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Students’ use of
lecture capture

leonie.sloman@kcl.ac.uk
@leonie_learning
@leonie_learning

Contents
1. Background: project scope, aims, previous studies & data sources.
2. Proportion of medical s...
@leonie_learning

Background
@leonie_learning

Project scope
• Research undertaken as part of King’s College
London, Technology -Enhanced Learning fund...
@leonie_learning

Project aims
• To understand how Year 1 & 2 medical students and
Year 1 biomedical science students are ...
@leonie_learning

Previous studies
Many studies that rely on student self-report
Particularly recommended:

• Gosper et al...
@leonie_learning

Studies using server-log data
Particularly recommended:

• Gorrissen, van Bruggen & Jochems (2013): comp...
@leonie_learning

Data sources (2012-13)
Nov

Dec

mini
poll

Lecturer
self-report

Jan

Feb

Mar

focus groups

Apr

May
...
@leonie_learning

Do students use
the recordings?
@leonie_learning

At least

94% of medical students

accessed the recordings.

* 806 of 856 MBBS 1 & 2 students accessed b...
@leonie_learning

How much do
students use
recordings?
@leonie_learning

How many lectures did medical
students access?
Approx

160 lectures recorded for each year
Less than 40 ...
@leonie_learning

number of students

How many lectures did medical
students access?
200
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0...
@leonie_learning

Reliability: reported vs recorded
accesses by medical students
Reported

Recorded

35%
30%
25%
20%
15%

...
@leonie_learning

Validity: accesses vs usage
What proportion of downloaded
lectures did you actually use?*
40%
30%
20%
10...
@leonie_learning

Similar to previous studies: large proportions use
recordings, but most use them selectively
• Brooks et...
@leonie_learning

Which students use
the most recordings?
@leonie_learning

Are there differences in how
much students access recordings?


Male vs female?



1st year vs 2nd yea...
@leonie_learning

Usage by medicine program
Fewer graduate/professional students used the recordings
(71% vs 95% on genera...
@leonie_learning

Usage by course
More biomedical science students self-reported using large
numbers of recordings – but d...
@leonie_learning

When do students
use the recordings?
@leonie_learning

Recordings accessed per day by 856 medical students
800

Mid-sessional
exam

700
600

18 Dec

500
400
30...
@leonie_learning

Individual access patterns
Two examples of regular access increasing at the end of term
20
15
10
5
0

20...
@leonie_learning

Individual access patterns
An example of bulk
120
100
80
60

40
20
0

downloading
@leonie_learning

Similar to previous study: individual access patterns
vary among students
Phillips et al. (2010) develop...
@leonie_learning

Why do students
use the recordings?
@leonie_learning

Pop-up poll for medics
@leonie_learning

Pop-up poll active periods
628 (73%) medical students responded for 5156 accesses
(excluding SKIPs and r...
@leonie_learning

Reasons medical students selected
for accessing recordings
by

628 (73%) medical students

accessing

51...
@leonie_learning

Reasons given in student survey
Please explain what you like about
having recorded lectures*

• To compl...
@leonie_learning

Lecture behaviour
During a typical lecture, how much

understand?
can you concentrate on?

(a) do you
(b...
@leonie_learning

Similar to previous studies: popular reasons for use
• Review lectures /revision typically most popular ...
@leonie_learning

However, previous study shows potential discrepancies
between reported and actual behaviour
Gorissen et ...
@leonie_learning

How do students
use the recordings?
@leonie_learning

Amount of recording used
How often did you

whole lecture?
watch/listen to the short segments?

(a) watc...
@leonie_learning

Comparison to previous studies: varied viewing habits
• Gosper et al. (2008) found 71% of 815 students s...
@leonie_learning

Behaviour while using recordings
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

94%

Pause to think/make notes

86%

Write notes

84%

W...
@leonie_learning

Comparison to previous study: different access patterns
among students
Brotherton & Abowd (2004) analyse...
@leonie_learning

Students’ advice to others
What advice would you offer a new
student on how to use the recordings
most e...
@leonie_learning

Use recordings selectively
“You're not here to memorise 200 hours of lectures.”

“Only listen if you don...
@leonie_learning

Use for consolidation
“Don't skip any parts, because sometimes you might
be able to hear details that yo...
@leonie_learning

“A supplement not a replacement”
“Go to the lecture! It's not a substitute and you can't ask the
video q...
@leonie_learning

When to watch?
“Try to watch the recordings if you need to as soon as possible
after attending the lectu...
@leonie_learning

Control the pace
“You can stop and
rewind, re-listen to sections
you don't understand and skip
the parts...
@leonie_learning

Recommendations for study habits
 Learn how to improve concentration in both live lectures and when
wat...
@leonie_learning

What are students’
technical preferences?
@leonie_learning

Devices used
100%

* 293 respondents (Feb 2013)

90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%

Own laptop or
d...
@leonie_learning

Online viewing vs downloading
50%
40%
30%

Online
20%

Download

10%
0%

Never

Rarely

Sometimes

Often...
@leonie_learning

Personal audio devices
32% still using own devices despite lecture capture system
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20...
@leonie_learning

Recommendations for use of
personal devices
 Continue allowing students to use own devices until lectur...
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Students’ use of lecture capture

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Results from a project on lecture capture conducted for King's College London, School of Biomedical Sciences Oct 2012 - Oct 2013. Please see slide notes for further explanation.

This presentation covers:
-- The proportion of students using recordings
-- How much students used recordings
-- Usage by different student groups
-- Access patterns
-- Reasons for using recordings
-- How students used recordings
-- Students' technical preferences

Published in: Education, Health & Medicine
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  • Please cite as Sloman, L. (2013). Students’ use of lecture capture [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from…
  • For further info on the project and KCL’s lecture capture system, see: Sloman, L. (2013). Lecture capture research project: Project overview [PowerPoint slides]
  • Fuller bibliography: Bramble, A., & Singh, M. (2011). If the lecture is recorded, whatʼs the point of the lecture? Comparing staff and student views of lecture capture . In ALT-C 2011.Buchanan, P. B., Macfarlane, R., & Ludwiniak, R. (2010). Student Perception of On-line Lectures within a Blended Learning Environment for Security and Digital Forensics. In Edinburgh Napier University Staff Conference. Copley, J. (2007). Audio and video podcasts of lectures for campus‐based students: production and evaluation of student use. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 44(4), 387–399. doi:10.1080/14703290701602805 Echo360 (2011). The Student View of Blended Learning. Available from http://echo360.com/annual-resultsFernandes, L., Maley, M., & Cruickshank, C. (2008). The impact of online lecture recordings on learning outcomes in pharmacology. Journal of the International Association of Medical Science Educators, 1–9. Retrieved from http://www.iamse.org/artman/publish/printer_406.shtmlGorissen, P., van Briggen, J., & Jochens, W. (2012). Students and recorded lectures: survey on current use and demands for higher education. Research in Learning Technology, 20. Retrieved from http://www.researchinlearningtechnology.net/index.php/rlt/article/view/17299Gosper, M., Green, D., Mcneill, M., Phillips, R., Preston, G., & Woo, K. (2008). The Impact of Web-Based Lecture Technologies on Current and Future Practices in Learning and Teaching. Retrieved from http://www.cpd.mq.edu.au/teaching/wblt/overview.htm Holbrook, J., & Dupont, C. (2009). Profcasts and class attendance--does year in program matter. Bioscience Education, 13(June). Retrieved from http://www.bioscience.heacademy.ac.uk/journal/vol13/beej-13-c2.pdfJoordens, S., Le, A., Grinnell, R., & Chrysostomou, S. (2009). Eating your lectures and having them too: Is online lecture availability especially helpful in “Skills-based” courses. Electronic Journal of e-Learning, 7(3), 281–288. Retrieved from http://www.ejel.org/issue/download.html?idArticle=107Leadbeater, W., Shuttleworth, T., Couperthwaite, J., & Nightingale, K. P. (2013). Evaluating the use and impact of lecture recording in undergraduates: Evidence for distinct approaches by different groups of students. Computers & Education, 61, 185–192. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2012.09.011 Reader, K., Pamplin, M., & Campbell, A. (2012). Lecture Capture Project (pp. 1–16). Retrieved from http://estsass.files.wordpress.com/2012/07/lecture-capture-project-for-blog.pdf Settle, A., Dettori, L., & Davidson, M. J. (2011). Does lecture capture make a difference for students in traditional classrooms. Proceedings of the 16th annual joint conference on Innovation and technology in computer science education - ITiCSE  ’11, 78. doi:10.1145/1999747.1999772
  • Fuller bibliography:Bacro, T. R. H., Gebregziabher, M., & Fitzharris, T. P. (2010). Evaluation of a lecture recording system in a medical curriculum. Anatomical sciences education, 3 (6), 300–8. Brooks, C., Epp, C., Logan, G. & Greer, J. (2011). The who, what, when and why of lecture capture. In Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Learning Analytics and Knowledge, February 27 - March 1, Banff, Alberta, 86-92. Craig, P., Wozniak, H., Hyde, S., & Burn, D. (2009). Student use of web based lecture technologies in blended learning: Do these reflect study patterns. In Ascilite 2009: Same places, different spaces. (pp. 158–167). Retrieved from http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/auckland09/procs/craig.pdf Dev, P., Rindfleisch, T. C., Kush, S. J., & Stringer, J. R. (2000). An analysis of technology usage for streaming digital video in support of a preclinical curriculum. Proceedings / AMIA ... Annual Symposium. AMIA Symposium, 180–4. Retrieved from http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=2244014&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstractGorissen, P., Bruggen, J. van, & Jochems, W. (2012). Usage reporting on recorded lectures using educational data mining. International Journal of Learning Technology, 7(1), 23–40.Gorissen, P., Bruggen, J., & Jochems, W. (2013). Methodological triangulation of the students’ use of recorded lectures. International Journal of Learning Technology, 8(1), 20–40. Retrieved from http://inderscience.metapress.com/index/P8H4182346741G05.pdf McNulty, J., & Hoyt, A. (2011). A three-year study of lecture multimedia utilization in the medical curriculum: Associations with performances in the basic sciences. Journal of the International Association of Medical Science Educators, 21(1). Retrieved from http://www.iamse.org/artman/publish/article_586.shtmlNieder, G. L., & Borges, N. J. (2012). An eight-year study of online lecture use in a medical gross anatomy and embryology course. Anatomical sciences education, 320(December), 311–320. doi:10.1002/ase.1289Nieder, G. L., & Nagy, F. (2002). Analysis of medical students’ use of web-based resources for a gross anatomy and embryology course. Clinical Anatomy, 15(6), 409–18. doi:10.1002/ca.10067 Phillips, R., Preston, G., Roberts, P., Cumming-potvin, W., Herrington, J., & Maor, D. (2010). Using academic analytic tools to investigate studying behaviours in technology-supported learning environments. In Ascilite 2010 (pp. 761–771). Phillips, R., Maor, D., Cumming-Potvin, W., Roberts, P., & Herrington, J. (2011). Learning analytics and study behaviour: A pilot study. In Ascilite 2011: Changing Demands, Changing Directions (pp. 997–1007). Retrieved from http://researchrepository.murdoch.edu.au/6751/
  • Research design allowed comparison of self-report and behavioural data (server logs). Server log data far more representative of medical student groups than possible in surveys, but unable to include biomedical science students.(a) Student server logs: 856 medical students NB server log data anonymous & students informed: only 1 opted out(b) Student pop-up survey: 1 question answered by 662 (73%) medical students on at least one occasion(c) Student term-time survey: 10-20min survey completed by 318 (25%) students (d) Student focus group: 7 Yr2 medics (session with 3 Yr1 biomedical science students discounted because of low turnout & clash with assessment deadline)(e) Student post-exam survey: 5-10min survey completed by 253 (20%) studentsSurvey incentives: £30 Amazon voucher to 3 prize draw winners for each surveyFocus group incentive: lunch
  • Based on server logs with students informed (one opted-out)The actual proportion of medical students who used lecture capture is likely to be over 94% because server log data was not collected for the first nine weeks of term.  NB In post- exam survey99% of the medicswho responded said they used the recordings vs95% of the biomedical sciences students
  • Only a quarter had accessed more than half the recordingsby the end of the year. During term-time only 10 to 20% accessed more than half the recordings.
  • There is great variation in how many recordings each student accessed, with a strongly skewed distributionA quarter barely used it at all: 10 or fewer A lot used them selectively, probably just when they miss a lecture or when they didn’t understand something, which is really what it's intended for. Then there's a small group of heavy users - 3% accessed over 200 recordings. Some students in each year returned to a lecture at least 5 times. Doesn’t necessarily mean they viewed the whole thing twice. Echo360 supposed to record how much viewed, but wasn’t set up to capture that data. They may have returned repeatedly to lectures on which they had an assignment.
  • It’s most likely that self-reported usage is higher because more of the heavier users completed the survey.59 students gave permission for their survey responses to be compared to their server log data: Only half had estimated their usage correctly, however most had only miscalculated by one category and there was no overall bias to over- or under-estimating usage. If anything, recorded accesses could overestimate usage if students downloaded recordings that they didn’t watch.
  • Problem: if students downloaded recordings, did they actually watch them? Did they watch multiple times? How much did they watch?Q: Some students download many lecture recordings and decide later whether to use them. If you downloaded over 20 recordings, please indicate roughly what proportion you actually watched or listened to.155 responded: 39% none 7% selected (<25%) 8% some (25-50%) 12% many (50-75%) 34% most/all (>75%)
  • Bacro, T. R. H., Gebregziabher, M., & Fitzharris, T. P. (2010). Evaluation of a lecture recording system in a medical curriculum. Anatomical sciences education, 3 (6), 300–8. Brooks, C., Epp, C., Logan, G. & Greer, J. (2011). The who, what, when and why of lecture capture. In Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Learning Analytics and Knowledge, February 27 - March 1, Banff, Alberta, 86-92. Craig, P., Wozniak, H., Hyde, S., & Burn, D. (2009). Student use of web based lecture technologies in blended learning: Do these reflect study patterns. In Ascilite 2009: Same places, different spaces. (pp. 158–167). Retrieved from http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/auckland09/procs/craig.pdfGorissen, P., Bruggen, J. van, & Jochems, W. (2012). Usage reporting on recorded lectures using educational data mining. International Journal of Learning Technology, 7(1), 23–40. McNulty, J., & Hoyt, A. (2011). A three-year study of lecture multimedia utilization in the medical curriculum: Associations with performances in the basic sciences. Journal of the International Association of Medical Science Educators, 21(1). Retrieved from http://www.iamse.org/artman/publish/article_586.shtml
  • Chi-square tests showed no associations between the number of students accessing recordings and their gender or year or the amount of accesses made by these different groups.Confidence measured by students grade expectations in 2 surveys for MBBS 1 & 2 & Yr 1 Biomedical Sciences. No association with self-reported use of recordings in:Feb 2013: based on 304 responsesMay-June 2013: based on 211 responsesThere was also no association between self-reported usage and the amount of a lecture typically understood in the February survey either. NB Grade expectations fell dramatically between the two surveys. In both surveys, biomedical science students were more confident that medics, and male students were more confident than females.Gosper et al. (2008) also found no significant difference in usage by age or gender.
  • These are Box and Whisker charts – the lines show the full range of numbersof accesses made by the students, while the coloured areas show the range of accesses by the central 50% of students.Students on the graduate and professional (GPEP) program accessed much fewer recordings than other students. This may be partly because the GPEP students have less time, covering two years’ material in one, but also many have studied related subjects and may already feel confident with the basic biological science material covered. Alternatively, as graduates, they may have already established effective study habits and not consider recordings necessary.Students on the extended (EMDP) program accessed more recordings than those on the standard 5-year program.The differences arose mainly for Phase 2, when higher proportions of EDMP students accessed the scenario lectures. These students may be less confident. Means and confidence intervals:Graduate/professional 4-year program: M=13.2, 95% CI (6.9, 19.5) Standard 5-year program:M=67.3, 95% CI (57.1, 77.5]Extended 6-year program: M=57.2, 95% CI (52.6, 61.9)
  • Comparison of responses from 168 medical students to 68 biomedical science students.Differences not significant X2 (5, n=233) =10.09, p=.073
  • As expected, usage shoots up towards exams. Very similar findings inother studies. Half all accesses occurred in April/May. 42% students increased their access in April/May12% students performed the majority of their accesses in in April/MayHeaviest users showed similar patterns: over half increased their access, while 15% performed the majority of their accessesthenThere other two download peaks are both in the final week of term NB 15 April 46% downloaded by 14 students – perhaps stocking up with downloads for the holidaysFew students seemed to spread their accesses evenly through term time.
  • NB these are some of the heaviest users – more than 200 accesses
  • Huge numbers accessed within an hour – must be downloading them.NB Term-time survey: only 18% said they often/always download; 66% often/always watch online
  • Both Craig et al. (2009) andPhillips et al. (2010) reported different access patterns among students.Phillips, R., Preston, G., Roberts, P., Cumming-Potvin, W., Herrington, J., & Maor, D. (2010). Using academic analytic tools to investigate studying behaviours in technology-supported learning environments. In Ascilite 2010 (pp. 761–771).They then interviewed six students with different access patterns in:Phillips, R., Maor, D., Cumming-Potvin, W., Roberts, P., & Herrington, J. (2011). Learning analytics and study behaviour: A pilot study. In Ascilite 2011: Changing Demands, Changing Directions (pp. 997–1007). Retrieved from http://researchrepository.murdoch.edu.au/6751/
  • Pop-up question appeared before medical students could access the recording they wanted.Benefits over retrospective survey: Immediate response rather than relying on long-term recall Allows different responses for different recordings
  • Only active for a week at a time so not to annoy studentsNov – normal study, post testJan – normal studyMar – pre-assignment for Year 1 (timed problem)May – pre examsOf 662 students making >8000 accesses, SKIP was used on 32% accessesData were cleaned:(a) To remove accesses by students on different courses/year – only accesses by MBBS 1 & 2 kept.(b) To remove repeated accesses, e.g. due to reloading when Internet access was slow. All accesses with a duplicated combination of student, lecture code and day were highlighted and either the first access that day or the most common reason given (excluding skip/other) was kept. If a student gave reasons that were clearly contradictory (i.e. suggesting they both went to and skipped lecture), their reason was changed to ‘skip’.
  • Absence:23% of respondents accessed a recording becausethey’d missed the lecture in at least once in the 4 pop-up periods. However only 3% admitted they’d missed 5 or more lectures over the 4 weeks analysed. And only 2 had missed 10 or more. Difficulty: 32% of respondents had accessed at least one recording that they’d attended and found difficult, but only 3% had accessed 5 or more recordings for this reason, suggesting that few of the students are generally struggling with the course. Concentration:24% had re-watched a lecture because they’d lost concentration, but only 1% gave this reason 5 times or more.Heaviest users had similar pattern of responses.Problem with these results: respondents switched between the first four options when reloading recordings – suggests the options were difficult for students to differentiate between, likely somewhat intertwined reasons. (There were many duplications of the same student accessing the same recording repeatedly, which were cleaned out of the data before analysis. Their poll choices were checked before deleting duplicates.)
  • Respondents often expressed some of these factors in an intertwined way: thatyou can go through the lecture again at your own pace and repeat certain bits a few times - either because they didn't understand it the first time, or there was just too much to write down or take in, or they lost concentration or maybe just wanted to recap the material to help reinforce it.
  • 46% students not able to concentrate on most/all a typical lecture38% students not able to understandmost/all a typical lectureContradicts the pop-up question where very few students repeatedly gave these reasons for viewing recordings.
  • NB Bramble & Singh (2011) asked How does the availability of recorded lectures benefit you most? Also, some evidence that reasons for use differ by student age (Gosperet al. 2008) or year of study (Holbrook & Dupont, 2009) Bramble, A., & Singh, M. (2011). If the lecture is recorded, whatʼs the point of the lecture? Comparing staff and student views of lecture capture . In ALT-C 2011.Buchanan, P. B., Macfarlane, R., & Ludwiniak, R. (2010). Student Perception of On-line Lectures within a Blended Learning Environment for Security and Digital Forensics. In Edinburgh Napier University Staff Conference. Copley, J. (2007). Audio and video podcasts of lectures for campus‐based students: production and evaluation of student use. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 44(4), 387–399. doi:10.1080/14703290701602805Fernandes, L., Maley, M., & Cruickshank, C. (2008). The impact of online lecture recordings on learning outcomes in pharmacology. Journal of the International Association of Medical Science Educators, 1–9. Retrieved from http://www.iamse.org/artman/publish/printer_406.shtml Holbrook, J., & Dupont, C. (2009). Profcasts and class attendance--does year in program matter. Bioscience Education, 13(June). Retrieved from http://www.bioscience.heacademy.ac.uk/journal/vol13/beej-13-c2.pdfReader, K., Pamplin, M., & Campbell, A. (2012). Lecture Capture Project (pp. 1–16). Retrieved from http://estsass.files.wordpress.com/2012/07/lecture-capture-project-for-blog.pdf Settle, A., Dettori, L., & Davidson, M. J. (2011). Does lecture capture make a difference for students in traditional classrooms. Proceedings of the 16th annual joint conference on Innovation and technology in computer science education - ITiCSE  ’11, 78. doi:10.1145/1999747.1999772
  • Gorissen, P., Bruggen, J., & Jochems, W. (2013). Methodological triangulation of the students’ use of recorded lectures. International Journal of learning Technology, 8(1), 20–40. Retrieved from http://inderscience.metapress.com/index/P8H4182346741G05.pdf
  • Surprised how many watching the whole lecture, given how few admitted missing lectures, but some evidence of learning how to use recordings more sensibly? Or watching for general consolidation during term-time, but to check specific points during revision? O rless time available before exams pushing some students to be more selective? Comparing the students' responses to each question, most actually used both strategies similar amounts. In Feb, 31% had a clear preference for watching the whole lectures and 10% preferred shorter segments. By June, 15% had a clear preference for watching the whole lectures and 15% preferred shorter segments.Also asked students post-exams to give advice on how to use recordings effectively and many advised using them more selectively.Feb Q: When using the recordings, how often do you?Watch/listen to the whole lectureJust watch/listen to short segments of the lectureMay Q: If you used recorded lectures to revise from, how often did you:Watch/listen to the whole lectureJust watch/listen to short segments of the lecturePlease just answer for how you used recordings to prepare for exams, NOT for how you used them the rest of the year
  • Gorissen, P., Bruggen, J., & Jochems, W. (2013). Methodological triangulation of the students’ use of recorded lectures. International Journal of learning Technology, 8(1), 20–40. Retrieved from http://inderscience.metapress.com/index/P8H4182346741G05.pdfGosper, M., Green, D., Mcneill, M., Phillips, R., Preston, G., & Woo, K. (2008). The Impact of Web-Based Lecture Technologies on Current and Future Practices in Learning and Teaching. Retrieved from http://www.cpd.mq.edu.au/teaching/wblt/overview.htmSoong, S., Chan, L., Cheers, C., & Hu, C. (2006). Impact of video recorded lectures among students. In Who’s learning? Whose technology? Proceedings of the 23rd annual ascilite conference (pp. 789–793). Retrieved from http://cms.ascilite.org.au/conferences/sydney06/proceeding/pdf_papers/p179.pdf
  • Lots of useful behaviour, but also digital distractions.Joordenset al. (2009) found 75-80% students used pause feature & 50-55% used seek feature (based on survey of 488 maths students)
  • NB not exactly lecture captureBrotherton, J., & Abowd, G. (2004). Lessons learned from eClass: Assessing automated capture and access in the classroom. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 11(2), 121–155. Retrieved from http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1005362
  • 54 of 150 respondents advised being selective in which lectures you listen to and how much: 59 said to only listen to material you found difficult or which needs clarification 6 suggested reading the handout/notes first to check what needs clarification, and some suggested noting the time/place for difficult material during lectures
  • However, 11 recommended listening to the whole lecture, perhaps to consolidate understanding Either approach may be used to expand and complete notes (22 respondents)
  • 38 of 150 respondents eitherexplicitly advised or assumed using the recordings as a supplement to lectures
  • 10advised watching the lectures soon after attending , but a couple found it more effective a few weeks later
  • Recordings give the user control:Pause the recordings (10) and cross-refer to notes or other sources (14)Speed up the recording (5) – maybe slowing down for difficult bitsSome like the recording on in the background, while others advised to focus fully (7)
  • Guidance notes covering the above points were prepared as a project output
  • Q: Which of the following do you use to watch or listen to the recordings? Please tick all that you tend to use (Feb term-time survey) Majority used their own laptops or desk computers – 53% just use this. However a sizeable number of students are also using other formats, which also need to be supported. Only 3 were just reliant on the college computers, 44% access the recordings from at least two different devices. NBStudents were given the option of answering ‘other’, but none chose to.
  • Respondents were more likely to watch the recordings online (66% often or always) than to download them (18% often or always).
  • Transcript of "Students’ use of lecture capture"

    1. 1. Students’ use of lecture capture leonie.sloman@kcl.ac.uk @leonie_learning
    2. 2. @leonie_learning Contents 1. Background: project scope, aims, previous studies & data sources. 2. Proportion of medical students using recordings 3. How many recordings medical students used: reliability compared to self-report; validity of accesses representing usage 4. Usage by different student groups: by medical program; by course 5. Access patterns: all medical students; individual patterns. 6. Reasons for use: given in pop-up polls vs student surveys 7. How used: amount viewed; reported behaviour while viewing; advice to other students 8. Technical preferences: device; online vs download; personal devices
    3. 3. @leonie_learning Background
    4. 4. @leonie_learning Project scope • Research undertaken as part of King’s College London, Technology -Enhanced Learning funded project • Focused on recordings of lectures for 1281 students: o 425 1st year Biomedical Science students o 469 1st year Medicine students (MBBS 1) o 387 2nd year Medicine students (MBBS 2)
    5. 5. @leonie_learning Project aims • To understand how Year 1 & 2 medical students and Year 1 biomedical science students are using recorded lectures to support their studying and revision. • To understand how lecture capture affects lecturers’ teaching practice and experience
    6. 6. @leonie_learning Previous studies Many studies that rely on student self-report Particularly recommended: • Gosper et al. (2008): 815 students surveyed & 14 interviewed across four Australian universities (Macquarie, Murdoch, Flinders, Newcastle). Includes a case study on 31 multimedia students’ usage behaviour. • Echo360 (2011): surveyed 1566 students who use lecture capture in 17 UK/US institutions (65% health subjects) • Gorissen, van Bruggen & Jochems (2012a): surveyed 517 students at two Dutch universities (Eindhoven, Fontys)
    7. 7. @leonie_learning Studies using server-log data Particularly recommended: • Gorrissen, van Bruggen & Jochems (2013): compared server log data and self-reported usage of recordings by 307 students at Eindoven University of Technology • Phillips et al. (2010) & (2011): studied access patterns of 435 students from several Australian universities [part of Gosper project] • Craig et al. (2009): study of 1350 medical and dental students’ use of recordings across 2 years, University of Sydney • Bacro, Gebregzuabher & Fitzharris (2010): compared 168 medical students’ use of recordings on 3 basic sciences courses at the Medical University, South Carolina
    8. 8. @leonie_learning Data sources (2012-13) Nov Dec mini poll Lecturer self-report Jan Feb Mar focus groups Apr May survey Student logs (medicine) survey 1 Student self-report 1 week pop up survey focus groups survey 2
    9. 9. @leonie_learning Do students use the recordings?
    10. 10. @leonie_learning At least 94% of medical students accessed the recordings. * 806 of 856 MBBS 1 & 2 students accessed between 19 Nov 2012 - 27 May 2013
    11. 11. @leonie_learning How much do students use recordings?
    12. 12. @leonie_learning How many lectures did medical students access? Approx 160 lectures recorded for each year Less than 40 (< 25%) 40 to 80 (25-50%) 80 to 120 (50-75%) 120 to 160 (75-100%) Over 160 (>100%) 55% 20% 11% 6% 8%
    13. 13. @leonie_learning number of students How many lectures did medical students access? 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 1 to 11 10 to 20 21 to 30 31 to 40 41 to 50 51 to 60 61 to 70 71 to 80 81 91 101 111 121 131 141 151 201 251 to to to to to to to to to to 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 200 250 300 number of accesses (Nov to May) of approx 160 recordings
    14. 14. @leonie_learning Reliability: reported vs recorded accesses by medical students Reported Recorded 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% None at all Very few (1 to 10) Selected (<25% of lectures) Some (25-50% Many (50-75% of lectures) of lectures) Most/all available (>75% of lectures) * Self-report by 165 post-exam survey respondents vs server logs for 855 students
    15. 15. @leonie_learning Validity: accesses vs usage What proportion of downloaded lectures did you actually use?* 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% None Selected (<25%) Some (25-50%) Many (50-70%) Most/all (>75%) * Based on 155 responses in post-exam survey, Jun 2013
    16. 16. @leonie_learning Similar to previous studies: large proportions use recordings, but most use them selectively • Brooks et al. (2011) found overall access varied from 60% to 90% across 12 different courses at the University of Saskatchewan • Craig et al (2009) & Bacro et al. (2010) found similarly skewed distribution patterns for the number of recordings accessed by medical (& dentistry) students inSydney & South Carolina. • Gorissen et al. (2012b) found 90% of 280 engineering students at Eindhoven Technical University used the recordings, but only 4% watched all 34 lectures recorded • McNulty & Hoyt (2011) found 10-15% of 438 medical students in Chicago used >70% of available lectures; while 64% used <10%
    17. 17. @leonie_learning Which students use the most recordings?
    18. 18. @leonie_learning Are there differences in how much students access recordings?  Male vs female?  1st year vs 2nd year?  Program type?  Confidence? (grade expectations)
    19. 19. @leonie_learning Usage by medicine program Fewer graduate/professional students used the recordings (71% vs 95% on general /extended programs) and they accessed fewer Students on the extended program accessed more recordings recordings Graduate/professional condensed program (n=28) Extended program (n=150) Standard program (n= 678) 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 Number of accesses per student
    20. 20. @leonie_learning Usage by course More biomedical science students self-reported using large numbers of recordings – but difference not statistically significant Medics Biomed 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% None at all Very few (1 to Selected (<25% Some (25-50% 10) of lectures) of lectures) Many (50-75% Most/all of lectures) available (>75% of lectures)
    21. 21. @leonie_learning When do students use the recordings?
    22. 22. @leonie_learning Recordings accessed per day by 856 medical students 800 Mid-sessional exam 700 600 18 Dec 500 400 300 200 100 0 25 Dec Exams 15 Apr
    23. 23. @leonie_learning Individual access patterns Two examples of regular access increasing at the end of term 20 15 10 5 0 20 15 10 5 0
    24. 24. @leonie_learning Individual access patterns An example of bulk 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 downloading
    25. 25. @leonie_learning Similar to previous study: individual access patterns vary among students Phillips et al. (2010) developed the following labels to categorise students’ access patterns. • • • • • • • Conscientious: access most lectures in the first week available, incl. high achievers who also revisit later Good-intentioned: initially regular access then reduces Repentant: initially little activity, then active in latter half of term Binger incl. free-timers who binge during holidays and crammers who leave it all to last 2 weeks before exams Random One-hit wonder Disengaged: not used at all
    26. 26. @leonie_learning Why do students use the recordings?
    27. 27. @leonie_learning Pop-up poll for medics
    28. 28. @leonie_learning Pop-up poll active periods 628 (73%) medical students responded for 5156 accesses (excluding SKIPs and repeated accesses of the same lecture on one day) 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 Poll 1 (Nov) Mid-sessional Poll 2 exam (Jan) (Jan) Poll 3 (Mar) Poll 4 (May) Exams
    29. 29. @leonie_learning Reasons medical students selected for accessing recordings by 628 (73%) medical students accessing 5156 recordings 80% 70% Nov Jan Mar May 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Re-watching for Difficult topic revision Note completion Lost concentration Missed lecture Late for lecture English is second language Other reason
    30. 30. @leonie_learning Reasons given in student survey Please explain what you like about having recorded lectures* • To complete notes • To review a difficult topic * 259 respondents (25% of MBBS 1 & 2 & Yr 1 Biomedical Sciences, Feb 2013) • Re-watching at own pace • Back up if absent
    31. 31. @leonie_learning Lecture behaviour During a typical lecture, how much understand? can you concentrate on? (a) do you (b) 60% 50% Able to concentrate 40% Able to understand 30% 20% 10% 0% little about half most all * 312 respondents (Feb 2013)
    32. 32. @leonie_learning Similar to previous studies: popular reasons for use • Review lectures /revision typically most popular reason, e.g. 75-95% using for this reason (Bramble & Singh 2011; Buchanan et al. 2010; Holbrook & Dupont 2009; Reader, et al. 2012); 60-65% (Fernandes et al. 2008; Settle et al. 2011) • Preparation for exams 70-80% (Bramble & Singh 2011; Buchanan et al. 2010, Copley 2007, Gosper et al. 2008) • Difficult topics 75-80% (Bramble & Singh 2011; Buchanan et al. 2010, Gosper et al. 2008; Reader et al. 2012) vs 24% Fernandes et al. 2008 • Note-taking at own pace 74% Gosper et al. 2008 vs 30-40% Copley 2007 • Catching up with missed lectures very varied: 83% Gosper et al. 2008; 72% Holbrook & Dupont 2009; 60% Settle, 48% Reader et al. 2012, 30-40% Copley 2007; 24% Fernandes et al. 2008 • NB Substitute for live lectures rare reason: 5-10% (Bramble & Singh 2011; 4% Fernandes et al. 2008
    33. 33. @leonie_learning However, previous study shows potential discrepancies between reported and actual behaviour Gorissen et al. (2013) 280 engineering students’ survey responses on why lecture capture was important to their recorded behaviour: • 96% said it’s important for catching up with missed lectures, but only 27% watched the full length of 1 or more lectures. • 93% said it’s important for preparing for exams, and accesses were much higher before test, assignment and exam. • 54% said it’s important for reviewing material after a lecture, but <10% accesses occurred within 1 week of the lecture • Self-report of proportion of lectures watched seemed accurate • 70% believe they usually watched over 75% of a recording, but only 7% watched over 50%
    34. 34. @leonie_learning How do students use the recordings?
    35. 35. @leonie_learning Amount of recording used How often did you whole lecture? watch/listen to the short segments? (a) watch/listen to the (b) % respondents who answered often or always 50% 40% 30% Whole lecture 20% Short segments 10% 0% February… May-June…
    36. 36. @leonie_learning Comparison to previous studies: varied viewing habits • Gosper et al. (2008) found 71% of 815 students surveyed preferred using whole lecture vs 33% more selective • Soong et al. (2006) found 48% of 1160 students surveyed preferred using selected clips vs 29% whole lecture NB! Gorissen et al. (2013) found 70% students believe they usually watched >75% of a recording, but only 7% actually watched >50%
    37. 37. @leonie_learning Behaviour while using recordings • • • • • • • 94% Pause to think/make notes 86% Write notes 84% Watch some segments repeatedly 51% Consult other sources of information on the topic 55% Eat or drink 25% Browse mail / Facebook / other websites 15% Travel i.e. on bus/train/walking *Based on responses to 2 multiple selection questions in February 2013 survey
    38. 38. @leonie_learning Comparison to previous study: different access patterns among students Brotherton & Abowd (2004) analysed behaviour logs of students at Georgia Tech and categorised them as • • • • • Straight through: without pauses (most common) Start-stop: with pauses, but no jumps Skip-ahead: with jumps forward Re-listen: with jumps backward Non-sequential: with jumps forward and backward
    39. 39. @leonie_learning Students’ advice to others What advice would you offer a new student on how to use the recordings most effectively? * • Use selectively for difficult material • Or re-watch whole for consolidation • Use as a supplement after lectures * 150 respondents, postexam survey • Control the pace: pause, increase speed
    40. 40. @leonie_learning Use recordings selectively “You're not here to memorise 200 hours of lectures.” “Only listen if you don't understand and need clarification that can't be gotten from the Internet or textbook.” “Read over the lecture slides first and then watch the parts of the lecture that you are unclear about. Saves time.”
    41. 41. @leonie_learning Use for consolidation “Don't skip any parts, because sometimes you might be able to hear details that you feel like you've just heard for the first time. Those little things help.” “Review the lectures in the comfort of your own home, and take advantage of the ability to pause and rewind in order to make detailed notes and look things up mid lecture.”
    42. 42. @leonie_learning “A supplement not a replacement” “Go to the lecture! It's not a substitute and you can't ask the video questions – the video is good for those hard concepts you can't seem to wrap your head around or for those days when your concentration was not at its best." “Mark on the lecture handout with a star or something the sections you will want to listen to again, and the rough time, to help you find it later on.”
    43. 43. @leonie_learning When to watch? “Try to watch the recordings if you need to as soon as possible after attending the lecture, so you can clear up anything you don't understand and make any relevant notes while the subject content is still fresh in your mind.” “Watch again a few weeks later – basic concepts are clearer by then, allowing you to re-watch and pick up finer, more detailed points of the lecture.”
    44. 44. @leonie_learning Control the pace “You can stop and rewind, re-listen to sections you don't understand and skip the parts you already know.” “Listen to them at double speed, then slow it down for anything that isn't clear, or that needs to be thought through more attentively."
    45. 45. @leonie_learning Recommendations for study habits  Learn how to improve concentration in both live lectures and when watching recordings, to use time efficiently  Develop good note-taking skills, identifying the key points, structuring the information and noting when to refer to recordings or textbooks  Use recordings selectively, just for the parts found difficult or not caught properly, and look at different resources if still stuck.  Take control: pause to refer to other sources, replay or slow down the speed of difficult bits; speed up or skip the easy bits  Experiment with using both Echoplayer and mp4s  Make notes or diagrams that are concise enough to revise from; a complete record of everything the lecturer says will probably not be helpful
    46. 46. @leonie_learning What are students’ technical preferences?
    47. 47. @leonie_learning Devices used 100% * 293 respondents (Feb 2013) 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Own laptop or desk compter College computer Tablet or ipad Smartphone MP3 player or ipod
    48. 48. @leonie_learning Online viewing vs downloading 50% 40% 30% Online 20% Download 10% 0% Never Rarely Sometimes Often * Based on 300 respondents (Term-time survey, Feb 2013) Always
    49. 49. @leonie_learning Personal audio devices 32% still using own devices despite lecture capture system 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Not at all Occasionally (<10 lectures) Regularly * Based on 233 respondents (post-exam survey, June 2013) Most/all lectures (>75%)
    50. 50. @leonie_learning Recommendations for use of personal devices  Continue allowing students to use own devices until lecture capture system is more reliable and recordings are available faster  Usage should be subject to the same agreement as use of university-provided lectures, ie personal use, no external sharing. Explain to that the lecturers own copyright of any recordings students makes as their voices.  If the university lecture capture system fails, ask students to upload their own audio recordings (system needs to avoid duplicate uploads)
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