On this SlideShare page, you will find several Power Point presentations, one for eachof the most popular essays to read a...
Wilderness 1Photos by Craig Meyers, Rebecca Kauten, Erv Klaas, Carl Kurtz,Kay Niyo, Jim Pease, and Don Wishart
Wilderness is the raw material out of which man has hammered theartifact called civilization.                             ...
Wilderness was never a homogeneous raw material. It was verydiverse, and the resulting artifacts are very diverse. These d...
For the first time in the history of the human species, two changes arenow impending. One is the exhaustion of wilderness ...
To the laborer in the sweat of his labor, the raw stuff on his anvil is anadversary to be conquered. So was wilderness an ...
But to the laborer in repose, able for themoment to cast a philosophical eye on hisworld, that same raw stuff is something...
This is a plea for the preservation of some tag-end of wilderness, asmuseum pieces, for the edification of those who may o...
The RemnantsMany of the diverse wildernesses out of which we havehammered America are already gone; hence in any practical...
No living man will see again the long-grass prairie, where a sea ofprairie flowers lapped at the stirrups of the pioneer. ...
But the short-grass prairie, where Cabeza de Vaca saw the horizonunder the bellies of the buffalo, is still extant in a fe...
Of the coastal prairie there is one block in Florida, and one inTexas, but oil wells, onion fields and citrus groves are c...
No living man will see again the virgin pineries of the Lake States, orthe flatwoods of the coastal plain, or the giant ha...
Few of these tag-ends aresecure from prospectivecuttings, and fewer still fromprospective tourist roads.                  ...
One of the fastest-shrinking categories of wilderness is coastlines.Cottages and tourist roads have all but annihilated wi...
No single kind of wilderness is more intimatelyinterwoven with history, and none nearer the point ofcomplete disappearance...
In all of North America east of the Rockies, there is only one largearea formally reserved as a wilderness: the Quetico-Su...
This magnificent block of canoe-country, amosaic of lakes and rivers, lies mostly inCanada, and can be about as large as C...
the growth of fishing resorts served by pontoon-equipped airplanes,and a jurisdictional dispute whether the Minnesota end ...
The whole region is in danger of power impoundments, and thisregrettable cleavage among proponents of wilderness may endin...
In the Rocky Mountain states, a score of areas in the NationalForests, varying in size from a hundred thousand to half a m...
In the National Parks the same principle is recognized, but nospecific boundaries are delimited.                          ...
Collectively, these federal areas are the backbone of the wildernessprogram, but they are not so secure as the paper recor...
There is perennial pressure for extension of roads for forest-firecontrol, and these, by slow degrees, become public highw...
Idle CCC camps presented a widespread temptation to build new andoften needless roads. Lumber shortages during the war gav...
At the present moment, ski-tows and ski-hotels are beingpromoted in many mountain areas, often without regard to theirprio...
One of the most insidious invasions of wilderness is via predatorcontrol.                                                 ...
It works thus: wolves and lions are cleaned out of a wilderness area inthe interest of big-game management. The big-game h...
Hunters must then be encouraged to harvest the surplus, but modernhunters refuse to operate far from a car; hence a road m...
The Rocky Mountain system of wilderness areas covers a wide gamut offorest types, from the juniper breaks of the Southwest...
In Canada and Alaska there are still large expanses of virgincountry “where nameless men by nameless rivers wander and ins...
A representative series of theseareas can, and should be kept.                                   Pease
Many are of negligible or negative value for economic use. It will becontended, of course, that no deliberate planning to ...
All recent history belies so comforting an assumption. Even if wildspecies do survive, what of their fauna?               ...
The woodland caribou, the several races of mountain sheep, thepure form of woods buffalo, the barren ground grizzly, thefr...
The recently organized Arctic Institute has embarked on theindustrialization of the Arctic wastes, with excellent chances ...
To what extent Canada and Alaska will be able to see and grasp theiropportunities is anybody’s guess. Pioneers usually sco...
Wilderness for RecreationPhysical combat for the means of subsistence was, for un-numberedcenturies, an economic fact. Whe...
Physical combat between men and beasts was, in like manner, aneconomic fact, now preserved as hunting and fishing for spor...
Public wilderness areas are, first of all, a means of perpetuating,in sport form, the more virile and primitive skills in ...
Two of them, however, are as American as a hickory tree; theyhave been copied elsewhere, but they were developed to their ...
Your Hudson Bay Indian now has a put-put, andyour mountaineer a Ford.If I had to make a living by canoe or packhorse, Isho...
But we who seek wilderness travel for sport are foiled whenwe are forced to compete with mechanized substitutes. It isfoot...
Wilderness areas are first of all a series of sanctuaries for theprimitive arts of wilderness travel, especially canoeing ...
I suppose some will wish to debate whether it is important to keepthese primitive arts alive. I shall not debate it. Eithe...
European hunting and fishing are largely devoid of the thing thatwilderness areas might be the means of preserving in this...
Europeans do not camp, cook, or do their own work in the woods ifthey can avoid doing so. Work chores are delegated to bea...
The test of skill is confined largely to the actual taking of game orfish.                                                ...
There are those who decry wilderness sports as ‘undemocratic’because the recreational carrying capacity of a wilderness is...
The basic error in such an argument is that it applies thephilosophy of mass-production to what is intended tocounteract m...
The value of recreation is not amatter of ciphers. Recreation isvaluable in proportion to theintensity of its experiences,...
Photo Credits•Historic photographs: Aldo Leopold Foundation archives•A Sand County Almanac photographs by Michael Sewell•D...
Wilderness (part 1)
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Wilderness (part 1)

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This is part 1 of Leopold's essay "Wilderness" paired with beautiful images. This presentation can be used as a backdrop to help illustrate public readings of the essay.

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Wilderness (part 1)

  1. 1. On this SlideShare page, you will find several Power Point presentations, one for eachof the most popular essays to read aloud from A Sand County Almanac at Aldo LeopoldWeekend events. Each presentation has the essay text right on the slides, paired withbeautiful images that help add a visual element to public readings. Dave Winefske (AldoLeopold Weekend event planner from Argyle, Wisconsin) gets credit for putting thesetogether. Thanks Dave!A note on images within the presentations: we have only received permission to usethese images within these presentations, as part of this event. You will see a photo creditslide as the last image in every presentation. Please be sure to show that slide to youraudience at least once, and if you dont mind leaving it up to show at the end of eachessay, that is best. Also please note that we do not have permission to use these imagesoutside of Aldo Leopold Weekend reading event presentations. For example, the imagesthat come from the Aldo Leopold Foundation archive are not “public domain,” yet we seeunauthorized uses of them all the time on the internet. So, hopefully that’s enough saidon this topic—if you have any questions, just let us know. mail@aldoleopold.orgIf you download these presentations to use in your event, feel free to delete this introslide before showing to your audience.
  2. 2. Wilderness 1Photos by Craig Meyers, Rebecca Kauten, Erv Klaas, Carl Kurtz,Kay Niyo, Jim Pease, and Don Wishart
  3. 3. Wilderness is the raw material out of which man has hammered theartifact called civilization. Kurtz
  4. 4. Wilderness was never a homogeneous raw material. It was verydiverse, and the resulting artifacts are very diverse. These differencesin the end-product are known as cultures. The rich diversity of theworld’s cultures reflects a corresponding diversity in the wilds thatgave them birth. Kurtz
  5. 5. For the first time in the history of the human species, two changes arenow impending. One is the exhaustion of wilderness in the morehabitable portions of the globe. The other is the world-widehybridization of cultures through modern transport andindustrialization. Neither can be prevented, and perhaps should notbe, but the question arises whether, by some slight amelioration of theimpending changes, certain values can be preserved that wouldotherwise be lost. Pease
  6. 6. To the laborer in the sweat of his labor, the raw stuff on his anvil is anadversary to be conquered. So was wilderness an adversary to thepioneer. Pease
  7. 7. But to the laborer in repose, able for themoment to cast a philosophical eye on hisworld, that same raw stuff is something to beloved and cherished, because it gives definitionand meaning to his life. Pease
  8. 8. This is a plea for the preservation of some tag-end of wilderness, asmuseum pieces, for the edification of those who may one day wish tosee, feel, or study the origins of their cultural inheritance. Kurtz
  9. 9. The RemnantsMany of the diverse wildernesses out of which we havehammered America are already gone; hence in any practicalprogram the unit areas to be preserved must vary greatly insize and in degree of wildness. Pease
  10. 10. No living man will see again the long-grass prairie, where a sea ofprairie flowers lapped at the stirrups of the pioneer. We shall do wellto find a forty here and there on which the prairie plants can be keptalive as species. There were a hundred such plants, many ofexceptional beauty. Most of them are quite unknown to those whohave inherited their domain. Kurtz
  11. 11. But the short-grass prairie, where Cabeza de Vaca saw the horizonunder the bellies of the buffalo, is still extant in a few spots of10,000-acre size, albeit severely chewed up by sheep cattle, anddry-farmers. If the forty-niners are worth commemorating on thewalls of state capitols, is not the scene of their mighty hegira worthcommemorating in several national prairie reservations? Kurtz
  12. 12. Of the coastal prairie there is one block in Florida, and one inTexas, but oil wells, onion fields and citrus groves are closing in,armed to the teach with drills and bulldozers. It is last call. Kurtz
  13. 13. No living man will see again the virgin pineries of the Lake States, orthe flatwoods of the coastal plain, or the giant hardwoods; of these,samples of a few acres each will have to suffice. But there areseveral blocks of maple-hemlock of thousand-acre size; there aresimilar blocks of Appalachian hardwoods, of southern hardwoodswamp, of cypress swamp, and of Adirondack spruce. Pease
  14. 14. Few of these tag-ends aresecure from prospectivecuttings, and fewer still fromprospective tourist roads. Pease
  15. 15. One of the fastest-shrinking categories of wilderness is coastlines.Cottages and tourist roads have all but annihilated wild coasts onboth oceans, and Lake Superior is now losing the last largeremnant of wild shoreline on the Great Lakes. Pease
  16. 16. No single kind of wilderness is more intimatelyinterwoven with history, and none nearer the point ofcomplete disappearance. Pease
  17. 17. In all of North America east of the Rockies, there is only one largearea formally reserved as a wilderness: the Quetico-SuperiorInternational Park in Minnesota and Ontario. Pease
  18. 18. This magnificent block of canoe-country, amosaic of lakes and rivers, lies mostly inCanada, and can be about as large as Canadachooses to make it, but its integrity isthreatened by two recent developments: Pease
  19. 19. the growth of fishing resorts served by pontoon-equipped airplanes,and a jurisdictional dispute whether the Minnesota end of the areashall be all National Forest, or partly State Forest. Pease
  20. 20. The whole region is in danger of power impoundments, and thisregrettable cleavage among proponents of wilderness may endin giving power the whip-hand. Pease
  21. 21. In the Rocky Mountain states, a score of areas in the NationalForests, varying in size from a hundred thousand to half a millionacres, are withdrawn as wilderness, and closed to roads, hotels,and other inimical uses. Klaas
  22. 22. In the National Parks the same principle is recognized, but nospecific boundaries are delimited. Klaas
  23. 23. Collectively, these federal areas are the backbone of the wildernessprogram, but they are not so secure as the paper record might leadone to believe. Local pressures for new tourist roads knock off achip here and slab there. Klaas
  24. 24. There is perennial pressure for extension of roads for forest-firecontrol, and these, by slow degrees, become public highways. Klaas
  25. 25. Idle CCC camps presented a widespread temptation to build new andoften needless roads. Lumber shortages during the war gave theimpetus of military necessity to many road extensions, legitimateand otherwise. Niyo
  26. 26. At the present moment, ski-tows and ski-hotels are beingpromoted in many mountain areas, often without regard to theirprior designation as wilderness. Niyo
  27. 27. One of the most insidious invasions of wilderness is via predatorcontrol. Niyo
  28. 28. It works thus: wolves and lions are cleaned out of a wilderness area inthe interest of big-game management. The big-game herds (usually deeror elk) then increase to the point of over-browsing their range. Kurtz
  29. 29. Hunters must then be encouraged to harvest the surplus, but modernhunters refuse to operate far from a car; hence a road must be built toprovide access to the surplus game. Again and again, wilderness areashave been split by this process, but it still continues. Pease
  30. 30. The Rocky Mountain system of wilderness areas covers a wide gamut offorest types, from the juniper breaks of the Southwest to the ‘illimitablewoods where rolls the Oregon.’ It is lacking, however, in desert areas,probably because of that under-aged brand of esthetics which limits thedefinition of ‘scenery’ to lakes and pine trees. Klaas
  31. 31. In Canada and Alaska there are still large expanses of virgincountry “where nameless men by nameless rivers wander and instrange valleys die strange deaths alone. Pease
  32. 32. A representative series of theseareas can, and should be kept. Pease
  33. 33. Many are of negligible or negative value for economic use. It will becontended, of course, that no deliberate planning to this end isnecessary; that adequate areas will survive anyhow. Pease
  34. 34. All recent history belies so comforting an assumption. Even if wildspecies do survive, what of their fauna? Kurtz
  35. 35. The woodland caribou, the several races of mountain sheep, thepure form of woods buffalo, the barren ground grizzly, thefreshwater seals, and the whales are even now threatened. Of whatuse are wild areas destitute of their distinctive faunas. Pease
  36. 36. The recently organized Arctic Institute has embarked on theindustrialization of the Arctic wastes, with excellent chances ofenough success to ruin them as wilderness. It is last call, even inthe Far North. Wishart
  37. 37. To what extent Canada and Alaska will be able to see and grasp theiropportunities is anybody’s guess. Pioneers usually scoff at anyeffort to perpetuate pioneering. Pease
  38. 38. Wilderness for RecreationPhysical combat for the means of subsistence was, for un-numberedcenturies, an economic fact. When it disappeared as such, as soundinstinct led us to preserve it in the form of athletic sports and games. Wishart
  39. 39. Physical combat between men and beasts was, in like manner, aneconomic fact, now preserved as hunting and fishing for sport. Pease
  40. 40. Public wilderness areas are, first of all, a means of perpetuating,in sport form, the more virile and primitive skills in pioneeringtravel and subsistence. Some of these skills are of generalizeddistribution; the details have been adapted to the Americanscene, but the skill is world-wide. Hunting, fishing, and foot travelby pack are examples. Wishart
  41. 41. Two of them, however, are as American as a hickory tree; theyhave been copied elsewhere, but they were developed to their fullperfection only on this continent. One of these is canoe travel,and the other is travel by pack-train. Both are shrinking rapidly. Meyers
  42. 42. Your Hudson Bay Indian now has a put-put, andyour mountaineer a Ford.If I had to make a living by canoe or packhorse, Ishould likely do likewise, for both are grueling labor Pease
  43. 43. But we who seek wilderness travel for sport are foiled whenwe are forced to compete with mechanized substitutes. It isfootless to execute a portage to the tune of motor launches,or to turn out your bell-mare in the pasture of a summer hotel.It is better to stay home. Pease
  44. 44. Wilderness areas are first of all a series of sanctuaries for theprimitive arts of wilderness travel, especially canoeing andpacking. Kauten
  45. 45. I suppose some will wish to debate whether it is important to keepthese primitive arts alive. I shall not debate it. Either you know itin your bones, or you are very, very old. Kauten
  46. 46. European hunting and fishing are largely devoid of the thing thatwilderness areas might be the means of preserving in this country. Kurtz
  47. 47. Europeans do not camp, cook, or do their own work in the woods ifthey can avoid doing so. Work chores are delegated to beaters andservants, and a hunt carries the atmosphere of a picnic rather thanof pioneering. Pease
  48. 48. The test of skill is confined largely to the actual taking of game orfish. Kauten
  49. 49. There are those who decry wilderness sports as ‘undemocratic’because the recreational carrying capacity of a wilderness is small,as compared with a golf links or a tourist camp. Pease
  50. 50. The basic error in such an argument is that it applies thephilosophy of mass-production to what is intended tocounteract mass-production. Pease
  51. 51. The value of recreation is not amatter of ciphers. Recreation isvaluable in proportion to theintensity of its experiences, andto the degree to which itdiffers from and contrasts withworkaday life. By these criteria,mechanized outings are at best amilk-and-water affair. Mechanized recreation alreadyhas seized nine-tenths of thewoods and mountains; a decentrespect for minorities shoulddedicate the other tenth towilderness. Pease
  52. 52. Photo Credits•Historic photographs: Aldo Leopold Foundation archives•A Sand County Almanac photographs by Michael Sewell•David Wisnefske, Sugar River Valley Pheasants Forever, Wisconsin Environmental Education Board, WisconsinEnvironmental Education Foundation, Argyle Land Ethic Academy (ALEA)•UW Stevens Point Freckmann Herbarium, R. Freckmann, V.Kline, E. Judziewicz, K. Kohout, D. Lee, K Sytma, R.Kowal, P. Drobot, D. Woodland, A. Meeks, R. Bierman•Curt Meine, (Aldo Leopold Biographer)•Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Environmental Education for Kids (EEK)•Hays Cummins, Miami of Ohio University•Leopold Education Project, Ed Pembleton•Bird Pictures by Bill Schmoker•Pheasants Forever, Roger Hill•Ruffed Grouse Society•US Fish and Wildlife Service and US Forest Service•Eric Engbretson•James Kurz•Owen Gromme Collection•John White & Douglas Cooper•National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)•Ohio State University Extension, Buckeye Yard and Garden Online•New Jersey University, John Muir Society, Artchive.com, and Labor Law Talk

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