Students’ opinions
on lecture capture

leonie.sloman@kcl.ac.uk
@leonie_learning
@leonie_learning

Contents
1.

Background: project scope, aims, previous studies & data sources.

2.

Value of lecture cap...
@leonie_learning

Background
@leonie_learning

Project scope
• Research undertaken as part of King’s College
London, Technology -Enhanced Learning fund...
@leonie_learning

Project aims
• To understand how Year 1 & 2 medical students and
Year 1 biomedical science students are ...
@leonie_learning

Previous studies
Many based on student surveys, some complemented with
interviews or focus groups
Partic...
@leonie_learning

Data sources (2012-13)
Nov

Dec

mini
poll

Lecturer
self-report

Jan

Feb

Mar

focus groups

Apr

May
...
@leonie_learning

How much do
students value
lecture capture?
@leonie_learning

81% of students found
recorded lectures

useful

* Based on 272 responses in February survey & 151 respo...
@leonie_learning

Perceived usefulness during
term-time vs revision
Term-time (Feb) n=272

Revision (June) n=251

70%
60%
...
@leonie_learning

Similar to previous studies: high student approval, even though
fewer students use recordings extensivel...
@leonie_learning

81%

of students believed they were

likely to do

better in exams

because of access to recorded lectur...
@leonie_learning

Comparison to previous studies: many students believe
they will perform better in exams because of recor...
@leonie_learning

Potential impact on decisions
Would your choice of
(a)

module

(b)

university

be affected by whether ...
@leonie_learning

Comparison to previous study: how much students
value recordings
Taplin et al.(2011) asked 206 students ...
@leonie_learning

What aspects of
lecture capture

do students like?
@leonie_learning

Benefits of lecture capture
Please explain what you like about
having recorded lectures*

• To complete ...
@leonie_learning

Completing notes / consolidation
“…the opportunity to go back to a lecture and listen again
when I didn'...
@leonie_learning

“You can skip the bits that you understand the
first time and concentrate on the hard bits.”

Light/occa...
@leonie_learning

Revision vs Repetition
quick lookover, to refresh your memory
“They're great for a
topic”

on a

moderat...
@leonie_learning

Back up if absent
“If I miss a lecture they're the next best thing.
I would always much rather be there....
@leonie_learning

"These are the best resource provided by the
college, making the course completely accessible at any
tim...
@leonie_learning

Similar to previous studies: very similar student
comments obtained
• Bramble & Singh (2011) survey resp...
@leonie_learning

What aspects of
lecture capture do

students dislike?
@leonie_learning

Drawbacks of lecture capture
Please explain what you dislike about
having recorded lectures*

• Restrict...
@leonie_learning

Uploading delays
“I'd like to go through something on the same day
while it's still fresh in my mind.”
l...
@leonie_learning

When recordings are wanted
• Only 10% expect recordings on the same day
• 42% might use them within one ...
@leonie_learning

Why do students
prefer live lectures?
@leonie_learning

94%

survey respondents would

still go to lectures if all recorded

* Based on 308 responses, Feb 2013
@leonie_learning

Students prefer live lectures
1. Live is more engaging so easier to concentrate.
2. Too many distraction...
@leonie_learning

Recordings just for revision
“The lecture recordings are good for
revision, but not a substitute.”
heavy...
@leonie_learning

Better concentration & understanding
“I seem to remember more when I am hearing it
straight from the spe...
@leonie_learning

Richer visual experience

“It can be difficult to guess exactly what part of the
slide the lecturer is t...
@leonie_learning

Routine needed
“If I was just watching the
lectures online it would be

too easy to fall behind.”
light/...
@leonie_learning

Social interaction
“'Live' lectures are much more stimulating, it's enjoyable
to learn with friends, I l...
@leonie_learning

Similar views to lecturers
“The learning experience is seldom as good in a recording and
should not be s...
@leonie_learning

Similar to previous studies: very similar student
comments obtained
•

Gyspers et al. (2012): survey com...
@leonie_learning

Why do students
prefer recordings?
@leonie_learning

6%

survey respondents would

not

go to lectures if all recorded

* Based on 308 responses, Feb 2013
@leonie_learning

Reasons recordings preferred
Only 20 respondents prefer recordings to lectures.
Common reasons:

• They ...
@leonie_learning

Overflow section vs main hall
7% prefer to sit in an overflow section where just the lecture
screen and ...
@leonie_learning

What are students’
perceptions of
the recordings?
@leonie_learning

Quality perceptions
45%
40%
35%
30%

Very poor

25%

Quite poor

20%

Acceptable
Good

15%

Very Good

1...
@leonie_learning

Preferred format: Echoplayer
59% prefer Echoplayer (video, screen capture and audio) *
• Better visuals ...
@leonie_learning

Preferred format: mp4
41% prefer mp4 vodcast (screen capture and audio) *
• Like having the screen captu...
@leonie_learning

Useful Echo features
Which of these features would you use?*
•
•
•

72% Scene: can jump to a particular ...
@leonie_learning

Improvements to lecture delivery
• Use the mouse cursor instead of a laser pointer
• Make it clear what ...
@leonie_learning

Including students’ questions
50%
45%
40%
35%
30%
25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
0%

Strongly against

Prefer not

*...
@leonie_learning

Why do students think
lecturers decide not
to be recorded?
@leonie_learning

Students’ perceptions of why lecturers
opt out
• 64% believe it is to encourage attendance
• 28% think l...
@leonie_learning

Sympathetic to lecturers’ concerns
“If I became a lecturer I personally
wouldn‟t want them posted up eit...
@leonie_learning

Frustrated by lecturers’ concerns
“No idea. Irritating. Even if they are scared of making
a mistake, or ...
@leonie_learning

Lecturers aiming to benefit students
“You would get more out of the lecture
if you were there in person....
@leonie_learning

Lecturers have misconceptions
“These lecturers believe attendance to be beneficial to learning.
However,...
@leonie_learning

Lecturers’ concerns about attendance
% serious concern

% minor concern

Undeserved access
Poorer unders...
@leonie_learning

Students’ sympathy to typical optout reasons
Copyright material
Sensitive material

Attendance: students...
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Students’ opinions on lecture capture

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Results from a project on lecture capture conducted for King's College London, School of Biomedical Sciences Oct 2012 - Oct 2013. Please see slide notes for further explanation.

This presentation covers:
-- How much students value lecture capture
-- Aspects of lecture capture students like
-- Aspects of lecture capture students dislike
-- Why students prefer live lectures
-- Why some students prefer recordings
-- Students' perceptions of recordings
-- Students' perceptions of why lecturers decide not to be recorded

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  • Please cite as Sloman, L. (2013). Students’ opinionson lecture capture [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from…
  • For further info on the project and KCL’s lecture capture system, see: Sloman, L. (2013). Lecture capture research project: Project overview [PowerPoint slides]
  • Bacro, T. R. H., Gebregziabher, M., & Fitzharris, T. P. (2010). Evaluation of a lecture recording system in a medical curriculum. Anatomical sciences education, 3 (6), 300–8. Bramble, A., & Singh, M. (2011). If the lecture is recorded, what’s the point of the lecture? Comparing staff and student views of lecture capture . In ALT-C 2011.Buchanan, P. B., Macfarlane, R., & Ludwiniak, R. (2010). Student Perception of On-line Lectures within a Blended Learning Environment for Security and Digital Forensics. In Edinburgh Napier University Staff Conference. Copley, J. (2007). Audio and video podcasts of lectures for campus‐based students: production and evaluation of student use. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 44(4), 387–399. Davis, S., Connolly, A., & Linfield, E. (2009). Lecture capture: Making the most of face to face learning. Engineering Education: Journal of the HEA Engineering Subject Centre, 4(2), 4–13. Echo360 (2011). The Student View of Blended Learning. Available from http://echo360.com/annual-resultsGosper, M., Green, D., Mcneill, M., Phillips, R., Preston, G., & Woo, K. (2008). The Impact of Web-Based Lecture Technologies on Current and Future Practices in Learning and Teaching. Retrieved from http://www.cpd.mq.edu.au/teaching/wblt/overview.htmGysbers, V., Johnston, J., Hancock, D., & Denyer, G. (2011). Why do Students still Bother Coming to Lectures, When Everything is Available Online? International Journal of Innovation in Science and Mathematics Education, 19(2), 20–36. Retrieved from http://ojs-prod.library.usyd.edu.au/index.php/CAL/article/view/4887 Holbrook, J., & Dupont, C. (2009). Profcasts and class attendance--does year in program matter. Bioscience Education, 13(June). Retrieved from http://www.bioscience.heacademy.ac.uk/journal/vol13/beej-13-c2.pdfJoordens, S., Le, A., Grinnell, R., & Chrysostomou, S. (2009). Eating your lectures and having them too: Is online lecture availability especially helpful in “Skills-based” courses. Electronic Journal of e-Learning, 7(3), 281–288. Retrieved from http://www.ejel.org/issue/download.html?idArticle=107Panther, B. C., Wright, W., & Mosse, J. A. (2012). Providing a flexible learning environment: Are on-line lectures the answer?, 20(1), 71–82. Phillips, R., Maor, D., Cumming-Potvin, W., Roberts, P., & Herrington, J. (2011). Learning analytics and study behaviour: A pilot study. In Ascilite 2011: Changing Demands, Changing Directions (pp. 997–1007). Retrieved from http://researchrepository.murdoch.edu.au/6751/ Reader, K., Pamplin, M., & Campbell, A. (2012). Lecture Capture Project (pp. 1–16). Retrieved from http://estsass.files.wordpress.com/2012/07/lecture-capture-project-for-blog.pdfScutter, S., Stupans, I., Sawyer, T., & King, S. (2010). How do students use podcasts to support learning ? Podcasting in teaching. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 26(2), 180–191. Settle, A., Dettori, L., & Davidson, M. J. (2011). Does lecture capture make a difference for students in traditional classrooms. Proceedings of the 16th annual joint conference on Innovation and technology in computer science education - ITiCSE  ’11, 78. Soong, S., Chan, L., Cheers, C., & Hu, C. (2006). Impact of video recorded lectures among students. Who’s learning? Whose technology? Proceedings of the 23rd annual ascilite conference (pp. 789–793). Retrieved from http://cms.ascilite.org.au/conferences/sydney06/proceeding/pdf_papers/p179.pdfTaplin, R., Low, L., & Brown, A. (2011). Students’ satisfaction and valuation of web-based lecture recording technologies. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 27(2), 175–191. Retrieved from http://www.ascilite.org.au/ajet/ajet27/taplin.htmlTraphagan, T., Kucsera, J. V., & Kishi, K. (2009). Impact of class lecture webcasting on attendance and learning. Educational Technology Research and Development, 58(1), 19–37.
  • Research design allowed time to use responses from students to shape questions to lecturers and vice versa to compare perceptions(a) Student server logs: 856 medical students NB server log data anonymous & students informed: only 1 opted out(b) Student pop-up survey: 1 question answered by 662 (73%) medical students on at least one occasion(c) Student term-time survey: 10-20min survey completed by 318 (25%) students (d) Student focus group: 7 Yr2 medics (session with 3 Yr1 biomedical science students discounted because of low turnout & clash with assessment deadline)(e) Student post-exam survey: 5-10min survey completed by 253 (20%) studentsSurvey incentives: £30 Amazon voucher to 3 prize draw winners for each surveyFocus group incentive: lunch
  • Combined proportion of students who indicated the recordings were either ‘very’ useful or ‘somewhat useful’ (Feb) /’moderatelyuseful’ (Jun)Compare to the low proportions actually using the recordings regularlySee Sloman, L. (2013). Students’ use of lecture capture [PowerPoint slides]
  • More students found them very useful during term-time than during revision, although more students used them during revision.In the February survey, this was a stand-alone question: Are recorded lectures useful to you? In the June survey, this was embedded in a question about many revision resources: How useful did you find each of the following when preparing for your exams? 
  • Bacro, T. R. H., Gebregziabher, M., & Fitzharris, T. P. (2010). Evaluation of a lecture recording system in a medical curriculum. Anatomical sciences education, 3 (6), 300–8. Bramble, A., & Singh, M. (2011). If the lecture is recorded, what’s the point of the lecture? Comparing staff and student views of lecture capture . In ALT-C 2011. Also see http://www.learninginstitute.qmul.ac.uk/elearning/news-and-events/podcasting-survey-student/ Echo360 (2011). The Student View of Blended Learning. Available from http://echo360.com/annual-resultsGosper, M., Green, D., Mcneill, M., Phillips, R., Preston, G., & Woo, K. (2008). The Impact of Web-Based Lecture Technologies on Current and Future Practices in Learning and Teaching. Retrieved from http://www.cpd.mq.edu.au/teaching/wblt/overview.htmSoong, S., Chan, L., Cheers, C., & Hu, C. (2006). Impact of video recorded lectures among students. Who’s learning? Whose technology? Proceedings of the 23rd annual ascilite conference (pp. 789–793). Retrieved from http://cms.ascilite.org.au/conferences/sydney06/proceeding/pdf_papers/p179.pdfTaplin, R., Low, L., & Brown, A. (2011). Students’ satisfaction and valuation of web-based lecture recording technologies. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 27(2), 175–191. Retrieved from http://www.ascilite.org.au/ajet/ajet27/taplin.htmlTraphagan, T., Kucsera, J. V., & Kishi, K. (2009). Impact of class lecture webcasting on attendance and learning. Educational Technology Research and Development, 58(1), 19–37.
  • Q: Do you think having access to recorded lectures will make any difference to how well you do in your exams? likely to dobetter no effect likely to do worseOnly 1 person thought they’re likely to do worseHowever, general evidence for educational impact is very mixed, so this may be a misconception to correct. However, even if the impact on educational outcomes isn’t supported, benefits such as convenience and reassurance are still worthwhile.
  • Gosper, M., Green, D., Mcneill, M., Phillips, R., Preston, G., & Woo, K. (2008). The Impact of Web-Based Lecture Technologies on Current and Future Practices in Learning and Teaching. Retrieved from http://www.cpd.mq.edu.au/teaching/wblt/overview.htmTaplin, R., Low, L., & Brown, A. (2011). Students’ satisfaction and valuation of web-based lecture recording technologies. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 27(2), 175–191. Retrieved from http://www.ascilite.org.au/ajet/ajet27/taplin.html
  • Q: If you were making the following decisions, would your choice be affected by whether lecture recordings are provided? These are hypothetical situations and obviously other factors would affect your decision too.It’s unlikely that lecture capture would really be a deciding factor, but these responses are an indication of shifting student expectations and worth considering in the competition between universities (or even departments) to attract students.
  • Taplin, R., Low, L., & Brown, A. (2011). Students’ satisfaction and valuation of web-based lecture recording technologies. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 27(2), 175–191. Retrieved from http://www.ascilite.org.au/ajet/ajet27/taplin.html
  • Q: Please explain what you like and dislike about having recorded lectures
  • Of 259 respondents, approx18% mentioned they used them to complete their notes13% to go over difficult material9% like being able to learn at their own paceA few mentioned losing concentration in lectures
  • Approx 10% mentioned using them for revision, and 5% particularly liked being able to repeat material
  • Approx 12% respondents mentioned they like having a back-up in case they miss a lecture
  • Bramble, A., & Singh, M. (2011). If the lecture is recorded, what’s the point of the lecture? Comparing staff and student views of lecture capture . In ALT-C 2011. Student comments available via http://www.learninginstitute.qmul.ac.uk/elearning/news-and-events/podcasting-survey-student/Panther, B. C., Wright, W., & Mosse, J. A. (2012). Providing a flexible learning environment: Are on-line lectures the answer?, 20(1), 71–82.Scutter, S., Stupans, I., Sawyer, T., & King, S. (2010). How do students use podcasts to support learning ? Podcasting in teaching. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 26(2), 180–191.
  • Q: Please explain what you like and dislike about having recorded lecturesNot many consistent complaints. Respondents dislike: the restricted visuals (20): that they’reunable to see laser pointer (13) / lecturer (7) the time taken to upload recordings (16) that they find it difficult to concentrate on recordings (9) that material is not captured because lecturer starts early / finishes late (7) the poor audio quality (6)
  • Respondents were asked how soon after a lecture they are likely to listen to a recording, assuming it were available immediately.
  • 26% (of 256 respondents) mentioned that a live experience has greater value-more engaging/motivating in person, which makes it easier to learn.Also, some overlap with 26% whofeel they can concentrate better & are more engaged-the lecture atmosphere aids focus or there are distractions at home, especially from laptop.
  • 24% (of 268 respondents)mentioned recordings are restricted visually 13% found it difficult to see where lecturers point to on diagrams 8% said they prefer to see the lecturer a few mentioned that demonstrations/props aren’t captuured in recordings
  • 22% of 256 respondents feel they need the discipline: they fear they might not get around to listening later, or like having their day structuredAlso, 6% felt attending was more time efficient – recordings often take longer to watch
  • 9% value the opportunity to ask lecturer questions9% like the opportunity to socialise with peers or ask them questions
  • Mini-poll at the outset of the project: all 122 lecturers emailed 2 short questions Q2. Please state any issues you would particularly like to see addressed in this study.14 of 70 lecturers who responded,alluded to face-to-face having greater value than recorded lectures.Most did not specify what makes the “real thing” or “live performances” better than watching a recording.4 mentioned reduced interactivity. 2 were concerned with loss of visual information1 felt recordings less able to address confusion.
  • Bramble, A., & Singh, M. (2011). If the lecture is recorded, what’s the point of the lecture? Comparing staff and student views of lecture capture . In ALT-C 2011. Student comments available via http://www.learninginstitute.qmul.ac.uk/elearning/news-and-events/podcasting-survey-student/Gysbers, V., Johnston, J., Hancock, D., & Denyer, G. (2011). Why do Students still Bother Coming to Lectures, When Everything is Available Online? International Journal of Innovation in Science and Mathematics Education, 19(2), 20–36. Retrieved from http://ojs-prod.library.usyd.edu.au/index.php/CAL/article/view/4887Panther, B. C., Wright, W., & Mosse, J. A. (2012). Providing a flexible learning environment: Are on-line lectures the answer?, 20(1), 71–82.
  • NB Of the 23 respondents who prefer the overflow section, only 2 said they would not attend lectures if all were recorded.
  • About half the respondents were happy with each aspect, Few rate anything as very poor - only about 10% are dissatisfied with any aspect.
  • Students were asked which of they 3 formats they would choose if they could only use one:Real media: video, screen capture & audio (Echoplayer)Vodcast: screen capture & audio (mp4)Podcast: audio only (mp3)
  • NB Only 2 prefer audio, but almost a third still recording on own device
  • Q: The Echoplayer format has a few extra features. Do you think you would use any of these?
  • Based on the post-exam survey (Feb 2013) and focus group with Yr 2 medics (Mar 2013)Open Q: What advice would you give lecturers on how to deliver a lecture that is also useful as a recording?Respondents tended to give simple advice to improve the presentation rather than requesting any drastic changes in style.
  • Scale Q: How would you feel about the questions students ask during or after the lecture being included in the lecture recording? strongly in favour / prefer / don’t mind / prefer not / strongly against43% support students’ questions being recorded 43% don’t mind either wayOnly 14% of respondents were uncomfortable with students’ questions being included in the recordings. Recommend that students are made aware that questions they ask during lectures could be recorded, and that this is not a reason not to record lectures.
  • Q: Some lecturers have decided not to have their lectures recorded. Why do you think that is? (term-time survey in Feb)275 respondedWhile some respondents seemed sympathetic – even to unexplained “personal choices”, others didn’t understand lecturers’ reasoning and many suggested that their reasoning was based on misconceptions about students or thought they were just being old-fashioned or even selfish.
  • Actually, very few lecturers minded that “student who are too lazy to attend lectures would have equal access to the material as the conscientious ones”The greatest concern was that “students may not get around to watching them and fall behind in the course”, which is a concern some students shared, but only 20% felt it was a justified reason to withhold lecture captureStudents may therefore be carrying misconceptions about why lecturers opt out.
  • Q: Some lecturers have decided not to have their lectures recorded. There are many possible reasons for this. How many of the following reasons would you respect as a fair decision? Please tick all that you feel are reasonable. (post-exam survey in Jun)20% of those who answered the previous question didn’t pick any of these options – ie none acceptableRemaining percentages therefore given out of 253 not just the 200 who picked at least one of these options(b) most sympathy for problems around copyright/sensitive material: Lecturer would have to remove copyright material, e.g. published illustrations or graphs which they are allowed to present in a closed room but not to distribute by video Lecturer would have to remove sensitive material, e.g. patient data or unpublished research(c) least sympathy for concerns about student learning – except that they may fall behind(d) Some sympathy for lecturers’ personal concerns: Lecturer is concerned that casual jokes, 'off-the-record' comments or mistakes would be used against them Lecturer feels very self-conscious being recorded
  • Students’ opinions on lecture capture

    1. 1. Students’ opinions on lecture capture leonie.sloman@kcl.ac.uk @leonie_learning
    2. 2. @leonie_learning Contents 1. Background: project scope, aims, previous studies & data sources. 2. Value of lecture capture: usefulness during term time vs revision, impact on exams, likely influence on module/university choice 3. Reasons for use: completing notes/consolidation, revision /repetition, back up 4. Problems with lecture capture: uploading delays, restricted visuals 5. Why live lectures preferred: recordings just for revision, better concentration & understanding, richer visuals, routine needed, social interaction 6. Why recordings preferred: incl. overflow vs main lecture 7. Perceptions of recordings: quality, Echoplayer vs mp4s, lecture delivery, inclusion of students’ questions 8. Perceptions of lecturer opt-out: sympathetic vs frustrated; misconceptions?
    3. 3. @leonie_learning Background
    4. 4. @leonie_learning Project scope • Research undertaken as part of King’s College London, Technology -Enhanced Learning funded project • Focused on recordings of lectures for 1281 students: o 425 1st year Biomedical Science students o 469 1st year Medicine students (MBBS 1) o 387 2nd year Medicine students (MBBS 2)
    5. 5. @leonie_learning Project aims • To understand how Year 1 & 2 medical students and Year 1 biomedical science students are using recorded lectures to support their studying and revision. • To understand how lecture capture affects lecturers’ teaching practice and experience
    6. 6. @leonie_learning Previous studies Many based on student surveys, some complemented with interviews or focus groups Particularly recommended: • Panther, Wright & Mosse (2012): study of health science students’ experiences, based on 61 survey responses and 17 focus group attendees from Monash University. • Phillips et al. (2011) interviewed 6 students with different patterns of lecture capture use during a sociology of education module. • Gosper et al. (2008): 815 students surveyed & 14 interviewed across four Australian universities. Includes case studies on the experiences of 31 multimedia & 199 accounting students.
    7. 7. @leonie_learning Data sources (2012-13) Nov Dec mini poll Lecturer self-report Jan Feb Mar focus groups Apr May survey Student logs (medicine) survey 1 Student self-report 1 week pop up survey focus groups survey 2
    8. 8. @leonie_learning How much do students value lecture capture?
    9. 9. @leonie_learning 81% of students found recorded lectures useful * Based on 272 responses in February survey & 151 responses in June survey
    10. 10. @leonie_learning Perceived usefulness during term-time vs revision Term-time (Feb) n=272 Revision (June) n=251 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Not at all A little bit / slightly Somewhat / moderately Very
    11. 11. @leonie_learning Similar to previous studies: high student approval, even though fewer students use recordings extensively • • • Recordings found useful by 95% of 1140 students (Soong et al. 2006); 95% of 614 students (Bramble & Singh 2011); 74% of 128 medical students (Bacro et al. 2010) & 73% of 136 geology students (Traphagan, Kucsera & Kishi 2010) Positive experiences of using recordings reported by 76% of 815 students (Gosper et al. 2008) Recordings wanted on more courses by 84% of 1556 students who use lecture capture (Echo360 2011) NB approval rates may be inflated by under-representation of students who don’t use recordings in surveys respondents • Taplin, Low & Brown (2011) found 211 accounting students much more neutral, with only 43% agreeing that recordings made their learning experience more positive.
    12. 12. @leonie_learning 81% of students believed they were likely to do better in exams because of access to recorded lectures * Based on 307 responses in February survey
    13. 13. @leonie_learning Comparison to previous studies: many students believe they will perform better in exams because of recordings • Gosper et al. (2008) surveyed 813 students across 4 universities: 67% believed recordings helped them achieve better results 80% believed recordings made it easier to learn • vs Taplin et al.(2011) surveyed 209 accounting students: 38% believed recordings helped them achieve better results 47% believed recordings made it easier to learn However, there is very mixed evidence on how use of lecture recordings affects students’ exam performance – so this may be a misconception
    14. 14. @leonie_learning Potential impact on decisions Would your choice of (a) module (b) university be affected by whether lectures are recorded? 60% 50% Module choice 40% University choice 30% 20% 10% 0% Not at all Nice to have Important * Based on 306 responses in February survey
    15. 15. @leonie_learning Comparison to previous study: how much students value recordings Taplin et al.(2011) asked 206 students how much they would be willing to pay per semester to access recorded lectures – as a measure of how much they value them • 71% would not pay for access • The mean amount was $14.75 (AUSD, May 2009), SD = $33.20, i.e. large variation
    16. 16. @leonie_learning What aspects of lecture capture do students like?
    17. 17. @leonie_learning Benefits of lecture capture Please explain what you like about having recorded lectures* • To complete notes • To review a difficult topic * 259 respondents (25% of MBBS 1 & 2 & Yr 1 Biomedical Sciences, Feb 2013) • Re-watching at own pace • Back up if absent
    18. 18. @leonie_learning Completing notes / consolidation “…the opportunity to go back to a lecture and listen again when I didn't understand the lecturer because he/she was either speaking fast, unclear or the topic was complicated. used few “Sometimes trying to keep up with note-taking means that I miss what the lecturer says next. So, I make a note to go back to the recording and am able to focus on what the lecturer is saying at that moment." moderate / regular user
    19. 19. @leonie_learning “You can skip the bits that you understand the first time and concentrate on the hard bits.” Light/occasional user “I find that I switch off during the lectures half way through. If I feel like I'm not learning anything during a recording I can pause it and come back to it later. I can also spend more time writing down annotations and rewind and re-listen if I don't understand a particular section.” Heavy user “My notes are clearer and easier to learn from when I listen over lectures in my own time because I can stop and start and take as much time as I need .” Heavy user
    20. 20. @leonie_learning Revision vs Repetition quick lookover, to refresh your memory “They're great for a topic” on a moderate / regular user “It is excellent to be able to re-listen to exactly what was said and focus properly, as many times as you like.” moderate / regular user
    21. 21. @leonie_learning Back up if absent “If I miss a lecture they're the next best thing. I would always much rather be there.” light/occasional user “I like the feeling of safety as you have them for cross-reference and back-up of all that was said in the lecture theatre.” light/occasional user
    22. 22. @leonie_learning "These are the best resource provided by the college, making the course completely accessible at any time and in any place. […] In my case I have been ill for a large part of this year and would have found it very difficult to remain in the course without access to the recorded lectures." heavy user
    23. 23. @leonie_learning Similar to previous studies: very similar student comments obtained • Bramble & Singh (2011) survey responses from nearly 500 students at Queen Mary University, London • Panther, Wright & Mosse (2012): survey responses from 61 health science students and discussion with 17 focus group attendees at Monash University. • Scutter et al. (2010): survey responses from 61 students using audio podcasts for a medical radiation module at the University of South Australia
    24. 24. @leonie_learning What aspects of lecture capture do students dislike?
    25. 25. @leonie_learning Drawbacks of lecture capture Please explain what you dislike about having recorded lectures* • Restricted visuals • Time taken until available * 259 respondents (25% of MBBS 1 & 2 & Yr 1 Biomedical Sciences, Feb 2013)
    26. 26. @leonie_learning Uploading delays “I'd like to go through something on the same day while it's still fresh in my mind.” light/occasional user “Unless you want to be behind all the time, its best to go to the lecture.” moderate/regular user
    27. 27. @leonie_learning When recordings are wanted • Only 10% expect recordings on the same day • 42% might use them within one week  Providing recordings within a couple of days should keep 90% of students happy
    28. 28. @leonie_learning Why do students prefer live lectures?
    29. 29. @leonie_learning 94% survey respondents would still go to lectures if all recorded * Based on 308 responses, Feb 2013
    30. 30. @leonie_learning Students prefer live lectures 1. Live is more engaging so easier to concentrate. 2. Too many distractions on the computer / at home 3. You can't see as much in a recording – even with Echoplayer 4. Discipline of a set routine – and it can take longer to watch a recording if you're pausing and repeating. 5. Social interaction – both to see friends and be able to ask the lecturer questions immediately
    31. 31. @leonie_learning Recordings just for revision “The lecture recordings are good for revision, but not a substitute.” heavy user “I find the recordings most helpful after I have been to the lecture, as a recap and as revision.” light/occasional user
    32. 32. @leonie_learning Better concentration & understanding “I seem to remember more when I am hearing it straight from the speaker — for instance eye-contact really helps my concentration. Also I like the atmosphere of a large lecture hall.” light/occasional user “Recordings are too boring to study from, and being in my room all day would drive me crazy.” rare user
    33. 33. @leonie_learning Richer visual experience “It can be difficult to guess exactly what part of the slide the lecturer is talking about. Furthermore, I prefer to actually see who is talking.” light/occasional user
    34. 34. @leonie_learning Routine needed “If I was just watching the lectures online it would be too easy to fall behind.” light/occasional user “Helps with motivation to study. Also means I wake up earlier.” heavy user
    35. 35. @leonie_learning Social interaction “'Live' lectures are much more stimulating, it's enjoyable to learn with friends, I like to be able to see the lecturer and their body language / non-spoken communication.” light/occasional user “Being on campus and a part of the university environment keeps me motivated. If the only contact I had was through online lectures I would begin to feel quite detached from the course.” light/occasional user
    36. 36. @leonie_learning Similar views to lecturers “The learning experience is seldom as good in a recording and should not be seen as a substitute for attending lectures. I try to make my lectures interactive but in recordings there is no eye contact, no pointing, no interaction, interruptions are allowed, they can skip the entire thing as soon as they are bored. Also if students see a lecture all at the same time, they can discuss it together later. If they see the lecture at their own leisure, the communal aspect of learning is lost and it is easy to become very isolated.”
    37. 37. @leonie_learning Similar to previous studies: very similar student comments obtained • Gyspers et al. (2012): survey comments from 438 molecular bioscience students at the University of Sydney. Also, if there were no face-to-face lectures 52% of 563 would be disappointed & 23% would be angry. • Bramble & Singh (2011) survey comments from nearly 500 students at Queen Mary University, London • Panther, Wright & Mosse (2012): survey comments from 61 health science students and discussion with 17 focus group attendees at Monash University. • Gosper et al. (2008): survey responses from 199 accounting students and 4 telephone interviews, plus focus groups with 30 multimedia students, at Australian universities
    38. 38. @leonie_learning Why do students prefer recordings?
    39. 39. @leonie_learning 6% survey respondents would not go to lectures if all recorded * Based on 308 responses, Feb 2013
    40. 40. @leonie_learning Reasons recordings preferred Only 20 respondents prefer recordings to lectures. Common reasons: • They prefer to learn at their own pace • They concentrate better outside the lecture theatre • They have a long journey to campus
    41. 41. @leonie_learning Overflow section vs main hall 7% prefer to sit in an overflow section where just the lecture screen and audio are relayed. Despite the same restricted visuals as recordings, they like having more room, a quieter environment, or find it easier to hear and to see the slides.
    42. 42. @leonie_learning What are students’ perceptions of the recordings?
    43. 43. @leonie_learning Quality perceptions 45% 40% 35% 30% Very poor 25% Quite poor 20% Acceptable Good 15% Very Good 10% 5% 0% Sound Video image * Based on 285 respondents (Feb 2013) Download speed Time to load
    44. 44. @leonie_learning Preferred format: Echoplayer 59% prefer Echoplayer (video, screen capture and audio) * • Better visuals – video feature allows them to see the lecturer or where they were pointing to on the slides • Fuller experience – more ‘complete’ information or more similar to being in the lecture theatre; better integration between audio and visuals • Easier to follow the lecture in this format • Easy to skip / search * Based on 291 respondents (Feb 2013)
    45. 45. @leonie_learning Preferred format: mp4 41% prefer mp4 vodcast (screen capture and audio) * • Like having the screen capture, but video of lecturer is unnecessary or not good enough quality – might use it if pointer on slides showed up • Focus better without the distraction of too many windows • For some, Echoplayer won’t work on their preferred device or is too slow to load or mp4 gives better integration between audio and visuals • A few particularly wanted to download the lectures, sometimes so they can be played at different speeds * Based on 191 respondents (Feb 2013)
    46. 46. @leonie_learning Useful Echo features Which of these features would you use?* • • • 72% Scene: can jump to a particular slide • 40% Discussion: can ask questions or make comments at a particular time point 59% Video: video of the lecturer displayed as well as slides 46% Bookmark: can add a labelled bookmark at a particular time point * 114 respondents (Feb 2013)
    47. 47. @leonie_learning Improvements to lecture delivery • Use the mouse cursor instead of a laser pointer • Make it clear what slide you’re talking about (for audio only) • Speak clearly with the microphone located close enough • Keep to the allocated time (or final material not recorded) • Repeat any students’ questions “I wouldn‟t want the feedback to be that lecturers must stay very statically next to the microphone, „cause some of the best lecturers are the ones who wander round.”
    48. 48. @leonie_learning Including students’ questions 50% 45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Strongly against Prefer not * Based on 296 respondents (Feb 2013) Don't mind Prefer Strongly for
    49. 49. @leonie_learning Why do students think lecturers decide not to be recorded?
    50. 50. @leonie_learning Students’ perceptions of why lecturers opt out • 64% believe it is to encourage attendance • 28% think lecturers are protecting their content, either because of copyright or intellectual property – some confusion about these terms • 21% to avoid a permanent record, especially of their mistakes or inappropriate/ non-PC material/jokes • • • • • • 12% to promote students’ study skills 12% because they’re self-conscious: shy, private or lack confidence 10% think they’ve misunderstood students 6% because recordings are a poorer educational experience for students 5% think they’re being selfish 5% were unsure why
    51. 51. @leonie_learning Sympathetic to lecturers’ concerns “If I became a lecturer I personally wouldn‟t want them posted up either.” moderate/regular user “Do not feel confident enough to be recorded. Feel under more pressure whilst lecturing.” moderate/regular user
    52. 52. @leonie_learning Frustrated by lecturers’ concerns “No idea. Irritating. Even if they are scared of making a mistake, or of inappropriate comments, we are all intelligent enough to cope with that.” heavy user “Concern that they would be held to account over particularly poor lectures… Concern that they are using copyrighted material without permission in lectures and that they could be discovered.” moderate/regular user
    53. 53. @leonie_learning Lecturers aiming to benefit students “You would get more out of the lecture if you were there in person. People will get confused just listening to the recordings. ” non user “They may feel that the students will pay more attention in the lecture if there is only one chance of exposure to the information. (They are wrong; if a student is hungover or tired, nothing will make them pay more attention.)” light/occasional user
    54. 54. @leonie_learning Lecturers have misconceptions “These lecturers believe attendance to be beneficial to learning. However, I am certain that recordings are several fold better for my learning than actual attendance, and I have the self control to watch a recording rather than skip a lecture completely.” heavy user “Feel we're lazy if we don't go, [but it takes] the same amount of time it's up to the student how they wish to learn. They don't understand how relied upon it is for revision …They have no real reasons, just out of touch and selfish. We‟re paying £27k after all!!” to lean it online and rare user
    55. 55. @leonie_learning Lecturers’ concerns about attendance % serious concern % minor concern Undeserved access Poorer understanding Less interactivity Less peer-socialising More questions post-lectures Harder to lecture Less questions asked Demotivating to lecture Students falling behind 0 * Based on 33 respondents (May 2013) 20 40 60 80 100
    56. 56. @leonie_learning Students’ sympathy to typical optout reasons Copyright material Sensitive material Attendance: students may fall behind Jokes & mistakes held against lecturers Lecturers self-conscious Attendance: harder to understand recordings Students' study skills weaker Attendance: less interaction opportunities Attendance: can't tell if students confused… Students too reliant on recordings None selected 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50% *200 respondents, but percentages given for 253 who reached previous question
    1. A particular slide catching your eye?

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