (There are now at least 115 known elements, some of look like. Instead, they are intended to help us understand the them found only in a laboratory.) structure of the atomintroduction | matter, energy and living things | what is matter made of? part 2 19
What is energy?It is very difﬁcult to ﬁnd a precise yet complete deﬁnition of Similarly, energy is stored in a spring when a clock is woundthe term energy. Energy is described in terms of what it can up. This energy keeps the mechanism of the clock running.do, like the purchasing power of money, so energy may be The head of a match is made of chemicals, which storedeﬁned as the capacity for doing work. chemical energy. When the chemicals are activated, the You may know that there are different forms of energy, chemical energy can be converted into heat energy.such as potential or stored energy, and kinetic energy whichis energy in the motion of a body. Activity | Chemical energy Heat the tip of a pin until it is red-hot. While it is still red-Activity | How can energy be stored? hot, touch it quickly to a match head. Observe what1 Build a toy tank like this, from a cotton reel, a rubber happens. Do you think the energy released by the match is band made from an old bicycle inner tube and some more than that in the red-hot pin? spent matches. Paper, wood, gas and oil can all be considered as stores of chemical energy. Under the right conditions this energy can be released and used. The electrochemical cell is also a store of chemical energy. Here chemical energy is converted mostly into electrical energy (pages 172–3). cotton reel rubber band In raising a weight up to a height, work is done on the weight. If the weight is allowed to fall it gives up its energy shaft mainly as heat when it falls to the ground. Similarly, water is A B raised from the sea by evaporation to form clouds. Water vapour condenses and falls as rain, which may produce streams and rivers. In many foreign countries outside the Caribbean, for example Canada, water on high ground is collected into a dam. The large amount of potential energy due to the height of the water is used to power water turbines, which generate electricity. hole tin tack rubber band What are the forms of energy? Sid e A Side B Energy appears in different forms, such as in the vibration of particles of matter, causing a temperature increase (heat); inMaking a cotton reel tank the production of electromagnetic radiation such as light, heat and radio waves; in the movement of electrons through The length of the rubber band should be less than that of matter (electricity) and in the displacement (movement) of the reel. Insert and pull one end of the band through to matter (mechanical energy). Other forms of energy include side B and insert the shaft. The shaft must be about two magnetic energy and sound energy. to three times the diameter of side B. Sometimes we produce certain forms of energy from2 Hammer small tacks into side A to prevent the stick at A others that may be more abundant, for example chemical from spinning. Lubricate side B with parafﬁn wax (candle energy in oil is changed to heat energy by burning, then into wax). electrical energy for us to use as shown at the top of page 21.3 Hold the tank in one hand with side B uppermost. Turn the shaft in a circle several times. This twists the rubber How is energy measured? band. Place the tank on the ground. It will move forward Energy is measured by the amount of work it can do. Work as the rubber band slowly untwists. may involve producing motion, overcoming gravitational force, a change of state (for example, water into steam), radi-Energy is stored in the rubber band as it is twisted. The ation (for example, production of light), overcomingenergy is made to do the work of moving the toy tank along frictional forces, or countering motion. The unit of work andas the rubber band untwists. Potential energy is converted energy is the joule.The joule is the work done when a weight ofinto kinetic energy. one newton is raised to a height of one metre.20 introduction | matter, energy and living things | what is energy?
water boiler steam air oil turbine generatorGenerating electrical power from oilWhat is nuclear energy? An extremely large amount of energy is produced from aIn the late 19th century and the early part of the 20th relatively small amount of matter.century, scientists found that some elements emit light and The type of nuclear reaction described above is calledother types of radiation. These elements are called radioact- nuclear ﬁssion, because matter is disintegrated. The otherive substances. Furthermore, some of these substances type of nuclear reaction known is called nuclear fusion andchange into other new elements because they emit alpha and this gives a much higher output of energy. The nuclear reac-beta particles. This process is called radioactive decay. Some tions in the sun (page 194) are of the fusion type. Many of theelements are naturally unstable and these slowly break nuclear weapons stockpiled during the Cold War also useddown, losing energy in the radiation emitted. nuclear fusion. For fusion reactions to occur continuously, a One of the denser metals, uranium, exists mainly in two temperature of 60 million °C or higher is required. Theseforms, called isotopes. Isotopes are forms of the same temperatures exist typically in the centre of stars.element. They have identical chemical properties but theirnuclei have different numbers of particles in them. What are the dangers of nuclear energy? One gram of nuclear The lighter isotope of uranium has an atomic mass of 235 fuel is over a million times more powerful than one gram ofand the denser isotope has an atomic mass of 238. The lighter any other ordinary fuel. It therefore has a tremendous powerisotope can be made to disintegrate by bombarding it with output, which can be used destructively in war, or usefully inneutrons. When this happens the uranium splits up into nuclear power plants to help solve the world’s energylighter elements such as barium and krypton, and releases problem.two neutrons and an enormous amount of energy. This is the However, some major problems remain to be overcome.energy that binds nuclear particles together and is called When nuclear energy is produced in nuclear power stations,nuclear energy. radioactive waste materials are also produced. These waste Nuclear energy is the most concentrated form of energy materials send out harmful radiation, which is damaging toknown. In this type of energy matter is directly converted all living organisms. There is a serious problem in ﬁndinginto energy according to Einstein’s equation e = mc2 where adequate means of getting rid of this waste because it wille = energy, m = mass, c = universal constant (speed of light). remain harmful for hundreds or even thousands of years. barium 144 n n Questions n 235 energy 1 Trace the energy that lights an electric bulb from its source, neutron namely the sun. uranium 2 Are sea waves powered by the sun? atom 90 krypton 3 Would you recommend the introduction of nuclear power plants in the Caribbean?Where nuclear energy comes fromintroduction | matter, energy and living things | what is energy? 21
How can matter change?How can matter be changed? How can we show changes in matter?In the ﬁrst few years of your school science course you will When crystals of blue copper sulphate are heated, a whitealmost certainly have seen experiments in which matter has solid is formed. The gas given off condenses on the cool partbeen changed. These changes usually involve one of the of the tube and a colourless liquid is formed. The originalforms of energy – see page 20. blue crystals are hydrated copper sulphate; the white solid is The most obvious way of causing a change in matter is to anhydrous copper sulphate. The liquid formed is water.heat it. If you heat blue copper sulphate crystals, water is When a piece of magnesium ribbon is held in a Bunsendriven off, and a solid white substance (anhydrous copper ﬂame, it begins to burn rapidly as soon as it is hot enough.sulphate) is left. If magnesium is heated, it burns, giving out Intense white light can be seen and heat energy is given out.very intense white light. A great deal of heat is given out too. The magnesium combines with the oxygen in the air to form If electricity is passed through dilute hydrochloric acid, a new substance, magnesium oxide. We can summarise thebubbles of gas are given off at each electrode. The electrical information we get from our observations by writing a wordenergy supplied causes this change. equation, but now we also say something about the energy We can also cause changes by mixing solutions together. involved.These must contain chemical substances which react with heateach other. If iodine solution is added to starch solution a (1) blue copper sulphatevery striking blue-black substance is formed. This is a good white copper sulphate steamtest for the presence of iodine.You can also add a solid to a heatliquid, such as water or an acid. Magnesium metal will react (2) magnesium oxygenwith dilute acid and hydrogen is formed. magnesium oxide energy We can try to summarise this as follows. Matter can bechanged by supplying energy or by the chemical reaction of one Magnesium and oxygen are called the reactants, and magne-substance with another. In each case, we start with one or more sium oxide is the product. In reaction 1, what is the reactantsubstances and we end up with one or more new substances. and what are the products? State symbols tell us about the physical state of each reac- tant and product. Blue copper sulphate is a solid, so we can water with a little write this as copper sulphate (s). Steam is water in the gas acid added state so we write this as water (g). Water itself is a liquid, so we write this as water (l). We can show changes in matter by writing more complete word equations, including the state symbols. oxygen hydrogen heat (1) blue coppper sulphate (s) white copper sulphate (s) water (g) heat (2) magnesium (s) + oxygen (g) magnesium oxide (s) If you include the energy involved you have added a little anode cathode more information and the equation may be more useful. + – If a substance is dissolved in water, we say that it is in aqueous solution. We write the symbol (aq) after the substance to show this. When ammonia gas is dissolved in water we write this as ammonia (aq). When starch solution rheostat to reacts with iodine solution, we write the word equation as: battery providing adjust the current electricity + – starch (aq) iodine (aq) → blue-black substance (aq)Electricity is used to break water down into its elements: oxygen and When you investigate chemical reactions, you should alwayshydrogen try to write word equations for the reactions.22 introduction | matter, energy and living things | how can matter change?
How can we classify substances? can exist and still show the properties of the substance.On page 18 an element was deﬁned as a substance in which Water is formed when two molecules of hydrogen react withall of the atoms are the same. We can deﬁne elements more one molecule of oxygen to form two molecules of water.simply. When substances break down into two or moresimpler substances we say that they decompose. These The word equation is:simpler substances can sometimes be broken down into even hydrogen (g) oxygen (g) → water (l)simpler substances. At some stage it will not be possible tobreak the substances down any further. When this happens We can show this in a diagram like this:we say that the substances are elements: they cannot bebroken down any further by chemical means. An element is the Hydrogen (g) + Oxygen (g) Water (l)simplest substance which can be obtained by decomposition. 2 molecules 1 molecule 2 molecules The substance magnesium oxide contains two elements –magnesium and oxygen. Blue copper sulphate contains fourelements – copper, sulphur, oxygen and hydrogen. Whitecopper sulphate does not contain water, so there is no hydro-gen present. It contains three elements – copper, sulphur andoxygen. Both magnesium oxide and copper sulphate areexamples of substances called compounds. Compoundsconsist of two or more elements. The elements in compounds arecombined together in ﬁxed proportions by mass. Compounds suchas blue copper sulphate can be broken down into simpler 2H2 + O2 2H2Osubstances by heat energy. Elements are joined together chemically in compounds. Water isa compound containing the two elements, hydrogen and Carbon reacts with oxygen to form carbon dioxide. Carbon isoxygen, in ﬁxed proportions. It is possible to mix the two a solid and oxygen is a gas. The word equation is:gases, hydrogen and oxygen, together, and obtain a mixture ofthe two gases. The properties of the mixture are not the same carbon (s) + oxygen (g) → carbon dioxide (g)as those of the compound. The mixture can contain the gasesin any proportions, and the gases are not combined chemi- One atom of carbon reacts with one molecule of oxygen to formcally. one molecule of carbon dioxide gas. Mixtures can contain elements or compounds or some combina-tion of the two. The substances in a mixture are not chemicallycombined. Carbon (s) + Oxygen (g) Carbon dioxide (g) Questions 1 atom 1 molecule 1 molecule 1 Deﬁne the following terms and provide an example: (a) decomposition (b) element (c) mixture and (d) compound. 2 Which of the following are compounds: (a) water (b) carbon dioxide (c) rum (d) air and (e) sodium chloride? C + O2 CO2How do substances combine?When hydrogen reacts with oxygen a new substance isformed – water. The properties of this new substance are not Most of the common gases are found as molecules. Eachthe same as those of either hydrogen or oxygen. We can try to molecule of oxygen contains two atoms. Ammonia gasexplain this by suggesting that there are new particles formed contains nitrogen and hydrogen. Each molecule of ammoniawhen the particles of hydrogen and oxygen react. These contains one atom of nitrogen and three atoms of hydrogen.‘compound particles’ are called molecules. On page 18 we When new substances are formed, new particles are formed.deﬁned a molecule as the smallest part of a substance which The new particles may be molecules but this is not always so.introduction | matter, energy and living things | how can matter change? 23