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Cell Structure and Function
Agre and cells
in the news
Cells
• Smallest living unit
• Most are microscopic
Discovery of Cells
• Robert Hooke (mid-1600s)
– Observed sliver of cork
– Saw “row of empty boxes”
– Coined the term cell
Cell theory
• (1839)Theodor Schwann & Matthias Schleiden
“ all living things are made of cells”
• (50 yrs. later) Rudolf V...
Principles of Cell Theory
• All living things are made of cells
• Smallest living unit of structure and
function of all or...
Cell Size
Cells Have Large Surface
Area-to-Volume Ratio
Characteristics of All Cells
•
•
•
•

A surrounding membrane
Protoplasm – cell contents in thick fluid
Organelles – struct...
Cell Types

• Prokaryotic
• Eukaryotic
Prokaryotic Cells
• First cell type on earth
• Cell type of Bacteria and Archaea
Prokaryotic Cells
• No membrane bound nucleus
• Nucleoid = region of DNA concentration
• Organelles not bound by membranes
Eukaryotic Cells
• Nucleus bound by membrane
• Include fungi, protists, plant,
and animal cells
• Possess many organelles
...
Representative Animal Cell
Representative Plant Cell
Organelles
• Cellular machinery
• Two general kinds
– Derived from membranes
– Bacteria-like organelles
Bacteria-Like Organelles
• Derived from symbiotic bacteria
• Ancient association
• Endosymbiotic theory
– Evolution of mod...
Plasma Membrane
• Contains cell contents
• Double layer of phospholipids & proteins
Phospholipids
• Polar
– Hydrophylic head
– Hydrophobic tail

• Interacts with water
Movement Across the Plasma Membrane
• A few molecules move freely
– Water, Carbon dioxide, Ammonia, Oxygen

• Carrier prot...
Membrane Proteins
1. Channels or transporters
– Move molecules in one direction

2. Receptors
– Recognize certain chemical...
Membrane Proteins
3. Glycoproteins
– Identify cell type

4. Enzymes
– Catalyze production of substances
Cell Walls
• Found in plants, fungi, & many protists
• Surrounds plasma membrane
Cell Wall Differences
• Plants – mostly cellulose
• Fungi – contain chitin
Cytoplasm
• Viscous fluid containing organelles
• components of cytoplasm
–
–
–
–

Interconnected filaments & fibers
Fluid...
Cytoskeleton
• Filaments & fibers
• Made of 3 fiber types
– Microfilaments
– Microtubules
– Intermediate filaments

• 3 fu...
A = actin, IF = intermediate filament, MT = microtubule
Cilia & Flagella
• Provide motility
• Cilia
– Short
– Used to move substances
outside human cells

• Flagella
– Whip-like ...
Cilia & Flagella Structure
• Bundles of microtubules
• With plasma membrane
Centrioles
• Pairs of microtubular structures
• Play a role in cell division
Membranous Organelles
• Functional components within cytoplasm
• Bound by membranes
Nucleus
• Control center of cell
• Double membrane
• Contains
– Chromosomes
– Nucleolus
Nuclear Envelope
• Separates nucleus from rest of cell
• Double membrane
• Has pores
DNA
• Hereditary material
• Chromosomes
– DNA
– Protiens
– Form for cell division

• Chromatin
Nucleolus
• Most cells have 2 or more
• Directs synthesis of RNA
• Forms ribosomes
Endoplasmic Reticulum
• Helps move substances within cells
• Network of interconnected membranes
• Two types
– Rough endop...
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
• Ribosomes attached to surface
– Manufacture protiens
– Not all ribosomes attached to rough E...
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
• No attached ribosomes
• Has enzymes that help build molecules
– Carbohydrates
– Lipids
Golgi Apparatus
• Involved in synthesis of plant cell wall
• Packaging & shipping station of cell
Golgi Apparatus Function
1. Molecules come in vesicles
2. Vesicles fuse with Golgi membrane
3. Molecules may be modified b...
Golgi Apparatus Function
(Continued)
4. Molecules pinched-off in separate vesicle
5. Vesicle leaves Golgi apparatus
6. Ves...
Lysosomes
• Contain digestive enzymes
• Functions
– Aid in cell renewal
– Break down old cell parts
– Digests invaders
Vacuoles
• Membrane bound storage sacs
• More common in plants than animals
• Contents
– Water
– Food
– wastes
Bacteria-Like Organelles
• Release & store energy
• Types
– Mitochondria
(release energy)
– Chloroplasts
(store energy)
Mitochondria
• Have their own DNA
• Bound by double membrane
Mitochondria
• Break down fuel molecules (cellular respiration)
– Glucose
– Fatty acids

• Release energy
– ATP
Chloroplasts
• Derived form photosynthetic bacteria
• Solar energy capturing organelle
Photosynthesis
• Takes place in the chloroplast
• Makes cellular food – glucose
Review of Eukaryotic Cells
Review of Eukaryotic Cells
Molecule Movement & Cells
• Passive Transport
• Active Transport
• Endocytosis
(phagocytosis & pinocytosis)
• Exocytosis
Passive Transport
• No energy required
• Move due to gradient
– differences in concentration, pressure, charge

• Move to ...
Types of Passive Transport
1. Diffusion
2. Osmosis
3. Facilitated diffusion
Diffusion
• Molecules move to equalize concentration
Osmosis
• Special form of diffusion
• Fluid flows from lower solute concentration
• Often involves movement of water
– Int...
Solution Differences & Cells
• solvent + solute = solution
• Hypotonic
– Solutes in cell more than outside
– Outside solve...
Facilitated Diffusion
• Differentially permeable membrane
• Channels (are specific) help molecule
or ions enter or leave t...
Process of Facilitated Transport
• Protein binds with molecule
• Shape of protein changes
• Molecule moves across membrane
Active Transport
• Molecular movement
• Requires energy (against gradient)
• Example is sodium-potassium pump
Endocytosis
• Movement of large material
– Particles
– Organisms
– Large molecules

• Movement is into cells
• Types of en...
Process of Endocytosis
• Plasma membrane surrounds material
• Edges of membrane meet
• Membranes fuse to form vesicle
Forms of Endocytosis
• Phagocytosis – cell eating
• Pinocytosis – cell drinking
Exocytosis
• Reverse of endocytosis
• Cell discharges material
Exocytosis
• Vesicle moves to cell surface
• Membrane of vesicle fuses
• Materials expelled
End Chapter 5
Cell structure function.2
Cell structure function.2
Cell structure function.2
Cell structure function.2
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Transcript of "Cell structure function.2"

  1. 1. Cell Structure and Function
  2. 2. Agre and cells in the news
  3. 3. Cells • Smallest living unit • Most are microscopic
  4. 4. Discovery of Cells • Robert Hooke (mid-1600s) – Observed sliver of cork – Saw “row of empty boxes” – Coined the term cell
  5. 5. Cell theory • (1839)Theodor Schwann & Matthias Schleiden “ all living things are made of cells” • (50 yrs. later) Rudolf Virchow “all cells come from cells”
  6. 6. Principles of Cell Theory • All living things are made of cells • Smallest living unit of structure and function of all organisms is the cell • All cells arise from preexisting cells (this principle discarded the idea of spontaneous generation)
  7. 7. Cell Size
  8. 8. Cells Have Large Surface Area-to-Volume Ratio
  9. 9. Characteristics of All Cells • • • • A surrounding membrane Protoplasm – cell contents in thick fluid Organelles – structures for cell function Control center with DNA
  10. 10. Cell Types • Prokaryotic • Eukaryotic
  11. 11. Prokaryotic Cells • First cell type on earth • Cell type of Bacteria and Archaea
  12. 12. Prokaryotic Cells • No membrane bound nucleus • Nucleoid = region of DNA concentration • Organelles not bound by membranes
  13. 13. Eukaryotic Cells • Nucleus bound by membrane • Include fungi, protists, plant, and animal cells • Possess many organelles Protozoan
  14. 14. Representative Animal Cell
  15. 15. Representative Plant Cell
  16. 16. Organelles • Cellular machinery • Two general kinds – Derived from membranes – Bacteria-like organelles
  17. 17. Bacteria-Like Organelles • Derived from symbiotic bacteria • Ancient association • Endosymbiotic theory – Evolution of modern cells from cells & symbiotic bacteria
  18. 18. Plasma Membrane • Contains cell contents • Double layer of phospholipids & proteins
  19. 19. Phospholipids • Polar – Hydrophylic head – Hydrophobic tail • Interacts with water
  20. 20. Movement Across the Plasma Membrane • A few molecules move freely – Water, Carbon dioxide, Ammonia, Oxygen • Carrier proteins transport some molecules – Proteins embedded in lipid bilayer – Fluid mosaic model – describes fluid nature of a lipid bilayer with proteins
  21. 21. Membrane Proteins 1. Channels or transporters – Move molecules in one direction 2. Receptors – Recognize certain chemicals
  22. 22. Membrane Proteins 3. Glycoproteins – Identify cell type 4. Enzymes – Catalyze production of substances
  23. 23. Cell Walls • Found in plants, fungi, & many protists • Surrounds plasma membrane
  24. 24. Cell Wall Differences • Plants – mostly cellulose • Fungi – contain chitin
  25. 25. Cytoplasm • Viscous fluid containing organelles • components of cytoplasm – – – – Interconnected filaments & fibers Fluid = cytosol Organelles (not nucleus) storage substances
  26. 26. Cytoskeleton • Filaments & fibers • Made of 3 fiber types – Microfilaments – Microtubules – Intermediate filaments • 3 functions: – mechanical support – anchor organelles – help move substances
  27. 27. A = actin, IF = intermediate filament, MT = microtubule
  28. 28. Cilia & Flagella • Provide motility • Cilia – Short – Used to move substances outside human cells • Flagella – Whip-like extensions – Found on sperm cells • Basal bodies like centrioles
  29. 29. Cilia & Flagella Structure • Bundles of microtubules • With plasma membrane
  30. 30. Centrioles • Pairs of microtubular structures • Play a role in cell division
  31. 31. Membranous Organelles • Functional components within cytoplasm • Bound by membranes
  32. 32. Nucleus • Control center of cell • Double membrane • Contains – Chromosomes – Nucleolus
  33. 33. Nuclear Envelope • Separates nucleus from rest of cell • Double membrane • Has pores
  34. 34. DNA • Hereditary material • Chromosomes – DNA – Protiens – Form for cell division • Chromatin
  35. 35. Nucleolus • Most cells have 2 or more • Directs synthesis of RNA • Forms ribosomes
  36. 36. Endoplasmic Reticulum • Helps move substances within cells • Network of interconnected membranes • Two types – Rough endoplasmic reticulum – Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  37. 37. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum • Ribosomes attached to surface – Manufacture protiens – Not all ribosomes attached to rough ER • May modify proteins from ribosomes
  38. 38. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum • No attached ribosomes • Has enzymes that help build molecules – Carbohydrates – Lipids
  39. 39. Golgi Apparatus • Involved in synthesis of plant cell wall • Packaging & shipping station of cell
  40. 40. Golgi Apparatus Function 1. Molecules come in vesicles 2. Vesicles fuse with Golgi membrane 3. Molecules may be modified by Golgi
  41. 41. Golgi Apparatus Function (Continued) 4. Molecules pinched-off in separate vesicle 5. Vesicle leaves Golgi apparatus 6. Vesicles may combine with plasma membrane to secrete contents
  42. 42. Lysosomes • Contain digestive enzymes • Functions – Aid in cell renewal – Break down old cell parts – Digests invaders
  43. 43. Vacuoles • Membrane bound storage sacs • More common in plants than animals • Contents – Water – Food – wastes
  44. 44. Bacteria-Like Organelles • Release & store energy • Types – Mitochondria (release energy) – Chloroplasts (store energy)
  45. 45. Mitochondria • Have their own DNA • Bound by double membrane
  46. 46. Mitochondria • Break down fuel molecules (cellular respiration) – Glucose – Fatty acids • Release energy – ATP
  47. 47. Chloroplasts • Derived form photosynthetic bacteria • Solar energy capturing organelle
  48. 48. Photosynthesis • Takes place in the chloroplast • Makes cellular food – glucose
  49. 49. Review of Eukaryotic Cells
  50. 50. Review of Eukaryotic Cells
  51. 51. Molecule Movement & Cells • Passive Transport • Active Transport • Endocytosis (phagocytosis & pinocytosis) • Exocytosis
  52. 52. Passive Transport • No energy required • Move due to gradient – differences in concentration, pressure, charge • Move to equalize gradient – High moves toward low
  53. 53. Types of Passive Transport 1. Diffusion 2. Osmosis 3. Facilitated diffusion
  54. 54. Diffusion • Molecules move to equalize concentration
  55. 55. Osmosis • Special form of diffusion • Fluid flows from lower solute concentration • Often involves movement of water – Into cell – Out of cell
  56. 56. Solution Differences & Cells • solvent + solute = solution • Hypotonic – Solutes in cell more than outside – Outside solvent will flow into cell • Isotonic – Solutes equal inside & out of cell • Hypertonic – Solutes greater outside cell – Fluid will flow out of cell
  57. 57. Facilitated Diffusion • Differentially permeable membrane • Channels (are specific) help molecule or ions enter or leave the cell • Channels usually are transport proteins (aquaporins facilitate the movement of water) • No energy is used
  58. 58. Process of Facilitated Transport • Protein binds with molecule • Shape of protein changes • Molecule moves across membrane
  59. 59. Active Transport • Molecular movement • Requires energy (against gradient) • Example is sodium-potassium pump
  60. 60. Endocytosis • Movement of large material – Particles – Organisms – Large molecules • Movement is into cells • Types of endocytosis – bulk-phase (nonspecific) – receptor-mediated (specific)
  61. 61. Process of Endocytosis • Plasma membrane surrounds material • Edges of membrane meet • Membranes fuse to form vesicle
  62. 62. Forms of Endocytosis • Phagocytosis – cell eating • Pinocytosis – cell drinking
  63. 63. Exocytosis • Reverse of endocytosis • Cell discharges material
  64. 64. Exocytosis • Vesicle moves to cell surface • Membrane of vesicle fuses • Materials expelled
  65. 65. End Chapter 5
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