The German Copper Institute, DKI,is the central information and advisoryservice dealing with all uses of copper andcopper alloys. We offer our services to: Commercial companies We can be contacted by: The skilled trades post Industry phone R & D institutes fax Universities e-mail Artists and craftsmen internet Students online database, or Private individuals personally
There are basically two waysof generating light:The »wood hammermethod«:heating something upuntil it glows brightThe »scientific«approaches:exciting the electronssome other way
The efficiency of power electric devices andinstallations is usually given as a percentage.Only with light this does not work.The efficacy of a light source is given inlumens per watt.Theoretically, the most efficient light sourcehas an energy efficiency of 683 lm/W. But thisrefers to monochromatic light with awavelength of 555 nm. However, nobodyappreciates such light (except perhaps on traffic lights).With an ideal white light source 199 lm/Wwould correspond to an efficiency of 100%.
• In Germany 11% of all electricity generation is used for lighting purposes• In the EU it is 14%• Worldwide it is 19% (Osram)Out of these, however, 95% arise fromthe use phase! Production, trade,transportation and recycling havecomparatively insignificant effects
75% of all light is generated byfluorescent lampsThese use 50% of the share ofelectricity used in lighting(whereas lighting in total uses 11% ofall electricity generation) 7
Why use any ballasts at all?Because otherwise the lamp will either notdo anything at all – or it will go bang!
200V Behaviour of a 58 W fluorescent lamp180V connected to a d.c. supply160V140V120V U 100V80V60V Measurement40V Calculation20V Linear component 0V 0mA 400mA 800mA I 1200mA
There are two principles available:1. Conventional magnetic ballast orimproved low-loss magnetic ballast
There are two principles available: 2. Electronic ballast
Along with it, a magneticballast also requires• a starter• and a compensation capacitorwhereas the capacitor provides littleincentive for contentious debates…
…but as for the starter, there are two alternatives again: The commonplace, generic, widely used glow starters…
With a glow starter … 325V u → … ignition … or here … 0.9A i → 275V may occur here … 0.7A 225V 175V 0.5A 125V … or even 0.3A 75V here! 25V t → 0.1A -25V -0.1A 0ms 5ms 10ms 15ms 20ms -75V-125V -0.3A … or here …-175V -0.5A-225V … or here … Mains voltage -0.7A-275V-325V Lamp current -0.9A
With a glow starter …… the instance of ignition is totally arbitrary …… and the success hence very doubtful!
With an electronic starter … 325V u → 0.9A i → 275V 0.7A 225V 175V 0.5A 125V 0.3A 75V 25V t → 0.1A -25V -0.1A 0ms 5ms 10ms 15ms 20ms -75V ↑-125V … ignition will always -0.3A-175V occur precisely here! -0.5A-225V Mains voltage -0.7A-275V-325V Lamp current -0.9A
With an electronic starter …… ignition will always occur precisely at thepeak of the current curve – and hence alwaysbe successful!
And how about energyefficiency?First of all let’s tidy up some old rumour:»Fluorescent lamps use a lot of energy for start-up, so it is better to leave them on than to switchthem off for shorter periods!«While the rumour is older than the electronicballast and must hence relate to magneticballasts, it cannot really be true since:It is impossible to draw lots of energy through a16 A circuit breaker within a few seconds.
So what is this rumour about?This much is true: It is uneconomical to switch off if … Ab wann lohnt das Ausschalten bei T8-Leuchtstofflampen mit VVG EEI=B1? Glimmstarter Elektronik-Starter brennen aus- brennen aus- Messbedingungen lassen schalten lassen schalten kostet (mit folgenden Daten): Strompreis 12c/kWh Lebensdauer 15000h Lampenpreis 2,50 €58W Ausschaltzeit keine 00:10:45h keine 00:00:38h Kosten 0,1375Cent 0,1376Cent 0,0081Cent 0,0081Cent Lampenpreis 2,30 €18W Ausschaltzeit keine 00:26:21h keine 00:01:41h Kosten 0,1265Cent 0,1265Cent 0,0081Cent 0,0081Cent
EU‘s initial Directive2000/55/EG:Stated objective from April 2000 draft:»The overall aim of this Directive is to move graduallyaway from the less efficient magnetic ballasts, andtowards the more efficient electronic ballasts which mayalso offer extensive energy-saving features, such asdimming«Objective of the final document from September 2000:»This Directive aims at reducing energy consumption …by moving gradually away from the less efficient ballasts,and towards the more efficient ballasts which may alsooffer extensive energy-saving features.«
EU‘s initial Directive2000/55/EG:Limiting (only) the power intake of a lightingcircuit made up of a lamp and ballast Lamp power Maximum input power of ballast & lamp circuits rating 50Hz HF Class Class Class Class Class Class (mag- (elec- D C B2 B1 A3 A2 netic) tronic) 15W 14W >25W 25W 23W 21W 18W 16W 18W 16W >28W 28W 26W 24W 21W 19W 30W 24W >40W 40W 38W 36W 33W 31W 36W 32W >45W 45W 43W 41W 38W 36W 38W 32W >47W 47W 45W 43W 40W 38W 58W 50W >70W 70W 67W 64W 59W 55W 70W 60W >83W 83W 80W 77W 72W 68W
Attention: Do not confuse! ≠ Efficiency label for ballasts andefficiency label for household appliances
At that time, the EU Commissioncould not have known about …… the other means of improving efficiency200V Behaviour of amagnetic Class B1 magnetic Class C 58 W fluorescent lamp connected to180V Metering ballasta d.c. supply ballast160V results U140V 190.0V 82.6% 230.0V 100.0% 190.0V 82.6% 230.0V 100.0% at full u 120V U Lamp 121.6% 136.0V 100.0% 111.8V 120.8% 137.2V 100.0% 113.6V and100V80VI 328.0mA 622.0mA 314.0mA 596.0mA 52.7% 100.0% 52.7% 100.0% reduced60V P tot 38.0W 55.1% 100.0% 69.0W 35.4W 57.7% 100.0% 61.4W voltage40V Measurement P20VLamp 33.7W 61.7% Calculation 54.7W 100.0% 32.9W 61.7% 53.4W 100.0% i P Ballast 0V 29.8% 4.3W 100.0% 14.4W 30.5% 2.4W 100.0% 8.0W 0mA 200mA 400mA 600mA 800mA 1000mA 1200mA 3196.7lm 5032.7lm 3157.4lm 4951.7lm 63.5% 100.0% 63.8% 100.0%
So magnetic ballasts can bemore efficient than electronic ones!90lm/W Light efficiency über Systemspannung Lichtausbeute against system voltage85lm/W80lm/W efficiency Ausbeute LightLicht-75lm/W70lm/W 65W conventional magneticTyp LZ 6561, EEI Klasse D 58W KVG Siemens ballast Siemens type LZ 6561, EEI class D 58W KVG Vossloh-Schwabe L58.112, EEI Klasse C 58W Vossloh-Schwabe L58.112 standard magnetic ballast, EEI class C65lm/W 58W Vossloh-Schwabe LN58.527 low-loss magnetic ballast, Klasse B2 58W VVG Vossloh-Schwabe LN58.527, EEI EEI class B2 58W Vossloh-Schwabe LN58.512 low-loss magnetic ballast,Klasse B1 58W VVG Vossloh-Schwabe LN58.512, EEI EEI class B1 58W electronicTridonic PC58 E011, EEIclass A3 58W EVG ballast Tridonic PC58 E011, EEI Klasse A3 Systemspannung System voltage60lm/W 190V 200V 210V 220V 230V 240V 250V
The theory of the old Directive:58 W (magnetic) = 50 W (electronic)?or (systems power):67 W (B2) = 55 W (A2)? Lamp power Maximum input power of ballast & lamp circuits rating 50Hz HF ClassDeviceClass Class Class measured byClass Values Class DIAL (mag- The (elec- D under C B2 U B1 P tot PA3 Lamp Φ A2 tot netic) tronic) test V W W lm lm/W practice 15W 14W >25W 58W class B1 25W 23W 220.0 56.24 49.70 4662 16W 21W 18W 82.89 Rated voltage 230.0 61.42 53.36 4952 80.62 of the old 18W 30W 16W 24W >28W >40W magnetic 28W ballast 40W 26W 24W 21W 19W 240.0 66.40 56.72 5198 78.28 38W 244.0 68.53 58.00 5306 31W 36W 33W Rated power 77.42 Directive: 36W 32W >45W 58W class A3 45W 43W 220.0 54.85 38W 4723 36W 41W 86.12 Rated voltage 45W 230.0 54.80 40W 4718 38W86.10 38W 58W 32W 50W >47W electronic 47W >70W ballast 70W 43W 240.0 54.86 4724 86.11 67W 250.0 54.72 59W 4723 55W 64W 86.32 70W 60W >83W 83W 80W 77W 72W 68W
70W Practice of the old Directive: 7000lm Φ P Syst Pmag60W ΔP ≈ 2.5 W 6000lm Pelec50W 5000lm ΔΦ ≈ 4%40W Power input magnetic ballast 4000lm Power input electronic ballast Φmag = Φelec Light output magnetic ballast Light output electronic ballast U 30W 3000lm 190V 200V 210V 220V 230V 230V 240V 250V
New Directive 245/2009(implementing Directive 2005/32/EU• Separate assessment of lamp and ballast (finally also minimum efficiencies for lamps!)• Equal limit values for magnetic and electronic P ballasts, now defined by formula: Lamp PLamp 38 2* PLamp 1 36 36• Identical measurement procedures for both magnetic and electronic ballasts• Measured at equal light outputs• Limit values for standby losses of dimmable ballasts
Table of old and new classes Table 17 of EU-Directive 245/2009 – Energy Conversion from the old efficiency index requirements for non-dimmable ballasts for fluorescent lamps values in the Directive 2000/55/EC into efficiencies Lamp data Ballast efficiency (P Lam p/P input) according to the newLamp Nom. EEI class (for stages 1 and 2) Directive 245/2009 type power B2 B1 A3 A2 B2 B1 A3 A2T8 18W 65.8% 71.3% 76.2% 84.2% 69.2% 75.0% 76.2% 84.2%T8 30W 75.0% 79.2% 72.7% 77.4% 78.9% 83.3% 72.7% 77.4%T8 36W 79.5% 83.4% 84.2% 88.9% 83.7% 87.8% 84.2% 88.9%T8 38W 80.4% 84.1% 80.0% 84.2% 85.6% 89.5% 80.0% 84.2%T8 58W 82.2% 86.1% 84.7% 90.9% 86.6% 90.6% 84.7% 90.9%T8 70W 83.1% 86.3% 83.3% 88.2% 86.9% 90.3% 83.3% 88.2%T5-E 21W --- --- 79.6% 86.3% --- --- 79.6% 86.3%T5-E 28W --- --- 81.8% 86.9% --- --- 81.8% 86.9%T5-E 35W --- --- 82.6% 89.0% --- --- 82.6% 89.0%T5-E 39W --- --- 82.6% 88.4% --- --- 82.6% 88.4%T5-E 49W --- --- 84.6% 89.2% --- --- 85.0% 89.6%T5-E 54W --- --- 85.4% 89.7% --- --- 85.4% 89.7%T5-E 80W --- --- 87.0% 90.9% --- --- 87.0% 90.9%TC-DD 55W --- --- 84.6% 90.2%
Plot of new classes100% Ballast efficiencies according to 2005/32/EU η 90% 80% EBbFL 70% A2 BAT A2 60% A3 B1 B2 50% Rated power 40% 0W 20W 40W 60W 80W 100W 120W
The bone of contention withthe voltage reduction tech-nique: The lamps lifetimeManufacturers of voltage reduction plantspeak about 33% … 50% longer lamp life.The lamp and luminaire section of theelectrical industrys trade associationwww.zvei.org/fachverbaende/licht.depoints out, the lamp life might also beshortened because the optimal filamenttemperature is not reached.
What pays off, what doesn‘t?Catalogue prices for a ordinary magnetic magnetic low loss electronic (warm start)230 V, 50 Hz, 58 W ballast D C B2 B1 A3 A2 A1Relco (2002) 4.54€ 24.78€ 60.73€Vossloh-Schwabe (2003) 8.50€ 13.50€ 55.50€ 106.50€Vossloh-Schwabe (2008) 13.94€ 14.56€ 33.00€ 50.00€ 106.50€Vossloh-Schwabe twin electronic ballast (2008) 37.00€ Reservation to be made here: Payback periods (based on above Vossloh-Schwabe prices) Be careful with catalogue prices! atIntensity of use 3000 h/a Rated MeasurementElectricity price values 0.12 €/kWh U =U N Φ M=Φ EReplacing a class C magnetic with a class B1 magnetic ballast 2.31a 1.84a 1.87a A realistic approach, however, might 0.87aReplacing a class B2 magnetic with a class B1 magnetic ballast 0.57a 0.87a lookclass B1 magnetic with a class A3 electronic ballast 4.54a 4.80a 35.14aReplacing a like thisReplacing a class C magnetic with a class A3 electronic ballast 5.69a 7.74a 9.06aReplacing a class C magnetic with a class A2 electronic ballast 7.69aReplacing a class B1 magnetic with a class A2 electronic ballast 10.94a
How long does it take to save Electricity priceEssence out of this – 1€ of electricity costs? 5c/kWh 10c/kWh 20c/kWhPayback time:With equal line voltage:Replacing magnetic B1 ballast for 18W T8 lampwith electronic A2 ballast saves 1€ in 3745h 1873h 936hReplacing tandem magnetic B1 ballast for 2*18W T8 lampsFor an assessment let‘s find awith electronic A2 twin ballast saves 1€ inReplacing magnetic B1 ballast for 18W TC-D lamp 3534h 1767h 883h 5076h 2538h 1269hcornerstone from where furtherwith electronic A2 ballast saves 1€ inReplacing magnetic B1 ballast for 58W T8 lamp 3021hwith electronic A3 ballast saves 1€ in 1511h 755hcalculations can be carried out.With equal light output:Replacing magnetic B1 ballast for 18W T8 lamp 2837h 1418h 709hA realistic approach might look like this:with electronic A2 ballast saves 1€ inReplacing tandem magnetic B1 ballast for 2*18W T8 lampswith electronic A2 twin ballast saves 1€ in 3268h 1634h 817hReplacing magnetic B1 ballast for 18W TC-D lampwith electronic A2 ballast saves 1€ in 3273h 1637h 818hReplacing magnetic B1 ballast for 58W T8 lampwith electronic A3 ballast saves 1€ in 9418h 4709h 2355h
10 trumps of electronic ballasts1. But looking at the oldElectronic ballasts have Directive 2000/55/EUlower losses than magnetic you find the following:ballasts T8 lamp with a class B1 MB: Systems power rating 64 W Lamp power rating 58 W Ballast power loss 6W which makes 9.4% T5 lamp with class A3 EB: Systems power rating 63 W Lamp power rating 54 W Ballast power loss 9W which makes 16.7%
10 trumps of electronic ballasts75W T8 lamp 58W according to 2000/55/EC Lamp power Pmax Ballast loss50W25W 0W D C B2 B1 A3 A2 A1
10 trumps of electronic ballasts2. But unfortunately Nominal Maximum input power of ballast and lamp circuitsThe luminaire performs (ratings•according to difference is lamp power a the actual 2000/55/EU)better overall efficiency – not only 3.6% 50Hz HFsolely because of the lower Class Class (Imperial College, London), Class Class Class Class (mag- (elec-ballast losses but also dueCto • the old Directive A3 gave D B2 B1 only A2 netic) tronic)the better lamp efficiency 15W 14W >25W 25W the absolute electrical 23W 21W 18W 16Wwith high frequency values, irrespective of the 18W 16W >28W 28W 26W 24W 21W 19Woperation (about 20 kHz to lamp’s real brightness, which60 kHz). Accordingly, the 40W already is 36W lower with 31W 30W 24W >40W 38W 4% 33W anlamp is fed 32W a >45W 36W with lower 45W electronic 41W 43W ballast,38W 36Welectric power. >47W 38W 32W 47W 45W 43W 40W 38W • the practical design of 58W 50W >70W 70W todays’s magnetic ballasts 67W 64W 59W 55W 70W 60W >83W 83W deviates from the 72W 80W 77W ratings.68W
10 trumps of electronic ballasts3. However:The 100-Hz light flicker is There would be no mention Oh, flicker if ZVEI did not by the way:abandoned with this high of thelamp operating frequency. intend to they praise Dont abolish the well- proven lead-lag com- the 100 Hz pensation of reactive power with fluorescentas a The technique lamps. arguments are not based on flicker free on an the principle but progress with TV excessive rating of the ? compensation capacitance. sets?
10 trumps of electronic ballasts4. However:Most electronic ballasts Beware of overaged news!perform warm start capability The warm start capability(cathode pre-heating before may come as an extra withfiring), reducing lamp wear. extra price premium to the electronic ballast; with magnetic ballasts it has always come indispensably by default, ever since fluorescent lighting has been around. There is no other way!
10 trumps of electronic ballasts5. However:Modern electronic ballasts Beware of even more over-usually provide the so-called aged news!cut-off technology (switching The cut-off capability mayoff the cathode heating after come as an extra with extrafiring), which reduces lamp price premium to thewear and saves even more electronic ballast; withenergy. magnetic ballasts it has always come indispensably by default, ever since fluorescent lighting has been around. There is no other way!
10 trumps of electronic ballasts6. However:The lamp lifetime expectancy Lifetime tests on fluorescentis about 30% longer – lamps are carried out withprovided the electronic common glow startersballasts perform the so- instead of the advancedcalled warm start. electronic starters when magnetic ballasts are applied. This way, one starting process is replaced with several starting attempts, while the number of starts is mentioned as a crucial ageing factor.
10 trumps of electronic ballasts6. However,electronic ballast manufacturers keep silent about the coldstart, while actually the cold start ballast is the standardballast, which performs even poorer than the glow starter!Note:• Empirical value for permanent duty without switching → ≈ 60,000 h lifetime.• Lamp lifetime test according to IEC 60081: To be done with starters according to IEC 60155, i. e. glow starters!• Test cycle: 2:45 h on / 0:15 h off → ≈ 15,000 h lifetime, → 5455 switchings, → costing 45,000 h of service life.
10 trumps of electronic ballasts6.Lamps being exhibited hereunder starter lifetime test > 120,000 starts – both lamp andaccording to IEC 60155: starter still40 s on / 20 s off. in order! ≈ 6,500 starts – both lamp and starter done!
10 trumps of electronic ballasts60000h Lifetime expectancy → with electronic starter50000h with electronic warm start ballast with glow starter40000h with electronic cold start ballast30000h IEC 6008120000h10000h Total number of starts during test → 0h 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000
10 trumps of electronic ballasts7. However:Electronic ballasts are also When electronic ballasts areavailable with instant start praised as providing »imme-feature. diate start capability«, this means that the extra cost for the warm start capability has been omitted. Fortunately this is impossible with magnetic ballasts! The lamps will be grateful for this. As a compromise there are very fast acting electronic starters available, firing within 0.5s.
10 trumps of electronic ballastsread like:The advantages of the The advantages of thepetrol engine: diesel engine:+ It is even equipped + Does not require any with spark plugs! spark plugs at all!+ It even has a + Does not even require carburetor! a carburetor!+ It does not require + It provides pre-heat pre-heat capability! capability!Whereas the carburetor is coming of age.This is why the comparison fits all too well!
10 trumps of electronic ballasts8. However:Defective lamps are shut off With magnetic ballastsautomatically instead of together with electronicharassing employees by starters there are not anypermanent flashing of vain vain restart attempts ofrestart attempts (and even defective lamps either.driving the ballast losses upabove normal level on top ofthat, doing so).
10 trumps of what is thisballasts And electronic here?9.Electronic ballasts facilitatethe use of the even moreefficient T5 lamps, working So what is this then?with electronic ballasts only. ?
10 trumps of electronic ballasts9.Electronic ballasts facilitatethe use of the even moreefficient T5 lamps, workingwith electronic ballasts only. 2*35 W electronic A2 2*35 W electronic A1 2*35 W magnetic A2Of the cold start features noteven to speak … 2:00 1:40 1:20 1:00 0:40 min 0:20 0:05
10 trumps of electronic ballasts9. Oh well,Electronic ballasts facilitate there are T5 lamps and T5the use of the even more lamps. Depends on whetherefficient T5 lamps, working they are labelled HE or HO.with electronic ballasts only. Comparison of T5 and T8 fluorescent lamps Lamp T5 »HE« T8 (measured values) T5 »HO« (catalog values) Length 1449mm 1500mm 1449mm Power rating 35W 58W 49W 80W operated with El. ball. (HF) Magnetic ballast (50Hz) Electronic ballast (HF) Rated system 42W (A3) 67W (B2) 58W (A3) 92W (A3) --- --- power 39W (A2) 64W (B1) 55W (A2) 88W (A2) Measured lamp --- 49W 53W 58W --- --- powerMeasured system --- 55W 61W 69W --- --- power System voltage 207V...253V 217V 230V 244V 207V...253V 207V...253V Light flux 3300lm 4596lm 4951lm 5305lm 4300lm 6150lm System light 79lm/W (A3) 84lm/W (B1, 81lm/W (B1, 77lm/W (B1, 74lm/W (A3) 67lm/W (A3) efficacy 85lm/W (A2) measured) measured) measured) 78lm/W (A2) 70lm/W (A2)
10 trumps of electronic ballasts9. Table 1 of EU-Directive 245/2009 – minimum rated luminousElectronic efficacies, 100 h initialConsequently it nowlamps in lamp ballasts facilitate values for T8 and T5 saysthe use(26 mm even more T5 (16 mm Ø) T8 of the Ø) the new Directive: HE (High Efficiency) HO (High Output)efficient T5 lamps, working Inconsequently, though, it Nominal Luminous Nominal Luminous Nominal Luminouswith electronic ballasts only. now also gives some strange wattage efficacy wattage efficacy wattage efficacy»Second stage requirements« in86lm/W Directive: »The 15W 63lm/W 14W the new 24W 73lm/Wrequirements applicable21W 18W 75lm/W 90lm/W 39W 79lm/W to double capped fluorescent lamps 25W 76lm/W 28W 93lm/W 49W 88lm/W26 mm in diameter (T8) during the first stage shall apply to all 30W 80lm/W 35W 94lm/W 54W 82lm/Wdouble capped fluorescent lamps of other diameters than 36W 93lm/W 80W 77lm/Wthose covered in the first stage« (16 mm, 26 mm). 38W 87lm/WSo 58W are equal! – All of them? No! If its diameter all lamps90lm/Wequals 16 mm a lamp need not be efficient; to all other lamps 70W 89lm/Wstrict limits (those for T8 lamps) apply!
10 trumps of electronic ballasts10. However:By means of dimmability and Only 9% of all electronicoptionally electronic lighting ballast are dimmable.controls, say daylight Rather, dimmbability doublesadaptability, electronic the price again, andballasts may lead to dimmable electronic ballastsadditional energy savings. require a control cable on top of the power cable. The power cable has to remain permanently energized, so that the electronics is able to receive signals.
10 trumps of electronic ballastsNo. 11 out of 10: But why is this?Electronic ballasts have a All manufacturers oflobby, magnetic ones have magnetic ballasts also offernone. electronic ones from another site or as a commodity. Catalogue Lifetime Turnover per price expectancy duty time electronic 50.00 € ≤ 50,000 h 1.00€/1000h magnetic 15.00 € > 300,000 h 0.05€/1000h
No talk at all of the disadvantages: Frequent reliability problems
Electronic ballast failures at ETH Zürichin just one year
Electronic ballast failures with E.ONin Düsseldorf1100 pieces installed – after half a year already 400 pieceshad failed. Each and every time it was the filter capacitor.HF superimposition from other ballasts on the mains (?)Howsoever – they have now all been replaced by magnetics
Electronic ballast failures atBiberach University of Applied Sciences Each time 2 lamps located side by side fail you may assumethat it is not thelamps which are defectivebut rather their commomelectronic twin ballast has failed
Electronic ballast failuresat Dortmund principal railway stationon a baker‘s shop
Repairing the electronic ballast failuresat Dortmund principal railway station:Back to magnetic ballasts!
Electronic ballast failuresat Boisheim railway station:Whenever two adjacent lamps… – see above
Statements heardin the market include:• Magnetic ballasts are going to be phased out• The use of magnetic ballasts is prohibited• Magnetic ballasts dont exist any more at all• Magnetic ballasts – whats that?
The truth in figures:100 Mio. 80 Mio. D, C KVG B VVG 60 Mio. A EVG 40 Mio. 20 Mio. 0 Mio. 2000 2002 2004 2005www.topmagnetic.com www.celma.org www.vito.be
Strange bidscruising this market:Dear Sir,… to be able to compare the bidded systems still requires someclarification. For the system power intake you use• the poorest available version (B2, 2 * 67 W = 134 W) for magnetic ballasts, but• the best available version for (A2, 2 * 55 W = 110 W) for electronic ballasts.Still, the same light output of 5200 lm is used for both versions in thecalculations, although under the given circumstances only 4800 lmcan be expected with electronic ballasts.In the lighting calculations, however, it is assumed that a far greaternumber of systems is required when employing magnetic ballasts:• Hall 1: 237 * 2 * magnetic versus 154 * 2 * electronic,• Hall 2: 150 * 2 * magnetic versus 100 * 2 * electronic.
All published case studies, however,read like this one published inGermany by www.dena.de:
68% of energy savings is claimedthrough the renovation of the lighting in afactory hall. Albeit, the renovation included:• 152*700W mercury vapour lamps were replaced with: 72*400W sodium vapour lamps =56% savings +72*250W sodium vapour lamps• Generic low-beam luminaires were replaced with special factory reflector luminaires ≈12% savings• Magnetic ballasts were replaced with dimmable electronic ballasts• Automatic daylight dependent dimming was installed } ≈ 0% savingsQuite apart from the excellent PR ThyssenKrupp launched here,promoting a technique not using any magnetic steel at all against onewhich uses quite a lot of magnetic steel! Congratulations!
ELECTRONIC CONTROL GEARSo care has to be taken with dimming! energy consumption in relation to luminous flux 100 % 80 % luminous flux 50 % QUICKTRONIC® DE 20 % LUXE DIMMABLE 1% 13 % 100 % system wattageBLMK 13030F395 E Original fabricators slide
A1=A3? – Or: When does anelectronic ballast match class A1?•It shall be dimmable at least down to 10% of the full light output.•When set to full power it shall comply with the requirements of class A3.•When dimmed down to 25% of full light output it shall use no more than 50% of its rated power (i. e. that of class A3).This 50% also represents the power rating!
Or take a modernThis is logical, sinceelectric locomotive:e. g. also a car is‘dimmable’: ThePower for ac-engine providescelerating: 6000kW.60 kW, but in urbanPowerthe demand istraffic duringbraking:only 10 kW,usually -6000kW.so the engine powerPower rating: 0kW.is rated as 30 kW.Logical, isn‘t it?Isn‘t it?Oh yes, it isn‘t! This 50% also represents the power rating!
Efficacy against measured relative systems power requirement at rated voltage90lm/W80lm/W Lighting efficacy 70lm/W60lm/W50lm/W40lm/W T8 lamp 58W with magnetic ballast EEI=D30lm/W T8 lamp 58W with standard magnetic ballast EEI=C T8 lamp 58W with low-loss magnetic ballast EEI=B220lm/W T8 lamp 58W with low-loss magnetic ballast EEI=B1 T8 lamp 51W with low-loss magnetic ballast EEI=B110lm/W T5 lamps 2*35W with twin el. ballast EEI=A1 at 25°C 35°C EEI class A1 limit to 35°C at standard (25°C)0lm/W 0% P Syst/P Syst(U N) 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 120%
Alternative 1:Of course you save most if you turn offthe light while it is not really needed. Butif you turn off the light completely(possibly groupwise), then you savemore than you would when »dimmeddown to 0«. Therefore:A »semi automatic« which also shuts offthe electronic control gear and has to beturned on again manually.
Alternative 2:Or wireless sensors which do not requireany stand-by supply!See: www.enocean-alliance.org
magnetic 0% 25% 50% 75% 100% electronic T8 with MB UN=220V, USys=230V, PSys=80W T5 »HO« with EB A2 T8 with MB Albeit, by measuring T8 with EB A3 2*T5 »HE« with EB A3 2*T5 »HE« withyou arrive at totally different results! EB A1 & DALI T8 with EnOcean Savings potential versus T8 with MB
Albeit, by measuringyou arrive at totally different results: Electrical and Luminous output, efficacy Electrical energy, light energy per yearThe lamps are on for Signal 4 * MB 58W 3 * EB 2*35W 4*MB 58W T8 B1 3*EB 2*35W T5 A11000h/a at full Day- brightness 550h/a at 50%/64% light Day- = = 245.7W 19.8klm 81lm/W 223.1W 19.8klm 89lm/W 245.7kWh 19.8Mlmh 223.1kWh 19.8Mlmh (EB/MB) light 141.7W 12.6klm 89lm/W 127.5W 10.1klm 79lm/W 77.9kWh 6.9Mlmh 70.1kWh 5.5Mlmh1030h/a at 2%/0% Day- (EB/MB) light 0.0W 0.0klm --- 32.2W 0.4klm 12lm/W 0.0kWh 0.0Mlmh 33.2kWh 0.4Mlmh6180h/a never – Signal: Pres- »off« ence 0.0W 0.0klm --- 1.5W 0.0klm 0lm/W 0.0kWh 0.0Mlmh 9.3kWh 0.0Mlmh Annual sums 323.6kWh 26.8Mlmh 335.6kWh 25.7Mlmh Balance Mean annual light efficacy 82.7lm/W 76.6lm/WSo the magnetic systems with T8 lampseven without dimmability– just with automatic switching –achieve the better mean annual efficacy!
Conclusions so far:Dimmable electronic ballasts offer excellentopportunities for optimal lighting in conferencerooms and the like. There they are a usefulinvestment. There have been various dimmingtechniques for magnetic ballasts around, but theyall had their drawbacks and do no longer matchtoday‘s requirements.The energy savings argument is better coveredby low-loss magnetic ballasts with electronicstarters and, where adequate, a voltage reductiontechnique (but which cannot be seen as dimming,since the regulation is only ≈35%).
For non-dimmable electronicballasts do save energy, butvoltage reduction saves more energy! Metering Measurements DIAL Calculated valuesType (device con- U P (tot) P (Ball) P (Lam p) I U (Ball) U (Lam p) Φ (Lam p) (tot) P (Loss) P (tot) under test) ditions [V] [W] [W] [W] [mA] [V] [V] [lm] [lm/W] [lm/W] P (tot) PN 190.0 35.42 2.44 32.94 314 111.6 137.2 3157 95.85 89.14 93.0% 57.7% 200.0 43.78 3.82 40.03 397 132.2 129.9 3813 95.25 87.09 91.4% 71.3% T8 lamp 58W with 210.0 50.57 5.14 45.38 470 149.8 123.2 4295 94.65 84.94 89.7% 82.3% low-loss 220.0 56.24 6.57 49.70 537 165.5 117.8 4662 93.80 82.89 88.4% 91.6% magnetic U =U N 230.0 61.42 8.01 53.36 596 179.3 113.6 4952 92.80 80.62 86.9% 100.0% ballast 240.0 66.40 9.60 56.72 659 192.6 109.9 5198 91.64 78.28 85.4% 108.1% EEI=B1 P =P N 244.0 68.53 10.31 58.00 683 197.7 108.8 5306 91.48 77.42 84.6% 111.6% 250.0 71.60 11.50 59.91 724 205.5 106.1 5420 90.47 75.70 83.7% 116.6% 190.0 54.92 297 110.1 4722 85.98 100.2% 200.0 54.75 285 108.4 4723 86.27 99.9% T8 lamp 58W with 210.0 54.90 275 109.3 4724 86.06 100.2% electronic 220.0 54.85 263 112.8 4723 86.12 100.1% ballast U =U N 230.0 54.80 256 109.9 4718 86.10 100.0% EEI=A3 240.0 54.86 248 110.1 4724 86.11 100.1% 250.0 54.72 242 110.2 4723 86.32 99.9%
Also the new 51 W lampsaves energy but voltagereduction saves more energy! Measurements DIAL Calculated valuesType (device Metering con- U P (tot) P (Ball) P (Lam p) I U (Ball) U (Lam p) Φ (Lam p) (tot) P (Loss) P (tot) under test) ditions [V] [W] [W] [W] [mA] [V] [V] [lm] [lm/W] [lm/W] P (tot) PN 190.0 35.42 2.44 32.94 314 111.6 137.2 3157 95.85 89.14 93.0% 57.7% 200.0 43.78 3.82 40.03 397 132.2 129.9 3813 95.25 87.09 91.4% 71.3% T8 lamp 58W with 210.0 50.57 5.14 45.38 470 149.8 123.2 4295 94.65 84.94 89.7% 82.3% low-loss 220.0 56.24 6.57 49.70 537 165.5 117.8 4662 93.80 82.89 88.4% 91.6% magnetic U =U N 230.0 61.42 8.01 53.36 596 179.3 113.6 4952 92.80 80.62 86.9% 100.0% ballast 240.0 66.40 9.60 56.72 659 192.6 109.9 5198 91.64 78.28 85.4% 108.1% EEI=B1 P =P N 244.0 68.53 10.31 58.00 683 197.7 108.8 5306 91.48 77.42 84.6% 111.6% 250.0 71.60 11.50 59.91 724 205.5 106.1 5420 90.47 75.70 83.7% 116.6% 207.0 44.81 5.76 39.02 498 156.7 108.6 3571 91.51 79.68 87.1% 80.5% T8 lamp 51W U =U N 230.0 55.09 8.86 46.28 625 185.1 102.3 4179 90.29 75.85 84.0% 99.0% with low-loss Φ m=Φ e 230.2 55.22 8.81 46.52 626 185.4 102.5 4181 89.88 75.72 84.2% 99.2% magneticballast EEI=B1 253.0 66.17 13.51 52.69 775 213.3 95.0 4557 86.48 68.86 79.6% 118.9% U =U N (30°C) 229.9 57.16 9.02 48.11 624 184.6 102.1 4484 93.20 78.45 84.2% 102.7%
Also the new 37 W lampwith a special startersaves energy but voltage reductionsaves more energy! Type Measurements DIAL Calculated values Metering con- (device U P tot P Ball P Lam p I U Ball U Lam p Φ Lam p tot P Loss P tot ditionsunder test) [V] [W] [W] [W] [mA] [V] [V] [lm] [lm/W] [lm/W] P (tot) PN R20= 13.80 Ω 190.0 35.42 2.44 32.94 314 111.6 137.2 3157 95.85 89.14 93.0% 57.7% m= 1.32 kg 200.0 43.78 3.82 40.03 397 132.2 129.9 3813 95.25 87.09 91.4% 71.3% T8 lamp58W with 210.0 50.57 5.14 45.38 470 149.8 123.2 4295 94.65 84.94 89.7% 82.3%low-loss 220.0 56.24 6.57 49.70 537 165.5 117.8 4662 93.80 82.89 88.4% 91.6%magnetic U =U N 230.0 61.42 8.01 53.36 596 179.3 113.6 4952 92.80 80.62 86.9% 100.0% ballast 240.0 66.40 9.60 56.72 659 192.6 109.9 5198 91.64 78.28 85.4% 108.1% EEI=B1 P =P N 244.0 68.53 10.31 58.00 683 197.7 108.8 5306 91.48 77.42 84.6% 111.6% 250.0 71.60 11.50 59.91 724 205.5 106.1 5420 90.47 75.70 83.7% 116.6%37W Power with starter 230.0 43.93 6.05 37.83 512 157.5 109.9 3761 99.43 85.62 86.1% 79.0% Saver Set without starter 230.1 62.53 8.06 54.47 597 179.9 116.8 5648 103.70 90.33 87.1% 112.4% with special Φ w ith=Φ w ithout 192.8 38.53 2.84 35.66 341 119.1 135.5 3762 105.49 97.63 92.6% 69.2% starter 58 W lamp 230.1 43.90 5.88 38.14 505 156.5 112.6 3308 86.74 75.36 86.9% 78.9%
Karl Böhmer fromwww.eckerle.com, an electronicballast manufacturer, says:»It is very, very hard for an electronicballast to compete with the efficiencyof a very good B1 magnetic ballast.This is not the reason, after all, why wecare for electronic ballasts, butrather…«
Now what can dimmableballasts offer us?Create adaptable lighting scenarios fordedicated purposes, such as inconference rooms or inwww.miwula.de
And what are thenon-dimmableelectronic ballasts good for?•For low mains voltage (e. g. USA: 120 V)•In emergency lighting (DC)•In vehicles (DC or e. g. 16.7 Hz)
So what‘s really wrong about them?Since one manufacturer now offers an LED lampwhich »matches compatibility problems occurringwhen replacing halogen lamps with LED lamps«…From a press release (Light & Building 2010):»In the past the replacement of halogen spot lampswith LED lamps frequently caused problems. Thereasons were many different transformers.«A »patented electronic solution« claims to helpthrough »a simulation of the electric properties of alow-voltage halogen lamp«…
This is what the »electricalproperties of a low-voltagehalogen lamp« look like:
This is what the lamp looks like: Oops! And this is wherethis Dutch product was made! front side reverse side
And the package looks like this: Oops! What does it say there? Not the permission for HF operation anyway!
Just a moment, please!This was not yet all!The best is yet to come!Since recently you can not only see but alsohear lighting! Let us put you on the spot…
Upcoming but striving hardHere an 8 W LED »lighting tube« would like to replacean 18 W fluorescent tube, but:• Position dependent• No tandem configuration possible• No combination with fluorescent tubes• Light or lamplet?• And how about EMC?
Upcoming but striving hardOut of 8 W power rating 5.7 W active power and7.2 var (harmonic) reactive power are left over
Regarding the »savingspotential« of such »solutions« Oops! With ballast Measurements DIAL Type (device under test) Price type U P I Φ Q S ABB 58-150/23SF-50-Philips Master LEDtube GA min. 119.90 € Ratings 230.0V 25.0W 1900lm 72lm/W 1500 mm, 840 G13 max. 119.95 € Measured 230.0V 25.9W 114mA 1828lm 70lm/W 3.9var 26.2VA OSRAM SubstiTube ST8- min. 77.52 € Ratings 230.0V 25.5W 110mA 1650lm 65lm/W #ZAHL! 25.3VA B4 HA5-165-840 Advanced max. 99.00 € Measured 230.0V 26.7W 118mA 1899lm 71lm/W 5.0var 27.1VALOBS LED 30 W 5100-XL- min. 94.90 € Ratings 230.0V 30.0W 2700lm DW-65 max. 94.90 € Measured 230.0V 29.1W 127mA 2432lm 83lm/W 2.0var 29.2VAMorals:• The »cheapest« one is the strongest and simultaneously the most efficient one!• But by no means more efficient than a fluorescent lamp!• It’s a shame to stuff LEDs into a plastic tube!• Neither do you go to the racing parcours with a tractor.• Nor do you attach a plough to a race car.
Regarding the »savingspotential« of such »solutions« Even this lamp provides a … if you use it as asavings potential of 60% … replacement for this one!
Summary – part 1: Fluorescent lampsSodium low pressure vapour lamp 135 W with low-loss ballast 141.5 lm/WT8 fluorescent lamp 37 W »Philips Power Saver Set« without special starter at 193 V 97.6 lm/WT5 fluorescent lamp »HE« 35 W (at 35 C) with EB Cl. A2 (optimal operation) 35°C) 93.6 lm/WT8 fluorescent lamp 58 W with MB Cl. B1 at 190 V (out of specification) 89.1 lm/WT8 fluorescent lamp 51 W »Philips TL-D Eco« with EB Cl. A3 86.5 lm/WT8 fluorescent lamp 58 W with EB Cl. A3 86.1 lm/WT8 fluorescent lamp 37 W »Philips Power Saver Set« with special starter at 230 V 85.6 lm/WT8 fluorescent lamp 58 W with MB Cl. B1 at 222 V (brightness as with EB) 82.4 lm/WT8 fluorescent lamp 58 W with MB Cl. B1 at 230 V 80.6 lm/WT5-fluorescent lamp »HO« 80 W (at 35 C) with EB Cl. A2 (optimal operation) 35°C) 79.5 lm/WT5-fluorescent lamp »HE« 35 W (at 25 C) with EB Cl. A3 (not optimal) 25°C) 78.6 lm/W2 T8 fluorescent lamps 2*18 W with twin EB Kl. A2 77.0 lm/WT8 fluorescent lamp 51 W »Philips TL-D Eco« with MB Cl. B1 at 230 V 73.8 lm/WT8 fluorescent lamp 58 W with MB Cl. D for 220 V measured at 230 V 71.7 lm/WT5-fluorescent lamp »HO« 80 W (at 25 C) with EB Cl. A3 (not optimal) 25°C) 66.8 lm/W2 T8 fluorescent lamps 2*18 W tandem with MB Cl. B1 at 230 V 66.5 lm/WT8 fluorescent lamp 18 W with EB Cl. A2 66.1 lm/W2 TC-S-fluorescent lamps 2*9 W tandem with high-loss MB 55.8 lm/WCompact fluorescent lamp 11 W brand quality 55.7 lm/WT8 fluorescent lamp 18 W with MB Cl. B1 at 230 V 51.5 lm/WCompact fluorescent lamp 11 W DIY market quality 46.7 lm/WMini compact fluorescent lamp 4 W improved DIY market quality (Megaman) 44.8 lm/WTC-S-fluorescent lamp 9 W single mode with high-loss MB 42.1 lm/W
Summary – part 2:LEDs and incancescent lampsLED lamp systems ≈60.0 lm/W3 IRC halogen lamps 3*50 W with toroidal core transformer 300 W (50% load) 23.7 lm/W2 halogen lamps 2*100 W with toroidal core transformer 400 W (50% load) 12.4 lm/W3 halogen lamps 2*100 W + 50 W with toroidal core transf. 300 W (83% load) 12.1 lm/W3 halogen lamps 2*100 W + 50 W with electronic transf. 250 W (100% load) 12.0 lm/W3 halogen lamps 3*20 W with electronic transformer 60 W (100% load) 11.2 lm/W3 halogen lamps 3*20 W with cheap DIY transformer 60 W (100% load) 10.0 lm/WGeneric incandescent lamp 200 W frosted 15.5 lm/WGeneric incandescent lamp 150 W frosted 14.4 lm/WGeneric incandescent lamp 100 W frosted 13.6 lm/WGeneric incandescent lamp 60 W frosted 12.0 lm/WGeneric incandescent lamp 40 W frosted 10.4 lm/WLinestra tube 120 W More:Generic incandescent lamp 25 W frosted 8.8 7.0 lm/W lm/WLinestra tube 60 W www.leonardo-energy.org/lighting 7.0 lm/WLinestra tube 35 W 6.8 lm/WGeneric incandescent lamp 15 W frosted 6.0 lm/WStearin candle 0.1 lm/W