Mbfc project

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Mbfc project

  1. 1. Marina Bay Financial Centre 1 Objective The general objectives of this project is to give our client a detailed management report of the Marina Bay Financial Centre. This general objective can be broken down to four more specific objectives that would together achieve the overall goal of the project as follows: i. Providing an introduction of the subject property’s location, size, awards won due to its sustainable development, developers, type of use and land tenure. ii. Giving an estimated distance of the subject property from key amenities around it and providing insightful comments on its accessibility. iii. Evaluating a list of building materials used in basic areas. iv. Providing an estimation of the size of these basic areas. This reports aims to provide accurate information of MBFC while comparing it with other famous sites in Singapore to weigh the advantages and disadvantages of the building’s architecture.
  2. 2. Marina Bay Financial Centre 2 Chapter 1: Introduction 1.1 Location 1) Marina Bay is Singapore’s most ambitious and exciting urban development that will support its substantial growth as a major business and financial in Asia, being the centrepiece of Singapore’s urban transformation. This gives Marina Bay a unique competitive advantage to tap on the synergy with the existing Central Business District in Singapore since it is an extension of the city. 2) Marina Bay has the concept of the combined live-work-play which is a sustainable approach that brings about greater convenience as a place with a necklace of attractions and round-the-clock energy. 3) Good transportation infrastructure to provide connectivity for companies and professional to support one another and exchange ideas. 4) A common service tunnel has been built to locate all utility services such as electrical and telecommunication cables and water pipes in the same underground network. This allow easier maintenance and upgrading with minimal disruptive road excavations. 5) There is also the waterfront promenade with greenery designed as a well-shaded environment for pedestrian. Water features are included to cool the ambient air temperature. This makes MBFC a prime location for global investors and corporations that are looking for premium offices to locate at. Hence the Marina Bay Financial Centre is our chosen project as it guarantees high returns from investing due to the functions of the building, location and the government policies tied to it. 1.2 Size The size 3.55-hectare Marina Bay Financial site includes three office towers worth of workplace, two residential towers and a subterranean retail space of 160,000 square feet.
  3. 3. Marina Bay Financial Centre 3 1.3 Developers The Marina Bay Financial Centre is jointly developed by Cheung Kong (Holdings)/Hutchison Whampoa, Hong Kong Land and Keppel Land Limited. 1) The Cheung Kong (Holdings) Limited specializes in private residential properties in Singapore. 2) The Hong Kong Land group owns and manages prime commercial spaces in Singapore’s Central Business District. 3) The Keppel Land Limited is one of the largest property companies by totally assets on the Singapore Exchange and they are recognized for residential developments, investment-grade commercial properties, and high standards of corporate governance and transparency. Being the leading prime office developer and landlord in Singapore, they focused on creaking live-work-play environment which is what essentially the Marina Bay Financial Centre is created for. 1.4 Type of use and Land Tenure MBFC is a mixed development which comprises of office units and commercial spaces. It has a 99-year lease which expires on 10th October 2104. 1.5 Sustainable Development MBFC qualifies for inclusion in the Building Control Authority Green Mark scheme, which promotes sustainability in the built environment. The environmentally-smart building and design features include energy-saving ventilation systems and lifts, extensive landscaping, sky terraces and gardens evenly distributed throughout the building to spread the cooling load. This building has earned various awards, such as: 1) 2008 – BCA Green Mark Gold Award for Phase 1 (Commercial Towers 1 & 2) 2) 2009 – BCA Green Mark Gold Plus Award for Phase 2 (Commercial Tower 3) 3) LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) Gold certification for its corporate interiors.
  4. 4. Marina Bay Financial Centre 4 Chapter 2: Accessibility Marina Bay Financial Centre is located in the heart of Central Business District area, offering high accessibility to various places which suits its concept of Work, Live and Play. The location provide great convenience as it is surrounded by many other office buildings, residential areas and entertainment places. 2.1 Transportation 1. Approximately 350 m away from Marina Bay MRT Station Exit B which is equivalent to 4 minute walk. 2. Estimated walking distance of 700 m from Raffles Place MRT Station Exit J, 9 minute walk. 3. Around 650 m to Bayfront MRT Station, 8 minute walk via Marina Bay Sands. 4. The upcoming Downtown MRT Station opening in 4th quarter of 2013 has an underground link to Marina Bay Link Mall located under the Office Towers. 5. Bus Stop of Stop ID 03391 just in front of the Ground Plaza of Marina Bay Financial Centre, offering services of Bus 97 and 97e. 6. Bus Stop located in front of Office Tower 3 of Stop ID 03531 provide services from Bus 106 and 133. 7. 500 m to bus stops with Stop ID 03059 at One Raffles Quay and Stop ID 03031 opposite AIA Tower that have bus services that travel to areas where the expatriates working at Marina Bay Financial Centre usually stay. The following are the lists of Buses offering their services at these bus stops.  Stop ID 03059: 10, 10e, 57, 70, 75, 100, 107, 128, 130, 131, 162, 167, 186, 196, and196e.  Stop ID 03031: 10, 10e, 70, 75, 100, 107, 128, 130, 162, 196, 196e, 538, 539, 544, and 545. 8. ECP connects to the eastern part of Singapore, AYE to the western side and CTE to the northern side. 9. Taxi stands available at all Office Towers (Tower 1, 2, and 3). 10. Around 20 minute drive from Changi Airport.
  5. 5. Marina Bay Financial Centre 5 2.2 School 1. Within 2 km of Cantonment Primary School. 2.3 Residential Areas 1. 50 m to Marina Bay Residences. 2. 200 m to The Sail and Marina Bay Suites, approximately 3 mins walk. 3. 250 m to Marina One Residences (under construction U/C), 500 m to Robinson Suites (U/C) and V On Shenton (U/C). 4. Around 1 km to the Shenton Way district which comprises of many up and coming condominiums such as ICON, Lumiere, EON Shenton (U/C), 76 Shenton (U/C), Sky Suites @ Anson (U/C), Altez (U/C). 2.4 Food Market 1. Estimated walking distance of 400 m to Lau Pa Sat Festival Market, around 5 minute walk where local foods can be found. Therefore office workers are not just restricted to dining at restaurants and can experience hawker centre in the financial district area. 2.5 Entertainments 1. Marina Bay Link Mall located under Marina Bay Financial Centre Office Towers. 2. 10 minute walk to Marina Bay Sands with estimated distance of 800 m. 3. Approximately 2.6 km and 7 minute drive to Gardens by the Bay which is a major tourist attraction. Additional Comments The location is very strategic as it suits the concept of Live-Work-Play. While there may be a few bus stops that are located around the MBFC, the ones nearest to tower 3 and ground plaza only offer two bus services. This is insufficient for the convenience of the office workers and visitors. Hence, it would be better if there are more bus services and higher bus frequencies provided to the office workers and visitors in these bus stops. Therefore they would not need to travel farther to One Raffles Quay bus stop to reach their desired destinations.
  6. 6. Marina Bay Financial Centre 6 Chapter 3: Building Finishes and Materials This section will include the finishes used in the construction of the following areas: Exterior, Office Spaces, Lobby, Ground Plaza, Car Park and Toilet. 3.1 Exterior Building MBFC have a crystalline architectural language to blend itself to the environment. The crystal forms, clad in heavily tinted, low-e glass with a high shading coefficient, are intended to create a strong profile on the Singapore skyline. Their faceted surfaces break up the massing of the individual buildings by reflecting sunlight in different ways. The towers are oriented to maximize views of the marina. The commercial towers have projecting horizontal louvers to shade occupants from Singapore’s tropical sun. Windows are made vertical, to flush dirt from the windows in times of rain or wind. Windows are homogenous making replacement of any damaged windows cheaper and easier.
  7. 7. Marina Bay Financial Centre 7 3.2 Office Space The floor plates in MBFC are around 21,000 square feet to over 45,000 square feet. From the floor plan, we can know that the office space is in square shape. This is the most ideal and desirable shape for office usage as compared to oval, triangle and trapezium shapes. A square shape has the highest building efficiency as it has highest net to gross ratio. The floor area is approximately 1950 square feet. Efficiency ratio: The efficiency ratio of this building is not 100% because we need to take into consideration the circulation space, safety regulations and flexibility for future adaptability. For example, the Gateway at Beach Road consists of two buildings that are trapezium in shape. Both of them have sharp edges at the end of the building. The average floor plates in the building are 11,000 square feet. However, some of the sharp corners cannot be fully utilized. 3.2.1 Column-Free Space Every floor in the building has large, regular column-free space. The financial buildings are clear span steel frame buildings with the steel girders that span from columns at the exterior wall. These steel buildings require no interior
  8. 8. Marina Bay Financial Centre 8 support columns which leaves the interior area open without any barrier and load- bearing beams. Advantages: 1) Regular column free space is thus obtained and tenants could easily rearrange the floor plans according to their needs. 2) This can actually tenants as this maximizes the flexibility and efficiency of the building. 3) Increase the profits of developer as more usable and rentable area is provided. 3.2.2 Floor-to-Ceiling Windows With the installation of floor-to-ceiling windows, light could shine through, spectacular views, sense of boundlessness and freedom are provided. These buildings are built in the form of crystalline as these sculpt a dramatic skyline along the Marina Bay Waterfront. Energy efficient curtain-wall glass cladding system is used for the overall building. 3.2.3 Paint The building is painted with low Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) which will benefit both human and environmental health. The cost of this low VOC paint is not high compare to those normal paints. 3.3 Eco-friendly Features 3.3.1 Pneumatic Refuse Conveyance System In this building, a Pneumatic Refuse Conveyance system is installed as a mechanized method of refuse collection. The refuse materials are conveyed from the building through a network of underground pipes to a central refuse collection point, called the refuse collection centre. Advantages includes the reduction in congestion, noise and odour nuisance in the area. This will result in manpower savings as there is no need for manual handling of refuse materials. It is also more hygienic and pleasant. However the rubbish that is disposed in the refuse chute has to fit strict size requirements to prevent the system from clogging up.
  9. 9. Marina Bay Financial Centre 9 3.3.2 Sky Garden, Rooftop Greenery, Planting Zones Marina Bay is the Central Business District in Singapore, therefore it is highly developed and also highly-built up with high-rise buildings. High density urban environment often suffers certain trade-offs and disadvantages as the heat from the sun is absorbed by the large area of building surfaces. Thus, 36% of the total area of this building has been allocated to green spaces. There are planting zones between two buildings, sky-gardens and rooftop to replace the greenery lost from the site area taken up by the building and also to lessen this “urban heat island effect”. 3.3.3 District Cooling System A district cooling system is in operation to serve the developments within the Marina Bay area. It supplies chilled water throughout the day through a piping network for air-conditioning of the building. This system is environmentally friendly as it operates more efficiently than other commercial equipment used in local plants, resulting in reduction of electricity consumption by 40-60%. It saves building space as there is no need for individual buildings to install chillers, cooling towers, pumps and other individual systems. This benefits the building owners as there is larger net rentable space area. In addition, it reduces noise level, maintenance fees and CO2 emissions.
  10. 10. Marina Bay Financial Centre 10 3.3.4 Windows The use of Double Glazed Low-Emissivity (Low-E) insulating glass as the windows for MBFC reduces solar heat gain into the building’s internal air-conditioned spaces. This further aids with the internal cooling system of the buildings and reduce electricity consumption on air-conditioning products. Awards MBFC’s eco-friendly features made them won accolades for their achievements towards environmental sustainability under the Building and Construction Authority’s (BCA) Green Mark awards. 1. Phase 1 (commercial) of Marina Bay Financial Centre (MBFC) was awarded the Green Mark Gold award 2. BCA Green Mark Gold Plus Award for Phase 2 (Commercial Tower 3) Additional Comments It would be better if solar roof panels are installed for MBFC to not only reduce solar heat gain, but produce electricity for the buildings to make them more environmentally sustainable. Indeed, solar panels are expensive, but they are cost effective due to their long lifespan and warranty, reaping off more benefits in the long run.
  11. 11. Marina Bay Financial Centre 11 3.4 Lobby 3.4.1 Floor, Wall & Ceiling Materials Advantages Disadvantages Marble It has a grand appearance and is durable thus it does not crack easily. Marble is resistant to scratch, hence giving an everlasting appeal. It is more expensive than granite. Marble flooring has a very low coefficient of friction - it may present a slipping hazard. Proper maintenance of the marble floor is needed to ensure it last for years since it is prone to stains. Dry Wall Ceiling Easy to be installed due to its lightweight. Fire resistant and have soundproof properties prevent the transfer of unwanted sound to adjoining areas. It is less suitable in high moisture condition as it is prone to damages due to water. It can promote the growth of moulds and fungi easily.
  12. 12. Marina Bay Financial Centre 12 Materials Advantages Disadvantages LED lightings Energy efficient (Less power consumption) as it uses less power to generate and thus lowering the total electric bills. LED light consumes only 6-8 watts per bulb. Long lifespan (Long service life) as it can last around 50,000 hours on average. Durable: LED light is made of solid materials and it doesn’t have filament or a glass bulb, hence it is more resistant to damage. LED light is expensive. LED light is directional, meaning that the light does not radiate in all directions, hence you will have to install more LED lights in order to cover all corners, which incur more cost. 3.4.2 Lightings Additional Comments It would be better if the fluorescent lightings are changed to LED lightings at shopping areas because it does not only help to save more energy and cost, it is also more environmentally friendly and helps to enhance the beauty of the shopping area.
  13. 13. Marina Bay Financial Centre 13 Type Advantages Disadvantages 24 hour CCTV It deters potential criminal activities from happening. Monitors all main entrances and exits of the building. Need to install many cameras in order to have effective perimeter cover. Increase energy consumption. High maintenance cost as it requires both material and manpower. 3.4.3 Security System
  14. 14. Marina Bay Financial Centre 14 Type Advantages Disadvantages Tenants’ Lift -Capacity: 1050 kg -Max: 15 pax 8 lifts in total that have access to different storeys. -Small LCD screen displaying news, events and advertisement. Tenants’ lifts are separated from the public lifts for security reason, so that unauthorized personnel are not able to access the units. The building provides lifts accessing to different zone of the building; such as the low rise, midrise, and high rise. This helps to reduce the tenants’ waiting time and solve the problem of overcrowding during peak hours LCD screen installed inside lift provide news, upcoming events. Developer can also earn through publishing advertisement on the screen. The maintenance and utility cost will be higher with more lifts. 3.4.4 Lifts
  15. 15. Marina Bay Financial Centre 15 Tower Lift types Zone Number Load Capacity Speed 1 Passenger Lifts Low Rise: from 1st, 3rd to 17th Storey 8 1,900kg (28 person) 5m/sec High Rise: 1st, 18th to 33rd Storey 8 1,900kg (28 person) 6m/sec Service Lifts All floors 2 2,450kg 3.5m/sec Car park Lifts B2, B1 and 1st Storey 2 900kg (13 person) 1.5m/sec 2 Passenger Lifts Low Rise: from 1st, 7th to 22nd Storey 8 2,040kg (30 person) 5m/sec Mid Rise: 1st, 23rd to 37th Storey 8 2,040kg (30 person) 6m/sec High Rise: 1st, 39th to 50th Storey 7 2,040kg (30 person) 7m/sec Service Lifts (Open to public) All floors 2 1,800kg 5m/sec Car park Lifts B2, B1, 1st to 6th Storey 2 1,100kg (15 person) 1.5m/sec 3 Passenger Lifts 5 lift zones 35 - - Service Lifts All Floors 2 - - Car park Lifts Basement to 1st 3 - -
  16. 16. Marina Bay Financial Centre 16 Additional Comments Maintenance of lift is usually done on weekends to examine and identify problems so as to ensure that the lift will function properly and prevent them from breaking down during peak hours. Moreover, with regular inspection, problems can be fixed earlier and unnecessary repair cost can be avoided, and definitely will be much safer for the passengers. 3.5 Ground Plaza The ground plaza offers an unobstructed view of Marina Bay waterfront. The central location of the ground plaza among the three commercial tower serves as a modern oasis. The design of the ground plaza includes the waterfront facing, water features and a lush tropical landscape. This environment is sublime for the bistro bars and restaurants, which cater for the business meals and social drinks. The open concept of dining area allows diners to have the ability to take pleasure and relish in the view of the Bay at the alfresco restaurants.
  17. 17. Marina Bay Financial Centre 17 3.5.1 Bronze Sculptured Water buffaloes The bronze sculptured water buffaloes placed at the Ground Plaza was sculpted by a late British sculptor and animalier, Dame Elisabeth Frink (1930-1993). This pair of water buffaloes represent strength, industriousness and endurance. It also pays tribute to Singapore’s forefathers, reminding us that they were the one who had laboured and endured many hardships to bring about a better life for themselves, the future generations and us. Water buffaloes are representatives of early economy as they were the main transport carriers and the workers of the field. The characteristics of water buffaloes include diligence, gentleness, loyalty and perseverance. Hence by placing the bronze sculptured water buffaloes at the centre of ground plaza would symbolize that the prosperity of Singapore does not come by chance or luck but also by hardwork and diligence of the workers.
  18. 18. Marina Bay Financial Centre 18 3.5.2 Granolithic Flooring The granolithic flooring is made up of a mix of materials, such as cement and hard wearing coarse size granitic or basaltic rocks. The advantages of these flooring is that they provide exceedingly high wear resistance and they are free from maintenance even under severe conditions. This is due to the low water-cement ratio which provides the strength and toughness of the flooring. It can also absorb water without affecting the cement mixture. This is beneficial as Singapore experiences tropical climatic conditions such as high precipitations. However, this type of flooring has the proneness towards sounds reflecting off the surface, leading to noise problems.
  19. 19. Marina Bay Financial Centre 19 3.6 MBFC Car park There are multiple levels of basement car park and each tower has an allocated number of car park lots. · Tower 1: 112 lots · Tower 2: 325 lots · Tower 3: 354 lots · Mall: 247 lots There are also specially allocated handicap lots for cars with handicapped passengers. · Tower 1: 2 lots · Tower 2: 7 lots · Mall: 2 lots 3.6.1 Ventilation The car park uses a ductless car park mechanical ventilation system with carbon monoxide (CO) sensors. As there are no ducts, it optimises the use of car park space and optimises the head room for vehicles. There is also improved air quality and more efficient operation. The installation is quicker and more flexible compared to conventional methods. 3.6.2 Ceiling The ceiling of the basement car park is covered by numerous pipelines. It would be easier to conduct maintenance on these pipes, but if the pipes were to burst it would create a lot of damage. 3.6.3 Flooring The cement flooring of the car park is covered with Sikafloor-3 Quartz Top to waterproof it, increase resistance to abrasion, reduce dusting, Improve resistance to impact and increase resistance to oils and greases. 3.6.4 Parking System Motorcycle and bicycle lots are available in the car park for office workers who choose to ride to work. This helps to maximise the car park space to the fullest.
  20. 20. Marina Bay Financial Centre 20 Water absorption rate is low (less than 0.5%) compared to ceramics which range from 2% to 13%, resulting it to be more slippery & dangerous when in contact with water. The whole car park is fitted with a Parking Guidance System (PGS) which includes a sensor on top of each lot so that the current number of lots available can be determined at all times. The benefits of this system include saving the time and energy for client, reduce congestion in the car park and reduce pollution as car circulate for shorter time. The payment system for the car park is fully automated and cashless. All that is needed is a Cash Card and an In-Vehicle Unit (IU). 3.7 Toilets The toilets in Marina Bay Financial Centre Office Towers consist of male and female toilet. Each toilet has one handicapped cubicle. There is one toilet in every floor. The cleanliness is maintained almost every one hour. 3.7.1 Flooring Materials Advantages Disadvantages Homogeneous Tiles Cheaper compared to granite, with the same toughness as granite. Makes the toilet looks classy and modern.
  21. 21. Marina Bay Financial Centre 21 3.7.1 Flooring Materials Advantages Disadvantages Carpets Creates friction to prevent slipping from slippery tiles Adds additional cost and extra maintenance to clean the carpet regularly. Red Glazed Tempered Glass More durable compared to normal glass. Unlike normal glasses, tempered glasses will shatter evenly and crumble into small pieces. Larger shards of glass will not crack off and fly through the air when broken and will not impose any danger. It is more costly than regular glass. It also need to be cleaned regularly as fingerprints and water spots can be obviously seen.
  22. 22. Marina Bay Financial Centre 22 3.7.2 Wall Materials Advantages Disadvantages Mirrors Allow people to see their own reflection, particularly useful for people to maintain their tidiness. It also makes the entire toilet looks bigger due to the reflections. It needs regular maintenance because the toilet will easily look dirty with splashes of water in the mirror. Cost of lengthy mirror is higher. Materials Advantages Disadvantages Dry Wall Gypsum is easy to be installed due to its lightweight. It is fire resistant and provide soundproof properties, preventing the transfer of unwanted sound to adjoining areas. It is very stable and durable. Also, it is very cheap and readily available. It is less suitable to be used in high-moisture areas such as toilet because it is prone to damages by being in contact with water. 3.7.3 Ceiling
  23. 23. Marina Bay Financial Centre 23 Materials Advantages Disadvantages Compact Fluorescent Lamp It is cheaper than LED in terms of initial cost. While LED may be the best lighting to use, compact fluorescent lamp is still superior compared to incandescent light bulbs which has shorter life span of 1,200 hours and more power use of 60 watts, resulting in an even higher operating cost than using compact fluorescent lamp. It has 8,000 hours lifespan which is lower compared to LED that has 50,000 hours lifespan. It also uses more power and generates more heat. It is sensitive to humidity and it will not turn on instantly when switched on due to the need of it to warm up unlike in LED. 3.7.4 Lightings Motion sensor light This installation has the benefit of energy saving, which bring an estimated savings of $30,000 per year on power consumption. Besides, the cost of the motion sensor light is also very low. Unwanted shutoff will occur when the sensor cannot detect someone’s movement even if he is inside the toilet
  24. 24. Marina Bay Financial Centre 24 Materials Advantages Disadvantages Auto-sensor Water Tap Disperse water using a sensor. It saves water up to 70%, reducing in operating cost when paying utility bill. Offers better hygiene level since water is dispensed using infrared sensor thus no direct contact between user and tap. Initial cost for auto- sensor tap is higher than manual-activated tap as it is more expensive to buy. Hands must also be placed near the sensor before water can be dispensed so, sensor must be placed in the correct position. 3.7.5 Taps Additional Comments The toilets in Marina Bay Financial Centre Office Towers have demonstrated a good example of barrier free accessibility, in particular for handicapped people with its special cubicle available for the disabled. It has larger space and consists of metal handles that can be used as supports for the disabled. However, it is recommended that the toilets in Marina Bay Financial Centre Office Towers use motion sensor lights that can help to save up to 60% of energy.
  25. 25. Marina Bay Financial Centre 25 Chapter 4: Measurements 4.1 Building Exterior  Tower 1 : 33 storeys Floor Area approximately 2,000 sq metres. Height around 90 metres.  Tower 2 : 50 storeys Floor Area approximately 2,500 sq metres. Height around 140 metres.  Tower 3 : 46 storeys Floor Area approximately 3,000 sq metres Height around 130 metres. 4.2 Office Spaces  Tower 1: Floor Area approximately 2,000 sq metres. Floor-to-Ceiling Height around 2.7 metres.  Tower 2: Floor Area approximately 2,500 sq metres. Floor-to-Ceiling Height around 2.8 metres.  Tower 3: Floor Area approximately 3,000 sq metres. Floor-to-Ceiling Height around 2.8 metres. 4.3 Lobby  Tower 1: Floor Area approximately 2,000 sq metres. Floor-to-Ceiling Height around 8 metres.  Tower 2: Floor Area approximately 2,500 sq metres. Floor-to-Ceiling Height around 8.5 metres.  Tower 3: Floor Area approximately 3,000 sq metres. Floor-to-Ceiling Height around 8.5 metres.  Lifts: Length 2 m. Width 1.8 m. Height 2.3 m. 4.4 Ground Plaza  Approximately 3,000 sq metres 4.5 Car Park  Each car park lot is approximately 14 sq metres  Total car park space is approximately 55,000 sq metres 4.6 Toilet  Normal Cubicle : Length 1.2 m, Width 80 cm, Door Width 65 cm  Handicapped Cubicle : Length 1.2 m, Width 1 m, Door Width 1m  Height : 2.5 m
  26. 26. Marina Bay Financial Centre 26 Reference 1. Advantages and disadvantages of marble flooring. (n.d.). Retrieved from dvantages and disadvantages of marble flooring. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.interiormantra.com/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-marble-flooring 2. Advantages and disadvantages of marble flooring. (2013, March 4). Retrieved from http://www.dongpeng.com/News/234.htm 3. Automatic taps facts and charts. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.autotaps.com/sensor-taps-facts-and-charts.html 4. Awards & Accolades. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.keppelreit.com/AU-Awards -Accolades.asp?view=print 5. Basic advantages of led light. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.continental-lighting.com/led-basics/advantages-disadvantages.php 6. Bca green mark gold award for mbfc phase 1 (commercial) fact sheet . (2008, May 20). Retrieved from http://www.kepcorp.com/upload/PressRelease/MBFC%20Green%20Mark%20FACT %20SHEET%2021%20May08.pdf 7. By the bay. (2011, February 13). Retrieved from http://www.mbfc.com.sg/btb/btb_issue_13/btb13_corp_01.html 8. Brown, J. (n.d.). What is the difference between drywall and plaster?. Retrieved from http://home.howstuffworks.com/drywall-vs-plaster2.htm 9. Comparison chart led lights vs. incandescent light bulbs vs. cfls. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.designrecycleinc.com/led comp chart.html 10. Fuentes , A. (2012, November 11). The advantages of baby changing station. Retrieved from http://only-baby-changing-stations-babies.blogspot.sg/ 11. Gregor. (n.d.). Advantages and disadvantages of modern bathroom vanity tops. Retrieved from http://thetechnophobe.com/bathroom_vanity_top.html 12. Harris, W. (n.d.). How cfl bulbs work. Retrieved from http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/green-tech/sustainable/cfl-bulb1.htm 13. Homogeneous tiles. (2008, January 01). Retrieved from http://renoadvise.blogspot.sg/2008/01/homogeneous-tiles.html 14. Jellick, J. E. (n.d.). Granolithic concrete floors. . Retrieved from http://www.concreteconstruction.net/images/Granolithic Concrete Floors_tcm45- 339841.pdf
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  28. 28. Marina Bay Financial Centre 28

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