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South Sudan's Jonglei State's Agricultural and Food Security Strategy Presentation Draft 17-Nov-2012
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South Sudan's Jonglei State's Agricultural and Food Security Strategy Presentation Draft 17-Nov-2012

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South Sudan's Largest State Jonglei's Strategic Plan by L. Bill Emerson -- For Elected Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF), Delivery to Jonglei Council of Ministers (CoM), Approval by......

South Sudan's Largest State Jonglei's Strategic Plan by L. Bill Emerson -- For Elected Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF), Delivery to Jonglei Council of Ministers (CoM), Approval by Jonglei Congressional Representatives & Signature of Governor of Jonglei State, H.E Lt. Gen. Eng. Kuol Manyang Juuk. Then forwarded to Republic of South Sudan in Juba where National Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry will use in their 5 year national strategic plan.

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  • (1) May be over-ambitious, (2) uses buzz-words “breadbasket” which people may not understand
  • QUESTION: (1) Relationship between Federal GoSS MAF and State’s MAF, (2) Budgeting Process,
  • QUESTION: (1) Relationship between Federal GoSS MAF and State’s MAF, (2) Budgeting Process,
  • (1) May be over-ambitious, (2) uses buzz-words “breadbasket” which people may not understand
  • (1) May be over-ambitious, (2) uses buzz-words “breadbasket” which people may not understand
  • (1) May be over-ambitious, (2) uses buzz-words “breadbasket” which people may not understand
  • (1) May be over-ambitious, (2) uses buzz-words “breadbasket” which people may not understand
  • (1) May be over-ambitious, (2) uses buzz-words “breadbasket” which people may not understand

Transcript

  • 1. Jonglei Agricultural & ForestryStrategic Development Plan Summary Draft for 2012 - 2017 Policy & Strategic Plan Thematic Areas Overview Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF) Jonglei State Government (JSG) Republic of South Sudan (RSS)20 November 2012 MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 1
  • 2. Jonglei Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF) JFSP: Jonglei Food Security Program OUTLINE – MAF Strategic Plan‘s Summary Presentation 1) Vision – The Jonglei MAF Ministry‟s “Vision Statement,” 2) Mission – The MAF‟s “Mission Statement,” 3) Core ―Values‖ – Statement of dedication to help farmers, in line with RSS MAF “Values”, 4) Goals – The MAF major “Overall Goals,” with specific goals & objectives later related to this. 5) Background On Jonglei & MAF Strategic Plan – Introductory information 6) Livelihood Zones & Agro-climatic Maps – Livelihood zones & related maps, 7) Jonglei‘s Agricultural & Forestry Producers – Farmers & producer groups, 8) Jonglei‘s Agricultural & Forestry Production – Major crops, forest products, 9) Jonglei Grain Production & Food Aid/Security Data – Grain crops & food aid statistics,10) Jonglei‘s Agro-Forest Sector Constraints – Constraints, limitations & SWOT Analysis11) MAF Jonglei State (JS) Strategies – Strategies designed to reduce constraints to growth12) Specific Objectives & Strategies – Linking strategies with specific objectives & activities13) Implementation Framework & Activities – Stakeholders proposed activities appropriate within Jonglei livelihood zones to reach the MAF‟s vision, goals & objectives.14) Action Plan: 2012/13 thru 2015/16 for MAF Food Security and Livelihoods Improvement15) Summary Conclusions: Overall summary of interviews and input by stakeholders, from subsistence farmers to high level government officials, including university professors, women producer groups, & agric‟l university student leaders. 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 2
  • 3. Jonglei Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF) 1. ―Vision‖ StatementA prosperous, growing, innovative, and demanddriven rural economy that generates new jobs byadopting appropriate technologies for Jonglei‟sfarmers and agro-forestry producer groups. TheMAF supports ecological agro-forestry managementso to yield more crops, forest products, and foodsecurity with environmentally sustainable growth.20 November 2012 MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 3draft
  • 4. Jonglei Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF) 2. ―Mission Statement‖ To facilitate the transformation of agriculture and forestry in Jonglei from subsistence farming and a limited forest products sector so to change into a scientifically based, socially acceptable, and economically sustainable market-driven sectors supporting rural growth in income and employment.20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 4
  • 5. Jonglei Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF) 3. CORE ―VALUES‖ The Jonglei State MAF “values” are based upon the nationaland state government‟s values, (as are the JS MAFgoals, visions, and mission). The Jonglei MAF valuespromoting excellence in extension and farm supportwork, accountability, transparency, integrity, inclusivity, andmainstreaming gender, and environmental concerns. Working under these overarching national RSS “values”, theJonglei State MAF values food security and serving farmers byboosting crop harvests, producing more than enough to coverfood security needs, so to create market opportunities fortrade, investment, business growth, and employment. 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 5
  • 6. Jonglei Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF) 4. MAF ―Goals‖ & ―Objectives 4.1 Overall ―Goals‖The overall Jonglei MAF Goal is to reduce poverty, improvefood security, and advance rural livelihoods by supporting agrowing farm sector. The MAF aims to boost farmproductivity, advance agricultural competitiveness, supportsustainable growth in forest products, promote localeconomic growth, and create more jobs.20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 6
  • 7. Jonglei Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF) 4. MAF Goals4.2 Key Goals & Objective: (a) Strengthen Agro-Forest Productivity and (b) Reach 100% Food Security To improve performance to dramatically improve agricultural and forest productivity, reach 100% food security, double household income and achieve sustainable rural economic growth.20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 7
  • 8. Jonglei Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF) 5. Strategic Goals & Strategic Objectives 5.1 Strengthening Institution Capacity SG # 1: Strengthen Institutional Capacity toGuide, Supervise, Coordinate, and Monitor all Activities in the Agricultural and Forestry Sectors1.1 Institute and implement measures to train staff in diverse technical and management areas1.2 Recruit, deploy, and pay qualified staff within technical areas at the MAF HQs and in all the counties1.3 Initiate and implement mechanisms to enhance linkages and coordination with organizations in the agricultural and forestry sectors within and outside the State, particularly with NGOs and universities. 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 8
  • 9. Jonglei Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF) 5. Strategic Goals & Strategic Objectives 5.2 Improve Agricultural and Forestry Production and Productivity SG # 2: Improve Agricultural and Forestry Production and Productivity through Technology Transfers and Sustainable use of Natural Resources1.1 Institute and implement measures to train staff in diverse technical and management areas1.2 Recruit, deploy, and pay qualified staff within technical areas at the MAF HQs and in all the counties1.3 Initiate and implement mechanisms to enhance linkages and coordination with organizations in the agricultural and forestry sectors within and outside the State, particularly with NGOs and universities. 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 9
  • 10. Jonglei Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF) 5. Strategic Goals & Strategic Objectives 5.3 Promote Farm and Forestry Market Chain Business SG # 3: Promote Farm and Forestry Market Chain Business in Domestic and Regional Markets3.1. Improved infrastructures, including roads, agricultural and forestry product markets3.2. Increase access to marketing services e.g. financial services, market management, business skills etc.3.3. Improve the processing, handling and safety of agricultural and forest products within the state. 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 10
  • 11. 6. Situation Analysis: Background on Jonglei Agro-Forestry Economy 6.1 — a Jonglei Largest State, Rural Population, Government & MAF6.1.1 Jonglei South Sudan‘s Largest State: Jonglei State is the largest state inSouthern Sudan, with approximately 124,990 square kilometers (km2). The latestreliable census of 2008, conducted for the Sudanese election, placed Jonglei‟spopulation at 1.36 million; coupled with a large influx of returnees and a boomingbirth rate have now put this estimate at above 1.5 million people (sourceFAO/WFP). Ethnicity is listed as Nuer, Dinka, Murle, Anyuak, Jie, and Kachipo, indescending order of Jonglei‟s population size.6.1.2 Traditional Subsistence Farming: Jonglei is South Sudan‟s largeststate, with the largest area of unused arable land available for new plantings of treefarms/orchards and/or annual field crops. Over 95% of producers are subsistencefarmers, with traditional low yielding agro-pastoralist cropping practices. Mostexperts believe farm output is less than 10% of its potential due to 3 decades ofwarfare, inter-tribal/ethnic conflicts, poor infrastructure, traditional farming viahandheld tools, and limited plantings. 20 November 2012 MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 11
  • 12. 6. Situation Analysis: Background on Jonglei Agro-Forestry Economy 6.2 — a Jonglei Largest State, Rural Population, Government & MAF6.2.1 RSS‘ Role: The Gov‟t of Republic of South Sudan (RSS) is a federalsystem with most of the states‟ budget coming from RSS budgets heavilydependent on oil export revenues. With oil exports via the Khartoumpipeline shut down, RSS funds dropped dramatically. Consequently RSSfunding to South Sudan‟s states also decreased.6.2.2 State Gov‘t: Within South Sudan, the state governments (gov‟t) arelargely autonomous, with elected state governors playing a predominantrole. The Governor‟s Cabinet is chosen from the elected state legislators &non-elected intellectuals. The governor appoints key CountyCommissioners to “keep the peace” and represent the governor in all 11counties. 20 November 2012 MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 12
  • 13. 6. Situation Analysis: Background on Jonglei Agro-Forestry Economy 6.3 Jonglei‘s Population Density & Ethnic Groups General Data Jonglei has122,479 km2. Population according to 2008 census is 1,358,602 – but returnees are placed at 10% of a growing population, now estimated at 1.5 million by UN/FAO reports. Jonglei has 11 counties: Twic East, Duk, Bor, Akob <70K o, Nyirol, Uror, Pibor, Pochalla , Ayod 70K-100K , Pigi/Canal, and100K -150K Fangak. 5 key ethnic groups are150K - 200K Nuer, Dinka, Murle, >200K Anyuak & Kachipo. Source: UNDP/NBS – Juba 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 13
  • 14. 6. Situation Analysis: Background on Jonglei Agro-Forestry 6.4 — Jonglei’s State Government Under RSS South Sudan & Jonglei State Government Levels 1st Republic of South Sudan (RSS) Central Gov‘t 1st - – National (nat‟l) government (gov‟t) has Ministry of RSS Agriculture and Forestry (MAF) with the RSS level Nat‘l shaping the framework of the Jonglei State MAF 2nd Level: 10 RSS States, Jonglei is 1 of 10 States Gov‘t 2nd – – Jonglei has 11 counties & 4 Livelihood Zones States: 10 – Many Int‟l Programs managed at State level in RSS – Jonglei has 6 major languages, & local dialects 3rd Level: 11 Counties in Jonglei State 3rd – Counties: – Most Extension Offices Based on County Offices 11 counties in JS for Administrative Support. Many farm programs based on county level implementation oversight – County Commissioners often help MAF 4th – Payams: 4th Level: Payams, Sub-County Areas, 5 to 7 ave. Sub-counties, about a – Many farmer associations have grown beyond 5–7 ave. of payams in Jonglei‘s 11 counties Boma area to be payam sized producer group 5th Level: Boma, or Village Area (local Chiefs) 5th – Bomas (villages): – Villages have community owned land. Producer Divisions of areas in a Groups are usually village based; yet many payam, a 6-10 ave. in JS villages are divided into sub-village farmer groups. 6th Level: Sub-Village Organizations (local Chiefs) 6th – Sub-Villages, Large villages – Villages or Producer Groups & Associations are may have 1-3 producer the level at which extension work, cooperatives, & groups, often organized farmer training centers are organized. according to foods produced
  • 15. 6. Situation Analysis: Background on Jonglei Agro-Forestry6.5 a — Jonglei is More Donor Dependent & Relies Less on Local Farm Food 20 November 2012 15
  • 16. 6. Situation Analysis: Background on Jonglei Agro-Forestry6.5 b — Jonglei Rural Population- Traditional Farm Planting & Low Crop Yields―It ‗aint‘ what you dont know that gets you into trouble. Its what you know for sure that just ‗aint‘ so.‖- Mark Twain‟s Saying, Rural American Writer & Lecturer 1835-1910 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 16
  • 17. 6. Situation Analysis: Background on Jonglei Agro-Forestry6.5 c — NGOs in Jonglei tried to introduce Cattle Pulled Plows; they were not accepted. 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 17
  • 18. 6. Situation Analysis: Background on Jonglei Agro-Forestry 6.5 d — NGOs in Jonglei tried to introduce Cattle Pulled Plows 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 18
  • 19. 6. Situation Analysis: Background on Jonglei Agro-Forestry6.5 e — With Jonglei’s Heavy Clay Soils, Farmers Need Mechanized Tractor Farming for More & Better Plantings 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 19
  • 20. 6. Situation Analysis: Background on Jonglei Agro-Forestry 6.5 g — South Sudan & Jonglei’s Dinka Cattle or Landleb Cattle Big Horns to Look Good – Many Agro- Pastoralist Believe Plows Hurt Cattle; Most Jonglei Cattle Grown for Value & Prestige, With Big Horns – But Not Like Watusi Horn Cattle Below (with the World’s Largest Horns)South Sudanese Cattle, hardy breed, but not selected for meat or Most developed countries have polled, or hornless cattle, since hornsmilk production, rather size & impressive appearance for take valuble nutrition away from meat and milk production.Wedding Doweries. Although South Sudanese & Jonglei’s cattle However, World’s largest cow/bull horns found in USA farm, fromappear to be a valuable source of food, in fact they are more a Watusi African Cattle Breed. This bull is only “for show” and doesstore of value, rather than bred for meat and/or milk production. not serve for useful breeding of milk and/or meat production, as mostJonglei cattle have very low yields of meat and milk. developed countries’ cattle. 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 20
  • 21. 6. Situation Analysis: Background on Jonglei Agro-Forestry6.3 — h Jonglei has had a large number of potable water ―Bor Holes‖ drilled down usually about 80to 90 meters in depth, where the subsoil water usually tests as free of microbes & drinkable/potable ― ‗Climate Is ‗What You Expect,‘ while ‗Weather Is What You Get,‘ ‖ – Mark Twain 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 21
  • 22. 6. Situation Analysis: Background on Jonglei Agro-Forestry 6.4 Jonglei ‟s Farmland, Soil Types, and Crops6.4.1 Land and Crops: Although Jonglei State has South Sudan‟s largest land areaand over 30% classified a cultivable, only about 2% is under cultivation to annualcrops, mostly sorghum. The majority of the soil is heavy clay or “Black Cotton” soilswhere drainage canals and irrigation are often needed, but little rural drainage canalsexist. Hence, most Black Cotton soil is in sorghum. Where irrigation is used, it ismostly near Bor for vegetable crops in the dry season. Sandy soil predominates ineastern Jonglei near the Ethiopian border, or in Akobo and Pochalla, wherevegetables, tree fruit and Shea Butter Nut can be found. The Boma area has higherelevations with well-drained clay loam soils with organic material, where vegetablesand white corn grows well.6.4.2 Mechanized Farming: Until 2012, very little land was prepared for planting withtractors, However, some new Massey Ferguson tractors were recently sent out toeach county in April, 2012 and have begun to prepare the land for seeding with: (a)rakes for weeding, (b) discs for breading up the soil, and (c) new seeders. New MAFpolicies favor more mechanized farming. 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 22
  • 23. 6. Situation Analysis: Background on Jonglei Agro-Forestry 6.5 Jonglei ‟s Economy, Government, & MAF6.5.1 Economy Oil Export Dependency: With average oil exports, Jonglei Stateusually has relatively large resources of budgets and staffing. Given South Sudan‟sper capita income is about US$1/day, the size and reach of the state gov‟ts, and theirlocal county based staff are of key importance for Jonglei‟s rural economy.6.5.2 MAF HQ Bor City: While Jonglei‟s MAF headquarters are in Bor City, the MAFhas a network of offices, and a number of extension specialists recently hired inJongleis 11 Counties. There are land allotments for model demonstration farms setaside, however, with budget cut-backs due to a cut-off of oil exports via the Khartoumoil pipeline, the funding for these activities has been delayed and/or reduced in-linewith the new budgets. Moreover, many of the MAF (and MLF) extension specialistshave been “seconded” to the FAO and NGOs.6.5.3 MAF Planning: Thus, the 5 year Strategic Plan is for effective use of MAFresources. 20 November 2012 MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 23
  • 24. 6. Situation Analysis: Background on Jonglei Agro-Forestry 6.6 Jonglei‘s Major Social & Rural Economic Indicators6.6.1 Rural Poverty & Security: As in many countries, poverty is concentrated in ruralareas. One of the major reasons why a rural to urban population shift is a world-widetrend, however, in Jonglei the security issue is also a cause for urban migration.6.6.2 Population Density Versus Land Use: The population density at 11.1 peopleper km2 in 2008. With current farmland use of only 0.8% of the total area, thepopulation density on arable land is placed at about 70 people/km2. Thus, Jonglei hasvast unpopulated areas, with average land holdings of 0.63 hectares, smaller thanmost other states in Southern Sudan. This is due largely to insecurity and seasonalflooding.6.6.3 Jonglei‘s Poverty The level of poverty in Jonglei, like the rest of Sudan, is highwith the „incidence of poverty‟ said to be over 48% - which is at about the nationalaverage of 50.6%, with many people having a per-capita income of about US$1 a day.The level of poverty is high because Jonglei State is still recovering from thedevastating effects of 23 years of conflict that destroyed nearly all socio-economicinfrastructures and displaced thousands of residents both internally and externally. 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 24
  • 25. 6. Situation Analysis: Background on Jonglei Agro-Forestry 6.7 Rural Livelihoods Overview in Jonglei6.7.1 Agriculture Key to Rural Economy: Agricultural, livestock and fisheries sectorsprovide the main base of the local economy. Unfortunately, the potential productivity inthese sectors have not been fully tapped and food security is a major concern in thestate, with much of the population dependent on donated food during the rainy season.6.7.2 Sorghum Main Crop. By far the main crop is sorghum – white, yellow, andred/brown – with some other minor grains such as millet, and canary seed that can alsowithstand wet fields for long periods of time. Corn is only grow above the flood plains, inareas such as Boma where there is good drainage. Vegetables are being started upwith small irrigation pumps along the Nile River, grown on raised beds during the dryseason. Tree fruit include mangos, lemons/limes, and Shea oil nuts. When supportedby earlier government, rice was an important crop, but has later shown to be hard toproduce without significant government assistance. However, wild rice is still found inTwic East and other areas of the Sudd swamp lands.6.73 Livestock and Fish: Although cattle and shoats are found almosteverywhere, cattle are not a significant source of food, being viewed traditionally as avaluable commodity, socially exchanged for wedding dowries, and used for prestige.The Sudd is the largest marsh and swamp lands that are a source of pasture in the dryseason, and has a rich in fish. However, most fish come from the Nile and other majorrivers. 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 25
  • 26. 6. Situation Analysis: Background on Jonglei Agro-Forestry 6.8 Jonglei‘s Security, Conflicts, and Rural Economy 6.8.1 Jonglei‘s Farm Production Problems: In spite of an abundance of fertile farmland, Jonglei‟s most best farming areas continue to suffer from crop shortfalls, low crop yields, limited planted areas, and chronic food insecurity. Communities lack the capacity to plan for, respond to and mitigate the effects of twin economic shocks of famine and violence, while the state government has also faced capacity limitations. 6.8.2 Inter-Ethnic Tribal Conflicts: Jonglei State recorded the highest incidence of violent conflict in Southern Sudan in 2010 and 2011, with the majority classified as inter-tribal conflicts. The main actors in Jonglei‟s complex conflict system are the pastoralist-nomadic communities of Lou Nuer, Jeanie Nuer, Dinka, and Murle. Conflict typically centers on migratory patterns, access to water, political and military disputes, and cattle rustling. Inflated dowry payments often drive young men to raid cattle, while other cattle raids are a traditional rite of passage for a boy to enter manhood. 6.8.3 Livestock Robbery & Sorghum Thefts: Some of the state and local authorities claim that much of the criminal activity is simply due to criminal groups and armed groups that escaped the early 2012 governments disarmament campaign by the army and police. Although recent government efforts to disarm the population, and improve the presence of the police and security forces in Jonglei truly seems to have helped in most countries, most farm communities report a severe reluctance to expand food plantings even if they had more planting seeds, due to limited secure storage areas/facilities and grain thefts. 20 November 2012 26
  • 27. 6. Situation Analysis: Background on Jonglei Agro-Forestry 6.9 – a Cash Crops: Sell Forest Fruit, Medicinal Plants for Money so to Eat 20 November 2012 27
  • 28. 7. Livelihood Zones & Agro-climatic Maps7.2 — a Jonglei‘s Leading Position within South Sudan for (1) Animal Migrations, (2) National Parks, (3) Wildlife Reserves, and (4) Wetlands 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 28
  • 29. 7. Livelihood Zones & Agro-climatic Maps7.2 — b Zooming in on Jonglei‘s Leading Position within South Sudan for (1) Animal Migrations, (2) National Parks, (3) Wildlife Reserves, and (4) Wetlands 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 29
  • 30. 7. Livelihood Zones & Agro-climatic Maps7.2 — c Jonglei‘s Thousand of ―White-Eared Kob‖ Annual Migration from Boma National Park;WCS Considers this Spectacle to Seasonal Migration of Animals in Tanzania‘s Serengeti Plains . 2010 National Geographic Magazine Photo by George Steinmetz traveling with the Wildlife Conservation Society 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 30
  • 31. 7. Livelihood Zones & Agro-climatic Maps7.2 — d Jonglei‘s Thousand of Elephants Seasonal Migration in Jonglei during Changing Pasture Conditions of Rainy and Dry Season. 2010 National Geographic Magazine Photo by George Steinmetz documenting the Wildlife Conservation Society‟s Work in Jonglei 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 31
  • 32. 7. Livelihood Zones & Agro-climatic Maps 7.2 — d Jonglei State ―Sudd‖ Area Wetlands of Seasonal Floating Vegetation ProvidedSanctuary for Wildlife during South Sudan‘s 25 Years of Civil War. The Khartoum Jonglei Canal Project of 1970-84 was often said to drain the Sudd.20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 32
  • 33. 7. Livelihood Zones & Agro-climatic Maps 7.2 — d Jonglei State‘s Sudd Area Seasonal Fishing Islands of the Rainy Season.20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 33
  • 34. 7. Livelihood Zones & Agro-climatic Maps 7.3 Jonglei General Maps: Topography or Altitudes Jonglei State‟s lowest altitude is in Fangak County, and the highest altitude in Boma Payam of Pibor County. The rest of Jonglei is flatlands, level plains of savannah grasses mixed with trees and some parks and forested areas.Altitude in Meters (m) 381 – 400m 400 - 425m 425-450m 450-475m 475-500m 500-750m 750-1000m 1000-1688m Source: UNDP/NBS – Juba 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 34
  • 35. 7. Livelihood Zones & Agro-climatic Maps 7.4 Jonglei General Maps: Average Annual Rainfall.30 Years of Weather Reports Show Declining Rainfall Trend, with More Eratic Patterns of Rainfall Under 670mm 670-700mm 700-750mm 750-800mm 800-832mm Source: UNDP/NBS – Juba 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 35
  • 36. 7. Livelihood Zones & Agro-climatic Maps 7.5 Jonglei Seasonal Rainfall Patterns of Annual Rainfall. “Climate Is „What You Expect,‟ while „Weather Is What You Get,‟” – Mark Twain20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 36
  • 37. 7. Livelihood Zones & Agro-climatic Maps 7.6 South Sudan‘s Map of All its Climatic and/or Livelihood Zones (LZ)20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 37
  • 38. 7. Livelihood Zones & Agro-Forestry Climates 7.7.1 Nile Sobat Rivers Agro-Forestry Climate & Livelihood Zones (LZ)----- Nile-Sobat Rivers Climate and Livelihood Zone ----- Nile Sobat Rivers Zone-- Bor, Twic east, Duk, Ayod, Fangak, Pigi, Akobo, and Nyirol Agro-Pastoral Area-- Ethnic Tribes: Dinka, Nuer and Anuak Tribes.-- Population: Estimated at 472,000 people.-- Weather: Annual rainfall is 670mm - 850mm in April - Nov.-- Livelihoods: Agro-pastoral, farming and fishing.-- Soil: “Heavy, dark grey to chocolate clays…rich in fertility.””Waterlogging problems could be solved through construction ofsurface drainage systems or by deep soil ripping and ploughing.”as quoted from Dr. John Garang‟s Doctoral thesis at Iowa StateUniversity in 1981(Garang, Dr. J.M.,1981:pp.40-41)-- Climate Change & Agro-Forestry Problems: (a) rainfall declining & more erratic (b) soilfertility down ( N) & top soil erosion, (c) forested areas down, (d) almost no water drainagesystems, (e) seed quality down, (f) crop losses to pests/diseases, (g) post harvest losses (silos?) 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 38
  • 39. 7. Livelihood Zones & Agro-Forestry Climates 7.7.2 Central Flood Plain Agro-Forest ClimateCentral Flood Plain Livelihood Zone-- Twic East, Ayod, Nyirol, Uror, Bor, Akobo & Pochalla Central Flood Plain-- Nuer, Dinka, and Anyuak tribes Agro-Pastoral Climate-- Population estimated at 565,000 people.-- Weather: Annual rainfall is 500 - 600mm in April - Oct.-- Livelihoods are mainly agro-pastoral communities producingsorghum, cattle, and shoats.----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1) Agriculture: Poor Sorghum crop yields, with declining soil fertility & old sorghum seeds; some mangos, few veggies 2) Forestry: Forest cover cut-back for firewood- charcoal, construction, & Jonglei‟s rural citizens, thus losing the use of : (a) Gum Arabica species, Acacia polyacantha & Acacia senegal, are found in the area, but sales transport problem (b) “Haraz” (hiraz) or “Winter Thorn Tree” - Faidherbia albida (syn. Acacia albida) N-capture roots drops leaves in winter & fertilizes rainy season sorghum & maize crops grown nearby in Kenya.3) Climate Change: “Over the past 40 years rainfall in the region has fallen by 30 percent” (Brown O., 2007: p.1143). “waterlogging of mismanaged agricultural lands, (and) forest die-back (Falkenmark, Dr. Malin, 1990: p.177). 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 39
  • 40. 7. Livelihood Zones & Agro-Forestry Climates 7.7.3 Mountains, Hills, & Valleys Agro-Forestry Livelihood Zone (LZ)Mountains, Hills & Valleys – Boma‘s Agro-Forest Zone Mountains, Hills & Valleys-- Pibor County only, (a) Boma & (b) Miwuon Payams, Boma‟s Agro-Climate-- Ethnic Tribes: (i) Murle, (ii) Jie and (iii) Kachipo,-- Population: 10,000 people,-- Climate: March-November rains of 700mm to 960mm annually,--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Livelihoods: Agriculture, some forestry, few livestock (mainly goats & poultry). Some cattle with Wild Game in nearby Boma Park-- Main Crops: White & yellow corn, sorghum, cassava, mangos, and vegetables, with two (2) annual crop harvests (Apr.-July & Aug.-Nov.)-- Other Natural Resources: Boma National Park, trees for wood, thorn trees for fences, wild yams, wild game, wild honey & forest herbs.** Agricultural Situation: (1) Good drainage and good soil, (2) poor roads, no market access to Bor or Consumer Markets (3) Local donor dependency for WFP/NGO Food Donations, (4) little MAF extension coverage, (5) lack of technical knowledge, (6) farmers expanding areas. 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 40
  • 41. 7. Livelihood Zones & Agro-Forestry Climates 7.7.4 Arid and Pastoral Livelihood ZonesArid and Pastoral Livelihood Zones-- Pibor County: Western & Central Pibor Payams, Southern Arid Pastoral Zone-- Ethnic Tribal Group: Murle tribe,-- Population: 30,000 people.-- Weather: Annual rainfall is 500 - 600mm in April - Oct.-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Livelihood is agro-pastoral communities mostly raising livestock and growing some crops in rainy season.– Terrain Vegetation: Dry desert and pastoral savannah- grasslands vegetation & occasional Acacia tree stands.------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1) Agro-Pastoral: Mostly subsistence agro-pastoral production, with migratory practices to support livestock accompanied by limited crop production in rainy season.2) Forestry: The limited number of trees are being cut-back for firewood, charcoal & building.-- Ag. Situation, Climate Change & Environmental Issues: (a) rainfall declining and moreerratic, unpredictable, (b) growing desertification, (c) loss of savannah grass coverage, (d)traditional cattle and shoat production, with poor pasture, low calving (reproduction) rates, heavydisease losses. 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 41
  • 42. 7. Livelihood Zones & Agro-Forestry Climates7.8 Pastoral & Arid Zones – Tradition Milk for Pastoral Families Not Enough20 November 2012 42
  • 43. 7. Livelihood Zones & Agro-Forestry Climates 7.9 South Sudan and Jonglei‟s Tribal Area Mapping, by States & Counties20 November 2012 43
  • 44. 8. Jonglei‘s Agricultural Farmers and Forestry Producers 8.1 Farmers, Agro-Pastoral & Agro-Forestry Producers8.1.1 SMALL SUBSISTENCE FARMS of MOSTLY SORGHUM & LIVESTOCK:(a) Jonglei has mostly small individual landholdings and village community farmlandholdings. Many farmers have “Agro-Pastoralist” traditions both growing cropsand raising livestock.(b) Men generally take care of cattle and do the hard work of land preparation.(c) Women tend the shoats, gather wood, cook and raise vegetables, if grown.(d) Labor-Land Preparation: Preparing land of mostly “Black Cotton Soils,” is hardwork, so young men are often not interested in farm land work without being paid.8.1.2 Medium and Large Farms: (a) The government owns most large land tracts.(b) Jonglei has few, if any, large farms besides village community owned farmlands,(c) Since most farm areas are less than 2 feddans (1 hectare=2.38 feddans), mostlarger plantings are considered medium to large farms. 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 44
  • 45. 8. Jonglei‘s Agricultural Farmers & Forestry Producers 8.2 Farm Producer Groups, Coops, & Forestry Producers8.2.1 PRODUCER GROUPS: The MAF are promoting village based farmer groupsas a mechanism to provide assistance and training. For example, the new tractorsdistributed in April 2012 to Jonglei‟s 11 Counties are made available to producergroups who register with the MAF, usually via the nearest county or payam MAFrepresentative and/or MAF extension official.8.2.2 COOPERATIVES: The Ministry of Cooperatives and Rural Development(MCRD) works with the MAF in promoting village based farmercooperatives, usually at a village level, as a mechanism to provide assistance andtraining.8.2.3 TREE PRODUCERS: Most trees planted are tree fruits, such asMangos, Shea nut oil, lemons, papaya, and bananas. Some older teak trees areleft over from some older plantations. Mostly native Acacia thorn trees are used forfirewood and traditional hut/house building. The World Agro-Forestry (AGRA) ispushing Acacia albida or “Haraz” MAF 5 Yearfor nitrogen rich sorghum and corn crops. tree in Strategic Plan 20 November 2012 draft Page 45
  • 46. 8. Jonglei‘s Agricultural & Forestry Production 8.3 Jonglei‘s Field Crops, – Grains: Locally Grown & Imported8.3.1 CROPS – SORGHUM: By far, sorghum is the main cropgrown, planted after the seasonal rains start in May andJune, with white, yellow, red, and brown sorghum grown. Thepreference for the sweet white and yellow sorghum is oftenoffset by the problem with the birds, who do not eat the brownsorghum because its brown tannic acid is hard to digest. 8.3.2 OTHER GRAIN CROPS: Some other grains, canaryseed, millet, and white corn are grown where flooding is not aseasonal problem, while rice used to be grown in many areas(but appears to be on limited at best). Well over 75% of thegrain crop is sorghum, all for human consumption and some Healthy Sorghum Plantsorghum is for locally brewing beer.8.3.3 GRAIN DONATIONS: Sorghum, plus all other grain crops (maize, canaryseed, etc.) are added up for a total South Sudan & Jonglei “FAO/WFP AnnualSurvey of Food Security Needs,” which consistently shows that South Sudan andJonglei is only producing 50% to 70% of their cereal needs; this FAO/WFP reportestimates food security needs for annual donations (see section 9.3 & 9.4 tables). 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 46
  • 47. 8. Jonglei‘s Agricultural & Forestry Production 8.2 Jonglei‘s Other Field Crops – Ground Nuts and Rice8.2.1 GROUND NUTS: Peanuts or ground nuts do well in most of the betterdrained areas of Jonglei, during the rainy season, since irrigation water is verylimited, and mostly used for higher value fresh vegetables.8.2.2 RICE: Some wild rice grows well in Twic East, but little cultivated rice hasdone well without int‟l donor of government subsidy projects. Rice is laborintensive compared with sorghum, and farmers much be trained to grow it. Beforethe last outbreak of the war, there were large Int‟l assistance projects for growingrice in Jonglei, but they stopped due to the then worsening security situation.Although most informed sources claim there is much potential to grow rice inJonglei, they say that farmers need some training, some assistance withinputs, improved water control methods suitable for rice, and appropriate riceseeds of varieties of rice that may grow in Jonglei. Thus far, commercial riceproduction has not recovered from the war years and not yet done well in Jongleistate. 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 47
  • 48. 8. Jonglei‘s Agricultural & Forestry Production 8.3 Jonglei‘s Ag. Sectors: Cassava, Vegetables & Niche Crops8.3.1 CASSAVA: Cassava is grown in some of the higher elevations where fields are welldrained, and where there are sandy soils that have better drainage, such as in eastern Jongleinear the Ethiopian border. Unfortunately, this high yielding crop has not yet taken off. Thereare reports of disease problems and the need for testing in trial plantings for disease resistantvarieties.8.3.2 VEGETABLES: Vegetable growing of okra, tomatoes, kale and other hot weathervegetables are beginning by small producer groups and some independent farmers, but this is arecent development beginning to spread. Unfortunately, there is little data on this.8.3.3 TOBACCO: Tobacco is grown in some of the well drained agro-ecological zones ofJonglei. Most tobacco is locally consumed since usage is declining.8.3.4 WILD HERBS & FOREST FRUITS: Gum Arabica and Shea Butter Nut Oil (Lulu) areimportant wild tree crops, but sales marketing channels have been disrupted since the war withnew sales channels forming via Kenya and Ethiopia. There are reports of reports of a number ofwild herbs, some of which are beginning to be cultivated. However, so far this seems to be alocal market. 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 48
  • 49. 8. Jonglei‘s Agricultural & Forestry Production 8.4 Tree Fruit and Wood Producers8.4.1 FRUIT TREE HORTICULTURAL CROPS: Small farms and a few orchards have treesplanted are tree fruits, such as mangos, Shea nut oil, lemons, and papaya. Few new lemon orShea nut trees are being planted. Likewise, there also seems to be depressed market pricesfor mangos, which all come at once, with much spoilage/post harvest losses since they do notship well, and nearby farmers lack simple, low-cost mango juice/pulp processing machines,and packaging materials.8.4.2 TREES for WOOD: Virtually no trees are planted for wood, but mostly Acacia treesnative, cut down used for firewood and small traditional hut/house construction. Before the warsome teak trees were planted in Jonglei, but almost all have been cut down and exported.8.4.3 FERTILIZER TREES: World Agro-Forestry (www.worldagroforestry.org) and Alliance fora Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA) is pushing Acacia albida or “Haraz” (now re-classified asFaidherbia albida) since it grows well inter-cropped with corn and maize, shedding nitrogenrich leaves in the rainy season, which corn and sorghum lack in South Sudan and most ofAfrica. Forestry and crop professors in Dr. John Garang University are starting trail plantingsof native “Haraz” tree in which work in cycle with local corn and sorghum crops. 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 49
  • 50. 8. Jonglei‘s Agricultural & Forestry Production 8.5 Jonglei‘s Agro-Forest Sectors- Tree Fruit & Hardwoods8.5.1 TREE FRUIT - MANGOS: Mangos are by-far the leading tree fruit. As in manycountries, mangos come onto the market seasonably, but do not ship well, so simplejuice processing machinery could be used.8.5.2 TREE FRUIT - LEMONS: Lemons come onto the market seasonably, but they arerather easily sold in the market, and do not seem to be in large quantities.8.5.3 WILD TREE NUT – SHEA BUTTER NUT OIL: There is an int‟l market incosmetics for Shea Butter Nut Oil. Unfortunately, the industry does not seem wellestablished, having lost much of its marketing channels during the war years.8.5.4 TEAK WOOD: Teak trees are not native to South Sudan, but do seem to grow inparts of Jonglei, probably having been introduced by the British. There RSS MAFcharges a tax on its export.8.5.5 MOHOGANY WOOD: There have been claims that a native Mahogany tree growsin Jonglei, however, this valuable species does not seem to grow much in Jonglei. 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan3 Page 50
  • 51. 8. Jonglei‘s Agricultural & Forestry Production8.6 Jonglei‘s Agro-Forest Sectors - Food Shortages - Limited Options 20 November 2012 MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 51
  • 52. 8. Jonglei‘s Agricultural & Forestry Production 8.7 Fertilizer: Almost All from Livestock Dung – Cattle Camps Sell to Farmers Tie In Livestock with Agricultural Crop Farmers - FertilizerBut Not Enough Fertilizer from Manure – But Jonglei‟s Soil Lacks Key Plant Nutrients Most cattle camps sell manure to farmers, but Jonglei farmers need training on soil fertility 20 November 2012 52
  • 53. 9. Jonglei‘s Grain Production & Food Aid/Security Statistics 9.1 Jonglei‘s Grain Production, by Counties 2009-2011 PLANTINGS- Area in Cereals YIELDS- M. Tons PRODUCTION, Gross, Metric Jongleis Counties Hectares (ha) per Hectare (mt/ha) Tons (mt) YEARS - 2009-10-11 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 2009 2010 2011 JONGLEI, total 103,558 142,705 128,394 0.45 0.73 0.63 46,809 104,841 81,290 Returnees, total state 1,549 2,120 1,803 0.29 0.60 0.45 444 1,272 811 Akobo County 9,141 12,598 11,344 0.69 0.75 0.70 6,295 9,448 7,941 Ayod County 9,804 13,511 12,166 0.34 0.70 0.65 3,376 9,458 7,908 Bor South County 16,181 22,300 20,080 0.46 0.75 0.50 7,429 16,725 10,040 Duk County 5,946 8,195 7,379 0.46 0.75 0.50 2,730 6,146 3,690 Fangak County 8,460 11,659 10,499 0.38 0.70 0.60 3,237 8,162 6,299 Nyirol County 8,865 12,218 11,002 0.46 0.70 0.60 4,070 8,553 6,601 Pibor County 7,335 10,109 9,102 0.46 0.75 0.95 3,368 7,582 8,647 Piji or Canal County 6,945 9,572 8,619 0.34 0.75 0.60 2,392 7,179 5,171 Pochalla County 5,390 7,429 6,689 0.46 0.75 0.95 2,475 5,572 6,355 Twic East County 8,346 11,503 10,357 0.46 0.75 0.60 3,832 8,627 6,214 Wuror or Uror County 15,595 21,493 19,353 0.46 0.75 0.60 7,160 16,120 11,612Source: FAO-WFP Annual Crop Assessments and Food Security Reports, South Sudan, 2009, 2010, & 2011[1] / Western Jonglei has better drained soils, more maize & grains with better yields [1] / Good Sandy Soils near Ethiopian Border, best grain crop yields, often attributed to better drained or watered soils. 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 53
  • 54. 9. Jonglei‘s Grain Production & Food Aid/Security Statistics 9.2 South Sudan‟s States, Area, Yield & Production 2006-2011Planted Area, Yield CROP PRODUCTION (NET [1/])& Production by AREA PLANTED CROP YIELDS (FAO Has Net = 80% of TotalZone, States & Years Crop)Area, Yields, 1,000 Hectares (Ha) Kilograms per Hectare (Kg/Ha) 1,000 TonsProductionZONE / STATES 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011UPPER NILE 274 172 237 218 261 230 839 866 1,000 413 598 430 230 149 237 90 156 99Upper Nile 92 55 79 77 78 68 913 873 848 442 628 380 84 48 67 34 49 26Unity 44 27 43 37 40 34 795 926 977 486 600 240 35 25 42 18 24 8Jonglei 139 90 115 104 143 128 799 844 1,096 365 587 510 111 76 126 38 84 65BAHR EL GHAZAL 266 270 292 298 319 263 827 956 1,171 748 796 630 220 258 342 223 254 166North Bahr el Ghazal 55 50 59 71 79 68 691 740 746 690 759 590 38 37 44 49 60 40West Bahr el Ghazal 35 32 34 39 37 41 914 1,219 1,529 769 919 860 32 39 52 30 34 35Lakes 82 77 84 69 76 70 854 1,026 1,202 768 868 650 70 79 101 53 66 45Warrap 94 112 116 119 126 84 851 920 1,250 756 746 550 80 103 145 90 94 46GREATER 247 263 323 335 343 366 1,049 1,156 1,517 681 828 810 259 304 490 228 284 297EQUATORIACentral Equatoria 108 106 131 121 127 123 1,102 1,057 1,534 595 732 630 119 112 201 72 93 78Eastern Equatoria 49 66 85 98 103 115 633 833 1,106 541 767 870 31 55 94 53 79 99Western Equatoria 91 91 107 116 112 129 1,198 1,495 1,832 879 1,000 930 109 136 196 102 112 120SOUTH SUDAN 788 705 853 852 921 860 900 1,009 1,252 635 755 650 709 711 1068 541 695 563 These 3 states usually have the best grain crop yields, often attributed to better drained or watered soils 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 54
  • 55. 9. Jonglei‘s Grain Production & Food Aid/Security Statistics 9.3 Cereal Area, Planted Yield, Production, Consumption & Balance In 2011-2012 Carryover FAO-WFP Estimated cereal harvested area, yield, production, consumption and balance in 2011- Carryover to 2012 (Note: FAO & WFP uses this for Food Donation Needs Calculations) 2010 gross 2010 net Total cereal 2011 2011 surplus STATE - 2010 yield Cereal Cereal Population area (ha) in consumption and/or COUNTY (t/ha) production production mid-2011 2010 (tons/year) deficit (tons) (tons) (tons) Jonglei [1] 142 705 0.73 104 841 83 873 1 477 874 158 132 -74 259 State Returnees 2 120 0.6 1 272 1 018 27 736 3051 -2 033 Akobo 12 598 0.75 9 448 7 559 145 387 15 993 -8 434 Ayod 13 511 0.7 9 458 7 566 148 666 15 610 -8 044 Bor South 22 300 0.75 16 725 13 380 236 003 27 140 -13 761 Duk 8 195 0.75 6 146 4 917 70 007 7351 -2 434 Fangak 11 659 0.7 8 162 6 529 117 550 12 343 -5 813 Khorflus/Piji 9 572 0.75 7 179 5 743 105 743 11 103 -5 360 Nyirol 12 218 0.7 8 553 6 842 115 996 12 760 -5 918 Pibor 10 109 0.75 7 582 6 065 158 479 16 640 -10 575 Pochalla 7 429 0.75 5 572 4 457 70 661 7 066 -2 609 Twic East 11 503 0.75 8 627 6 902 91 099 10 021 -3 119 Uror 21 493 0.75 16 120 12 896 190 547 19 055 -6 159 SOUTH 920 798 0.95 873 820 695 230 9 157 745 986 222 -290 993 SUDAN[1] Jonglei State has crop yields well below average most years in South Sudan 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 55
  • 56. 9. Jonglei‘s Grain Production & Food Aid/Security Statistics 9.4 Cereal Area, Planted Yield, Production, Consumption & Balance In 2011-2012 CarryoverFAO-WFP Estimated cereal harvested area, yield, production, consumption and balance in 2011- Carryover to 2012 (FAO/WFP uses for Food Import Calculations) AREA Percent Population Cereal Per Head 2012 YIELDS- PRODUCTION PRODUCTION PLANTED Yield Reqt. Reqt. Surplus / Gross Metric Tons, Metric Tons, in Cereals (Tons) (Kgs) Deficit Yield Gross Cereal Net Cereal Hectares (Tons) Tons per Crop Crop Hectare Production ProductionJONGLEI STATE 128,394 0.63 81,290 65,032 80% 1,528,037 163,519 107 (98,487)COUNTIES:Returnees of 2010 1,803 0.45 811 649 80% 28,305 3,114 110 (2,465)Akobo 11,344 0.70 7,941 6,352 80% 150,108 16,512 110 (10,160)Ayod 12,166 0.65 7,908 6,326 80% 151,736 15,932 105 (9,606)Bor, South 20,080 0.50 10,040 8,032 80% 245,248 28,203 115 (20,171)Duk 7,379 0.50 3,690 2,952 80% 71,514 7,509 105 (4,557)Fangak 10,499 0.60 6,299 5,039 80% 126,237 13,255 105 (8,216)Piji/Canal 8,619 0.60 5,171 4,137 80% 112,572 11,820 105 (7,683)Nyirol 11,002 0.60 6,601 5,281 80% 119,349 13,129 110 (7,848)Pibor 9,102 0.95 8,647 6,918 80% 162,059 17,016 105 (10,098)Pochalla 6,689 0.95 6,355 5,084 80% 72,130 7,213 100 (2,129)Twic East 10,357 0.60 6,214 4,972 80% 93,686 10,306 110 (5,334)Uror 19,353 0.60 11,612 9,290 80% 195,093 19,510 100 (10,220)SOUTH SUDAN 860,000 0.65 563,000 450,400 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 56
  • 57. 9. Jonglei‘s Grain Production & Food Aid/Security Statistics9.5 Yield and Planting Growing: Jonglei‘s Use of Tractors are Increasing Cereal Plantings & Yields 20 November 2012 MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan 57
  • 58. 10. Jonglei‘s Agro-Forestry Sector Constraints 10.1 Jonglei‘s Agro-Forestry FINDINGS: Very Low Yields & Too Little Plantings10.1.1 LOW CROP YIELDS: Extremely poor yields are often attributed to:(1) Old Seed Varieties – Often used year after year, loosing vitality from earlier seeds,(2) Poor Planting Practices – Seeds hand thrown, not row planted 4 weeding/thinning,(3) Limited Crop Planting Area – Farmers are unable to work to soil enlarge plantings,(4) Little/No Fertilizer – Some manure use, soil tests show low NPK/micro nutrients,(5) Little Weeding – Hand scatter thrown sorghum cannot effectively be weeded,(6) Pest Problems – Besides the birds, there are at about 10 other crop pests,(7) Post-Harvest Handling – Crops are often not well handled, stored poorly & stolen.(8) Bad Data Estimations – Often farmers & data collectors include areas abandoned and include around trees where grain was not grown, overestimating area planted.(9) Irrigation Not Available: Rain – Too much, or too little, timely rainfall: Farmers & others report that changing rainfall patterns cause poor crop yields/crop failures.NOTE: The U.S. sorghum crop yields averages 8 tons per hectare, while Jonglei hasabout 0.7 tons/hectare (ha) in crop yields (compared with 1 to 2 tons/ha in most of Africa). 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 58
  • 59. 10. Jonglei‘s Agro-Forestry Sector Constraints 10.2 Agro-Forestry Constraints – Little/No Irrigation10.2.1 DRAINAGE & IRRIGATION CANALS – ―Jonglei Canal‖: Given the costand politically sensitive issue of the Jonglei Canal construction project of 1980-83,little has been done since that time. However, the Jonglei Canal can both sere as adrainage canal for flooded crop fields and an irrigation source as a reservoir“catchment” source of water during the dry season.10.2.2 SMALL IRRIGATION PROJECTS: There ground water is very near thesurface in many parts of Jonglei, as may be seen by local vegetation (e.g., palmtrees) and seasonal river beds. As in parts of Darfur, rather inexpensive wells havebeen made for irrigation water – not suitable for drinking/not potable water – andvegetables may be easily grown. So far this is being reported by sporadic effortsalong the Nile river, but could be expanded to work with the Dr. John GarangUniversity, county schools, and country extension services‟ demonstration farms.NGO‟s likewise could be encouraged to do so as part of their “Food for Work”donations, since some say that these donations are often seen as free food and thushave acted as discouraging work on-the-farm. 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 59
  • 60. 10. Jonglei‘s Agro-Forestry Sector Constraints 10.3 Agro-Forestry Constraints – Water Drainage10.3.1 WATER-LOGGED FARM FIELDS: Inasmuch as almost all crops are grownwithout irrigation, rainfall is usually the leading issue for crop yields, and whichcrops may grow where. In the seemingly fertile Nile-Sobat River Floodplains, onlylocal varieties (or locally tested varieties) of sorghum may withstand the flooding ofthe fields, for 2-3 months. This lack of a drainage system greatly limits Jonglei‟scrop production to virtually a Sorghum monoculture – since rice has largelydeclined in production (but not consumption) – in this most parts of Jonglei state.10.3.2 DRAINAGE SYSTEMS: Since these areas have been farmed forgenerations, a drainage system should not adversely change the environment, norecology, and should help the population combat Malaria and other diseases.Obviously, agriculture would also benefit from a good drainage system. 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 60
  • 61. 10. Jonglei‘s Agro-Forestry Sector Constraints10.4 SWOT Analysis: Summary of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities & Threats (SWOT Analysis)S/N Strengths and Opportunities Threats and Weakness (Constraints) Generally “favorable macro-economic “Threats and pressures to stability” (Jonglei‟s inter-tribal conflicts), Sudan 1 environment” (before oil export shut-down). cut-off oil exports caused deep cuts into RSS & State 2012 budgets Clear RSS and Jonglei State “Government “The question of land policy not completely settled,” nor are there WTO 2 commitment to agriculture” sector growth investor protection, nor free trade agreements (e.g., fertilize import bans). “Abundant natural resources” (e.g., much “Weak institutional & manpower capacity.” Droughts, floods, no drainage 3 land, water, and usually a favorable climate). system, little irrigation. Little technical assistance & farmer education “Suitable agro-ecologic conditions & rich bio- “Poor and inadequate rural infrastructure” 4 diversity” “Few, but skilled and experienced staff” “Weak research and extension systems,” with 1 under-funded agricultural 5 university, few extension stations & no model farms “Donor goodwill and support” “Lack of inputs, input supply channel” problems, slow NGO and other 6 donor procurement processes 7 “Regional integration and collaboration” “Lack of processing technology, marketing facilities and storage,” “Quality of Labor” – Generally good, but land Unmanaged natural resources and environmental damage 8 preparation and farming hard work Agro-Pastoralists, both “crop and livestock “Lack of agricultural data & information flow” Poor training and little 9 farmers” often without crop production skills. education on best practices in crop and tree farming. 10 “Women empowerment in agriculture” “HIV-AIDS, Guinea worm, sleeping sickness (hurts) agriculture.” “Diaspora staff to be offered higher salaries, “Oil and Agriculture” Sector Problem: First to return paid best, but later 11 so that they are encouraged to return home.” arriving Diaspora often paid average wages, even with better skills. “Potential to purchase surplus as strategic “Drought and flood management” So far no significant irrigation in dry 12 food reserves.” season (some vegetables along Nile) and no drainage system.Source: RSS MAF 2005-2011 ―Food & Agriculture Policy Framework‖ text copied in ―quotation marks‖ & other updated comments added 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 61
  • 62. 10. Jonglei‘s Agro-Forestry Sector Constraints – MAF JS SWOT10.5 SWOT Analysis of Jonglei Agric‘l Sector: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities & Threats (SWOT) Strengths Weakness1. Jonglei resource potential: Most farmers world- 1. Staffing Capacity: Limited numbers of trained and qualified staff. wide would love Jonglei‟s farm situation with There are some well educated professionals in the Jonglei MAF HQ in generous availability of (1) land, (2) water and (3) Bor, but less so in most county, payam , and boma/village level offices. high domestic market prices. 2. Staff Motivation: There are issues of staff motivation – attributed to2. Human Resources Capacity: Being the world‟s low salaries, late payrolls, limited field work and other incentives. newest country, there are a relatively large number 3. Transportation Problems: The governor plans to pave most key of very committed and enthusiastic staff of diverse state roads in the next year, with Improved logistics capacity expected. backgrounds and educational skills, usually 4. Neglected Units: No resources allocated to some offices, sectors speaking Arabic, English and local languages e.g. demonstration farms have little budget, just space/land allocated.3. New MAF Vehicles & Road Building Plans: MAF 5. Policy framework: Absence of comprehensive framework & policies. is now equipped with numerous 4-wheel drive There is a need for clear cut laws and regulation to guide investment vehicles. The governor plans to begin paving most and operations by both the government and private sector. key state roads early next year. 6. Financial capacity: Oil export funds have hard hit the MAF.4. Training capacity: Availability of meeting room in New MAF and MoLF Bor, Jonglei Office Opportunities Threats1. Decentralization policy: Many dedicated ministry 1. Resource Allocation: Compared to many other gov‟t agencies, MAF officials ensure support to agro-forestry projects. has relatively little resources & low wages for highly educated officials.2. Capacity building: Opportunities for training 2. Credit facilities: Now there are no agric‟l loans for coop‟s & investors through cooperation with int‟l NGOs, Dr. John 3. Insecurity and Grain Theft: Insecurity a serious problem in Jonglei. Garang University, & research institutions like Yei. Investors have better alternatives, esp. with Jonglei‟s heavy clay soils.3. Interest by Int’l Organizations: Presence of other 4. Poor infrastructure: Roads inaccessible for most of the year, virtually organizations supporting agriculture and forestry no irrigation, and drainage system of canals, poor if any. Limited e.g. UN agencies, int‟l & nat‟l NGOs and donors. communication support for internet and cell phones in most of Jonglei. 5. Electricity & Fuel Shortages: No electricity without generators in most of Jonglei, and fuel even for generators is often short. 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan 62 Page 62
  • 63. 10. Jonglei‘s Agro-Forestry Sector Constraints 10.6 Agro-Forestry Small-holder Constraints – Very Little Modern Inputs Smallholder mapping and characterizationThe Jonglei MAF strategic plans proposed to target group of smallholders is operators who usually face many constraints. Forinstance, low access to technology and know-how; limited resources in terms of capital, skills and risk management; depending onfamily labor for most activities; and limited capacity in terms of marketing, storage, and processing. Photo Source: Syngenta Foundation, African & Asian Branches20 November 2012 MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan 63
  • 64. 10. Jonglei‘s Agro-Forestry Sector Constraints10.7 Agro-Forestry Climate Change Problem: Deforestation, Soil Erosion, & Desertification 20 November 2012 MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan 64
  • 65. 11. Strategic Framework: Objectives, Activities & Results 11.3 Jonglei MAF Re-Organization Needed to Get More Extension Agents & Researchers to Country-Side [3] Strategic Framework Jonglei Regional Integrated Trade / Food Security Program – for Jonglei State within South Sudan % of Development Objective IR Components – Activities Expected Results ResourcesDO 1: - Development of a Marketing / Trade 1) Insure USAID‘s ER‘s IR 1 – Increased Market Access..Facilitation Network 2) A new Network established Activities – Targeting Producer, Agribusiness- Create a regional Trade; Marketing Network of organizations within Food Insecure areas identifying 3) 250 Producer / Agribusiness Organizations small and Medium Producers / affiliated. 38% preliminary needs, categorizing Business levels and Agribusinesses along targeted Value Chains 4) Strategic Alliances Developed with the PMA linking new network into the Produce Marketing (Est. $7 within Food Insecure regions that would and other buyer associations become affiliates (CLUSA Association Association and other Buyer / Marketing associations. 5) PO‘s/AgBus classified into a standards Million) Members) linked in with the PMA and other classification system linked in with PMA other needed in Buyer associations for long term IR 2 – Increased Trade Facilitation Activities - Buyer groups 2012/13 sustainability. Identifying Trade Barriers, promoting best practices of 6) Trade barriers reduced along targeted VC‘sFocal Partner: cross border trade Coordinating of training of targeted actors with Customs and Trade administration. 7) 2-3 Best practices identified and incorporatedNCBA /CLUSA into regional trade organizationsDO 2: Trade-Led Agribusiness, Value Chain 1) Insure USAID‘s ER‘sFinancing IR-1 Activities. 2) 4 new VC finance mechanisms (1 per country,- Develop new financing alternatives along Leveraging grants for establishing a regional fund, 19% or a regional one.) targeted Value Chains that will leverage Target financing for selected Value chains that could 3) New lines of credit opened averaging $5 -10 (Est. $3.5 existing resources, open up new lines of potentially include, PO Financing, Trade Financing, financial services pulling in private sector integration of Both Debt and Equity Resources, and Million per country Million investors to stimulate Purchasing of needed 4) Demand side Capacity building needed in linking in larger Global funds such as SEAF etc., TA, technologies and equipment. (Producer/Agribusiness Organizations) Facilitating needed Loan Guarantees on Trade Finance 5) Supply Side Capacity Building (Financial 2012/13)Focal Partner: activities.Crimson Capital Institutions)DO 3: Activity Coordination, Management and IR-1 Activities 1) Insure USAID‘s ER‘sTechnical Assistance. To include providing needed Key Personnel for proper 2) Increase Sales / Value Added of Targeted VC‘s- Insure effective program management by program management, Administration. 43% providing the needed Short and Long term Developing Value Chain Assessments, determining 3) Insure that both identified Program (Above) technical expertise, Identification and results are achieved and USAID expected (Est. $8 most effective VC‘s that will integrate Food Insecure integration of needed private sector alliances, Populations, Identification of bottlenecks needed TA results are achieved. million and insuring expected results are achieved. 4) Integrate food insecure producer/Agribusiness needed in and technologies and coordination of Grants.Focal Partners groups into the process. IR -2 Activities 5) Integrate Private sector Alliances into VC 2012/13)Dr. John Garange Memorial University To include the coordination of Trade facilitation development for improved leveraging.Food Security Donor Group discussions, and Institutional Capacity Building. 20 November 2012 MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 65
  • 66. 11. Policy Framework & Strategic Planning11.1 Over-Arching Strategies to Strengthen Agro-Forestry Economy(a) Priority Policies that quickly boost agricultural & forest products,(b) Develop and strengthen institutional and human capacity,(c) Create an public and private sector “enabling environment” forimproving the supply of inputs and service delivery,(d) Mobilize, organize and empower farmers and tree-growers,(e) Develop, organize and manage MAF Extension service system,(f) Construction of feeder roads, necessary for agricultural andforestry production, including markets and storage facilities.20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 66
  • 67. 11. Policy Framework & Strategic Planning 11.2 Specific MAF Strategies to Strengthen Agro-Forestry Economy(a) Priority Policies that quickly boost agricultural & forest products,(b) Develop and strengthen institutional and human capacity,(c) Create an public and private sector “enabling environment” forimproving the supply of inputs and service delivery,(d) Mobilize, organize and empower farmers and tree-growers,(e) Develop, organize and manage MAF Extension service system,(f) Construction of feeder roads, necessary for agricultural andforestry production, including markets and storage facilities.20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 67
  • 68. 11. MAF “Strategies‖ 11.3 Extension Agents-Officials Needed Extension Agents Needed: 500 Farm House-holds per 1 Extension Agent [1] LEVEL Quantity Number of Extension Qualification Staff Required-Optimal Ph.D., M.Sc. &1. State 2 2 in Headquarters (HQ) B.S. Agriculture2. County 22 22 (2 per County CA D) B. Sc. & Diplomas3. Payam 100 154 (2 per Payam PEWs) Diplomas4. Boma / Village 6 or 9 month 100 770 (1 per Boma CEWs) certificatesTotal 224 948 Extension Officials[1] / 500 Farmers to 1 Extension Official. Jonglei has 1.3 million people (source2008 Census plus normal pop. growth), 80% in farming, with average familysize of 8 people, now have about 130,000 farm house-holds (HH), requiring260 extension experts. Currently listed (about 20 to 25 extension experts percounty, but many are not active due to low budget for pay).20 November 2012 MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 68
  • 69. 12. MAF Strategies & Strategic Objectives12.1 Over-Arching Strategies Objectives (SO) to Strengthen Agro-Forestry EconomyObjective 1 – Improve Agricultural Production, Food Security & Nutrition ACTIVITIES FOR SO-1: MAF will focus on assisting smallholder households food security by (a) achieve 100% food security, (b) increasing their production by adopting improved technologies and production practices, and (c) improving nutritional education, particularly relating to diversified crops grown and eaten. -- MAF will support producing more and different nutritious crops with village based producer groups. MAF will work via MOU‟s with NGOs and the Ministry of Health (MOH) to promote dietary diversity, safe hygiene and good nutrition for farmer families by linking them to education and nutrition services. GOALS TARGETED SO-1: Outcomes over 3 to 5 years (a) 100,000 hectares of land managed under environmentally sound, soil conservation and improvement practices, (b) 200% increase in crop area planted annually, (c) 40% to 80% yield increases in field crop and tree fruit, (d) 300% growth in total sustainable food production statewide, and (e) support improved diversified crop production and diets for over 60% of farmer households 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 69
  • 70. 12. MAF Strategies & Strategic Objectives12.2 Strategic Objective (SO-2) to Strengthen Agro-Forestry Producer Groups Objective 2 – ―Farmer Organization Capacity Enhanced‖ ACTIVITIES FOR SO-2: MAF will (a) link the 100,000 farmers Households, trained under Objective 1, to sales markets by building the commercialization capacities of over 100 farmer associations. (b) Using MAF and Donor/NGO Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), the MAF will support agro-forestry training and organizational development program, as well as work with the Ministry of Cooperatives and Rural Development (MCRD) to legalize and strengthen financing of cooperatives via the GOSS Agricultural Bank. (c) Additionally, the MAF Extension Service will engage financial service providers to increase insurance, credit products and service offerings for smallholders. -- The MAF will lead NGO and Donors towards providing farmer and forestry associations with practical training in business planning and organizational governance, while facilitating linkages to markets.. GOALS TARGETED SO-2: Outcomes over 3-to-5 years (a) Over 100 new producer groups legally formalized, (b) Over 50 producer groups specifically targeted and supported with infrastructure (irrigation, drainage canals, greenhouses, feeder roads, ec.), (c) coooperatives receiving and repaying over US$100,00 of small business loans for production & sales activities, (d) over 100,000 tons and US$1 million of new and diversified farm and forestry products sold (e.g., targeting rice, legumes, fresh and processed fruits and vegetables.), and. Increases in farm gate prices for grains, fruits and vegetables by 20% to 40% via better farmer association sales marketing practices, such as quality control and branding their products. 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 70
  • 71. 12. MAF Strategies & Strategic Objectives12.3 Over-Arching Strategies Objectives (SO) to Strengthen Agro-Forestry Economy OBJECTIVE 3 – ―Improve Agri-Business and Forestry Support Services‖ ACTIVITIES FOR SO-3: (a)MAF will focus on increasing the effectiveness and sustainability of private sector agribusiness and government support service providers, which are essential to successfully growing the smallholder food and cash crops. (b) The MAF will work with the Dr. John Garang University and farmalize MOU‟s so that NGO/int‟l donors coordinate and plan well their activities via the sustainable local organizations (e.g., the MAF and Dr. Garang University). (c) The MAF will strongly encourage NGO‟s and Dr. Garang University to support their MAF County “Model {Mechanized} Demonstration Farms in all 11 counties, linking local agri-businesses and potential investors with MAF/University farms for training and research. GOALS TARGETED SO-3: Outcomes will include srengthening more than 100 commercial input, food processing, and output sales service providers. 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 71
  • 72. 12. Specific Objectives Linked with Strategies 12.4 Objectives & Strategies: Stakeholders Input on Most Important Strategic Activities [1]/ 12.4.1 – 12.4.6 Objectives & Strategies: 100% Food Security, & Improve Livelihoods 12.1 (a) Overall – Objective: A thriving agricultural and forestry sectors that boost Jonglei‟s rural economy into an “engine for growth” creating jobs. (b) Overall – Strategies: Train producers and invest in agro-forestry production technologies 12.2 (a) Food Security – Objective: To make Jonglei the “Breadbasket” of South Sudan, with the nation‟s largest grain crops, bumper fruit and vegetable harvests. (b) Ag. Food Security – Strategies: Increase area planted & boost food production 12.3 (a) Agricultural Livelihoods – Objective: Transform Jonglei‟s mainly subsistence farmers into progressive producer groups and innovative commercial farms. (b) Ag. Livelihoods – Strategies: Enlarge planted areas, help boost yields, & improve quality. 12.4 (a) Forest Industry Management – Objective: The forestry sector benefits from more tree plantations, plant nurseries, and better park managements. (b) Forest Resource Management – Strategies: Set-up renewable & sustainable forest mgmt. I 12.5 (a) Parks & Forest Reserves – Objective: Have well maintained parks, and sustainable wood production via new tree plantings, tree nurseries, and forestry‟s “best practices”. (b) Parks & Forest Reserves – Strategies: Work with NGOs, Univ. & strengthen forest service. 12.6 (a) MAF Institution Building – Objective: Build up MAF institutional capacity. (b) MAF Inst. Building – Strategies: Overcome budget short-falls by working with NGO‟s. FAO & Universities to recruit young people, and MAF staff to foreign donors to help with funding.[1]/ Summary of input given by STAKEHOLDERS to incorporating into strategy, but goes into more specific actions.3 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 72
  • 73. 12. MAF “Strategies‖ 12.4 SO-4 MAF Works with FAO, WFP, USAID, Int’l Donors & NGO’s for Food Security, Food AID & Food Assistance MAF MOUs with NGO’s to Agro-Forestry Strategic Agricultural Production Function Inputs/Factors Leverage Village Assets Objectives (SO)1. LAND: Jonglei has a large amount of unused land that can be made 1. LAND OWNERSHIP: (a) New Land  SO-1 Ag. Output & Food Security good for farming with labor and Soil Conservation. Ownership Law, (b) Clear land titles, (c) = Increase Agricultural Production -2. WATER MGMT: Water Management vi (a) irrigation, (b) drainage, & Clarify community land rights, (d) GOSS Double Farm Harvests, (c) flood dykes should boost crop yields. & Jonglei State land titles & lease  SO-2 Ag. Diversity & Nutrition =3. LABOR: Farming skills for crop & forest products should increase contracts, Diversify Agricultural Crops & yields (output per area planted), improve quality & food preservation, 2. LABOR INCENTIVES: Provide financial Processed Food Production –4. CAPITAL Investment – (a) Water technology Investments (drainage incentives & land titles to gov’t land that Increase Dramatically, canals, dikes, & irrigation) (b) Mechanized farming with tractors & farmers work or plant to trees,  SO-3 Agri-Forestry Business = equipment 3. WATER: Community water points, Boost Sustainable Forest5. TECHNOLOGY (a) Planting seeds & nursery trees, (b) new 4. EDUCATION: Have gardens & green Production, cultivation practices, (c) integrated pest management, (d) primary houses, irrigation at schools.  SO-4 Jonglei Food Security NGO processing of perishable foods, (e) donkey/mule animal plows, (f) 5. CLEAR FUEL STOVES: Ban charcoal Donor Working Group = Boost post harvest handling, (g) storage, (h) food safety inspection,,& (i) or restrict licensing to sell it. Use Cooperation & Joint Projects with quality branding, environment efficient stoves, MAF Joint Mamagement with Int’l6. SEEDS: (a) Seed quality, (b) seed stock mgmt. to ensure adequate 6. ROADS: Producer grops push their own Donors (or Consortiums) via supplies, (c) nursery tree plantings (small trees) for transplantation. feeder roads, with MAF guidance. Agreements, such as Memorandum7. SCHOOL GARDENS: Public schools have vegetable and fruit of Understands (MOU). gardens, greenhouses, and irrigation system. & household kitchen gardens,8. TREE PLANTINGS: Environment tree planting and mapping locations so to provide local ownership and/or usage rights (and thus better care). MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 73 20 November 2012 draft
  • 74. 13. Specific Objectives, Constraints, & Activities 13.1 MAF Objective #1: Enlarge Areas Planted to Crops and Tree Orchards(A) Objective: Improve and dramatically expand food crop and fruit tree plantings(B) Constraints: (1) Heavy “Black Cotton” soils hard to work, (2) lack of tractors andtools, (3) poor technological knowledge, (4) lack of “model mechanical farms”, (5)need seed testing/mapping, (6) limited MAF extension service budget, farms, boostagricultural university field activities,(C) Activity Focus: Provide incentives and support for mechanical soil preparationfor planting, use model farms showing planting technology.(D) Strategic Plans:i. Assist farmers with mechanized farming land preparation (subsidize 50%);ii. Ensure that improved seeds are available to farmers (subsidize 30%);iii. Assist farmers & farmer groups to acquire property rights (subsidize 50%);iv. Provide a favorable environment, or incentives, for people to work planting additional areas in alternative food crops (subsidize 20%). 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 74
  • 75. 13. Specific Objectives, Constraints, & Activity Focus13.2 MAF Objective #2: Diversify Field Crops, Tree Fruit & Cash Crops(A) Objective: Diversify & expand new crop areas, fruit tree, & native tree plantings.(B) Constraints: (1) “Black Cotton Soil” limits plant varieties, (2) lack oftechnological knowledge, (3) need more tractors/tools, (4) lack of seed/crop testing,(5) limited funding for extension service, and (6) agric‟l universities‟ budget shortage.(C) Activity Focus: Provide incentives and support for crop rotation & diversificationaway from sorghum monoculture, subsidize mechanized land preparation forplanting, supports Dr. John Garang Univ. & MAF model farms demonstrating seedtesting of traditional plant varieties versus new crops/plants & cultivation methods..(D) Strategic Plan:i. Assist farmers with land preparation, raise beds & drainage (subsidize 50%);ii. Ensure that new crop seeds & nursery trees are available (subsidize 50%);iii. Assist farmers & producer groups to secure land areas to work (subsidize 50%);;iv. Provide incentives, for young people, women‟s groups & traditional farmers toplant new crops & harvest trees (gum Arabica, Shea Butter Nut ) (subsidize 50%). 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 75
  • 76. 13. Specific Objectives, Constraints, & Activity Focus 13.3 MAF Objective: Improve Crop Yields Harvested & Forest Output(A) Objective: Improve crop yields and sustainable forest product output perfeddan/hectare of planted areas(B) Constraints: Poor access to consumer markets, low consumer incomes inJonglei, poor roods & limited infra-structure for electricity, water, & communications.(C) Activity Focus: Provide incentives and Boost enabling environmentalincentives for food processing(D) Strategic Plans:i. Assist small farmers with mechanical tractor soil preparation (subsidize 60%);ii. Ensure that improved planting seeds are available to farmers (subsidize 50%);iii. Assist farmers and producer groups to acquire property rights (subsidize 50%);iv. Provide a favorable environment, or incentives, for people to work plantingadditional areas in grains and alternative food crops (subsidize 35%). 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 76
  • 77. 13. Specific Objectives, Constraints, & Activity Focus 13.4 Objective #4: Improve Food Quality & Forest Products Sold(A) Objective: Improve crop quality at the farm level and to consumers(B) Constraints: Poor knowledge about food quality, limited market demand forhigher quality foods, no standards for foods, not sufficient quantities to classify foodsas Number 1, 2, or 3, and low consumer incomes within Jonglei State(C) Activity Focus: Provide incentives & boost “enabling environmental” with priceincentives for getting farmers to be rewarded and paid more for better quality foods.(D) Strategic Plans Aims:ii. Make improved & different crop seeds & tree saplings available (subsidize 50%);ii. Assist farmers reduce pests losses & quality losses to pests (subsidize 50%);iii. Improve post harvest handling, bagging, packaging & sales (subsidize 50%);iv. Assist with mechanize tractor/rotor tiller land preparation (subsidize 50%);v. Assist farmers/producer groups to have good land to work with (subsidize 50%);vi. Improve markets with price incentives for better quality foods (subsidize 50%); 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 77
  • 78. 13. Specific Objectives, Constraints, & Activities13.5 Objective #5: Initiate Primary Processing & Food Preservation of Perishable Foods(A) Objective: Provide enabling environmental incentives for farmers/producer groups to can,preserve, and/or store perishable foods via primary processing.(B) Constraints: Lack of knowledge, no canning or primary processing (e.g., Mango juicermachines) equipment, little/no canning, dried fruit, juice storage containers, lack of marketsincentives (no one will locally made fruit juices), need on-farm/community storage areas forfarmers to store preserved foods to eat later.(C) Activity Focus: Extension work, model farming demonstrations (juice making & storage,dried fruit, & canned foods), and provide incentives/subsidize primary processing equipment &storage containers.(D) Strategic Plan Aims:i. Provide/assist farm groups with simple food processing/storage equipment (subsidize 50%);ii. Teach & subsidize women & youth groups to process perishable foods (subsidize 50%);iii. Provide loans for small business to invest in processing seasonal foods (subsidize 50%);iv. Initiate market linkages with food companies & processors in Juba (subsidize 50%);v. Subsidize low cost fruit/vegetable juice processing/preserving equipment (subsidize 50%);vi. Organize producer groups into contractual supply contracts with food corp‟s (subsidize 50%); 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 78
  • 79. 13. Specific Objectives, Constraints, & Activities 13.6 Objective: Strengthen MAF Institution Capacity(A) Objective: Enhance institutional capacity to improve delivery of MAF agricultural andforestry goods and services (re-evaluate after oil export budget crisis is over)(B) Constraints: Limited funding, especially with oil exports down, and problems in payingstaffing, for fuel, vehicles, and farm inputs.(C) Activity Focus: Provide incentives and boost incentives for young farmers and students toget into farming and/or work with MAF Model Farms and Extension Service (part-time/full-time).(D) Strategic Plans Aims:(1) Institutionalize updates of earlier “functional reviews” of all MAF dept.‟s & directorates todetermine the size and structure of the state, county and payam offices (i.e., regularly updated“working document”) (subsidize 50%);(2) Strengthen/formalize linkage with Dr. Garang Univ. to leverage resources (subsidize 50%);(3) Strengthen/set-up joint MAF-NGO/Int‟l Org. “Working Group” so to better leverage int‟lresources with MAF activities & provide timely farmer inputs (subsidize 50%);(4) Enhance the capacity in the development and review of Jonglei State agricultural policies,legislation, regulations, and strategic plans (subsidize 50%);(5) Ensure that good governance principals are used by MAF Management (subsidize 50%); 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 79
  • 80. 13. Specific Objectives, Constraints, & Activities 13.7 Objective: Improve Traditional Food Storage of Grain Crops Traditional FoodStorage: OffGround, butNot Secure, Insect Losses 20 November 2012 MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 80
  • 81. 14. Action Plan 2012/13 – 2014/15 for Agricultural and Forestry Sectors 14.1 Strategic Objectives 1 Farmer Support and Food Security for 3 Year – 2012/13 thru 2014/15 Baseline Activity Targets ProductionIntervention Agencies Indicators (Additional #) Increase Area Major Activities In-Charge from Base- 2012 2013 2014 2012 2013 2014 2011/12 line -13 -14 -15 -13 -14 -15Strategic Objective # 1 - FARMER SUPPORT & FOOD SECURITY, MFED//M 18 tractors Purchase of agriculture machinery 18 22 22 AF/RSS Massey 18 5% 15% 30% e.g. tractors and their accessories /MAF/JS more more more Ferguson Increase Establish model mechanized farms in MAF 18,000 18000 80,000 160,000 Food the State’s four agriculture – zones 18000 10% 20% 30% /JS/Bor feddans more more more Production area 120,000 feddans and Productivit 10 water Purchase of water pump-engines for MAF 10 20 30 y per pump 10 10% 20% 30% Fruits and vegetables production /RSS/Juba more more more household engines by Establishment of fruits and rendering MAF/JS & 10 20 30 vegetable gardens in the Counties, 10 gardens 10 10% 20% 30% tractor CAD’s more more more Payams and Bomas services MFED Annual /MAF/MLF Agriculture 10 10 Agricultural Trade Fairs and Shows 15 more 20 more 10% 15% 20% & Products 10 MT more Farm Com. MTAverage % Increase (Not Weighted) in SO #1 Objective 9% 18% 28%TOTAL of SO #1 CATEGORY - CUMLATIVE COVERAGE over 3 Years 109% 127% 155% 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan P age 81
  • 82. 14. Action Plan 2012/13 – 2014/15 for Agricultural and Forestry Sectors14.2 Strategic Objective Number 2 (SO2), MAF Extension, Producer Groups & Land Management for 3 Year – 2012/13 thru 2014/15 Baseline Activity Targets Production % Intervention Agencies Indicators (Additional No.# Growth) Increase Major Activities In-Charge from Base- Area 2011/12 line 2012/3 2013/4 2014/5 2012/3 2013/4 2014/5 Strategic Objective 2) - MAF EXTENSION, PRODUCER GROUPS & LAND MANAGEMENT MAF/JS/MA 1200 Mapping of arable land 200 400 600 F/RSS and Sq. Km 200 15% 30% 50% throughout the State more more more partners (Km2) Form & Legalize Farm Coops, CBOs MAF/JS/CA 160 250 500 Producer Groups, & Trade Ds Registrar 160 more more more 20% 30% 50% Assns Books Promote Recruiting &Train MAF 47 Ext. Agriculture Officers in Extension, Off. In and MAF/JS & 121 242 364 Forestry, Plant/Tree MAF/RSS CTC/YAT 121 more more more 5% 12% 18% Forestry Nurseries, Park Rangers & C/JG- MUST Extension Guards Services Purchase of new vehicles for MAF/RSS/M 2 2 2 more 6 8 more 30% 50% 80% AF/JS vehicles more Delivery extension service 15 Purchase of new motorbikes MAF/RSS/M 15 25 50 motorbik 15 30% 50% 80% for extension service AF/JS more more more es Purchase of new bicycles for MAF/RSS/M 15 15 25 50 15 30% 50% 80% extension service staff AF/JS bicycles more more more Average % Increase (Not Weighted) in SO #2 Objective 38% 44% 72% TOTAL of SO #2 CATEGORY - CUMLATIVE COVERAGE over 3 Years 138% 182% 254% 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan P age 82
  • 83. 14. Action Plan 2012/13 – 2014/15 for Agricultural and Forestry Sectors 14.3 Strategic Objective # 3, MAF Forestry Products Output, Tree Mapping, Forest Reserves, and Park Management for 3 Years – 2012/13 thru 2014/15 Baseline Activity Targets Production Intervention Agencies Indicators (Additional #) Rise Major Activities Area In-Charge from Base- 2011/12 2012/3 2013/4 2014/5 2012/3 2013/4 2014/5 lineStrategic Objective 3) - FORESTRY PRODUCTION, TREE MAPPING, FOREST RESERVES & PARK MANAGEMENT Carry out Forest Inventory, 12 MAF/JS/MAF Forest/JG- 12 10 Species ID, density, /RSS and MUST 12 more more 8 more 15% 13% 10% distribution and habitat partners Expatriates Sales Market Support for Re-enforce Wood & Non-wood Forest MAF/JS, 15,000 750 400 350 Forest Products in New Markets Community & MT 750 more more more 30% 20% 15% (e.g., Gum Arabica, Shea InvestorsConservation Law, & Butter Nut Oil)Management Replicate central nurseries in MAF/JS/CAD 231 11 55 165 all the Counties, Payams and s nurseries 11 more more more 40% 80% 100% Bomas MAF/JS/MAF Forest gazette, forestation, 22,000 11,000 6,000 5,000 /RSS and 11,000 40% 20% 15% re-forestation and protection hectors more more more partnersAverage % Increase (Not Weighted) in SO #3 Objective 28% 38% 42%TOTAL of SO #3 CATEGORY - CUMLATIVE COVERAGE over 3 Years 128% 166% 208% 19-August-2012 Draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan P age 83
  • 84. 15. Summary of Conclusions & Strategies1. FOOD AID: Jonglei is usually the largest recipient of food aid & the most food insecure state. Local reports confirm food aid has led to donor dependency & still discourages some farmers.2. PHYSICAL SECURITY IMPROVING: Although the RSS and Jonglei State have done some excellent work in restoring order, insecurity is a still key factor limiting investment & farmers expanding plantings. There is still a crop farmer versus livestock conflict., with crops hard hit by livestock.3. SEASONABLE RAINY SEASON FOOD SHORTAGES HIT FARMERS HARDEST: Most crops are rain-fed, when largest cattle rustling and food shortages occur, leading to food stealing. Many farmers say that they need secure grain storage like FAO plans to build via metalworkers.4. AGRICULTURAL POTENTIAL: Given Jonglei‟s blessing of an (1) abundance of unused fertile land , (2) ample above/below ground water resources, and (3) relatively good farm prices, food production will grow incrementally on its own. MAF‟s efforts target accelerating growth rate of crop production. 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 84
  • 85. 15. Summary of Conclusions & Strategies5. LOW CROP YIELDS BIGGEST PROBLEM FOR NEEDY FARM FAMILIES: Jonglei depends on almost 30% to 40% of food aid for its needy families, especially during season food shortage. Over 80% of the food in markets is imported, many of these imported food stables can be replaced with a technical assistance and key MAF interventions to boost crop harvest.6. JONGLEI MAF & AG. UNIVERSITY JOINT PROGRAMS: Local government and university institutions are the most sustainable strategic activities to help rural economy As in the past, before the war, Jonglei can more than feed itself, and export a surplus of food. Supporting Jonglei‟s MAF extension services outreach into the poorer countryside is the most sustainable approach assist relieve rural poverty. NGO‟s come and go, but the MAF and Dr. John Garang Memorial University should be working in Jonglei for generations to come. 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 85
  • 86. 15. Summary of Conclusions & Strategies7. POOR NEEDY JONGLEI CHILDREN STILL SUFFERING: Currently many Jonglei children are only fed 1 or 2 meals a day of just not very nutritious, sorghum meals, causing brain damage and stunted growth. Food aid NGOs do not reach all needy families, maybe 70%-80%. Often vulnerable children are overlooked because many foreign donors do not have the local knowledge of Jonglei. MAF Extension Service is most sustainable way with local knowledge so to reach rural Jonglei families.8. FOOD DONATION TAKE NGO RESOURCES AWAY FROM FARM SUPPORT WORK: Just given the long supply lines in delivering food to South Sudan, most NGO‟s focus doing both food aid and farm production work put many of their best people on the high risk/profile work of bringing in & distributing food; thus these NGO‟s have less resources to put into local food production work. Food security farm production work is time sensitive and very seasonal oriented, but this is often delays by food distributing NGOs. Local officials and village chiefs are concerned that there is little NGO/WFP focus on what happens when food aid stops, and when crop production needs to grow. They ask for more NGO‟s to focus on crop failures. 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 86
  • 87. 15. Summary of Conclusions & Strategies9. STRATEGIC ACTIVITIES RAISE FOOD OUTPUT & REDUCE IMPORTS & DONATIONS: The strategic plan should show that boosting crop yields, diversifying crops, & crop rotation should provide better nutrition for Jonglei‟s families and cuts Food Aid needs.10. FARMERS CASH SHORT – MICRO-CREDIT: Agro-forestry loans to producers, starting with women‟s coops should help rural micro enterprises need “seed” money, particularly for young farmers starting up businesses.11. JONGLEI AGRICULTURAL MINISTRY BEST WAY TO HELP YOUNG PEOPLE & RURAL ECONOMY: Jonglei can more than feed itself, and export a surplus of food, given time and enough support. Supporting Jonglei‟s MAF outreach into the poorer countryside is the best way to take care of our families. 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 87
  • 88. 16. CONCLUSION: Strategic Implementation – Village Producer Groups Most EffectiveMAF Supporting Producer Group via Extension Services & Community Mobilization for Technical AssistanceVillage Group Constructing a House in Twic East – Jonglei Rural Tradition of Working Together 19 August 2012 Draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 88
  • 89. APPENDIX 1. Jonglei MAF Organizational ChartAppendix 1: Jonglei MAF Re-Organization Needed to Get More Demonstration “Model Farms,” University Backed Researchers, Mechanized Model Farms, and Country Extension Agents [1] / State Minister MAF Director Administration and Finance D.G. D.G. Agriculture Forestry Director of Planning & Training Country Monitoring County Agricultural Manager and Forestry and Special Projects Extension Agents Evaluation Extension & (M&E) and Research Statistics Agents Country Extension & Jonglei Park Research (Seed Service Testing) Farms Rangers and Int‟l Donor Food Forest Guard Security Aid & Service Food Assistance Programs Mechanization & Mechanized Model Farms[1] / Jonglei State MAF is going through a new re-organizational, as many Jonglei State Ministries are doing, with somedownsizing due to budget problems. There is a problem with personnel turnover, which has yet to be reflected in thisorganizational chart. Meanwhile, this old outline is OK and generally follows the national RSS MAF organization chart. 20 November 2012 draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 89
  • 90. Jonglei State Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF) THANK YOUPresentation Supported by Jonglei State MAF and USAID’s Jonglei Food Security Food Program [1] / JFSP: Jonglei Food Security Program [1] / Disclaimer: Opinions Expressed are not necessarily USAID positions on these issues. 20 November 2012 Draft MAF 5 Year Strategic Plan Page 90