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Journal komputer garfik

  2. 2. 2 Jurnal Sarjana Teknik Informatika e-ISSN: 2338-5197 Volume 1 Nomor 1, June 2013 MEDIA OBJECT RENDERING PROCESS LEARNERS COURSE IN COMPUTER- BASED MULTIMEDIA GRAFIKA Angga Prasetio Romadhon (07,018,288), Murinto (0510077302) Engineering Program Information Ahmad Dahlan University Prof. Dr. Supomo, SH, Janturan, Umbulharjo, Yogyakarta 55164 Email: Email: ABSTRACT Learning Computer Graphic Rendering on material objects for some students it is difficult to understand. Based on data obtained from 20 students who were and who never took a computer graphics course, be seen that the amount of the percentage of students who do not understand the material object rendering more than the students who understand the material object rendering. The number of students who need aids, instructional media are more than the number of students who are not in need. For applications it is necessary to build learning computer graphics rendering, especially in the material object to be used as a learning tool and students facilitate faculty in presenting the material. Subjects in this study were of multimedia applications as a learning medium computer graphics rendering on material objects. Collecting data in this study using the method of literature review, observation, and interview methods. Applications compiled with procedures that include problem identification obtained, requirements analysis, designing concept, designing the content, design document and navigational charts, manuscripts designing, graphic designing, producing system, testing the system with a black box and the alpha test. The results of this study are multimedia applications as a learning medium in the computer graphics object rendering material for students of Informatics at the University of Ahmad Dahlan is based on the test results it can be concluded that the application of this study can
  3. 3. 3 help the learning process of the students to understand the material and can be used as a tool help lecturers to support learning computer graphics. Keywords: Computer graphics, Rendering Objects, Learning, Multimedia. 1. INTRODUCTION Multimedia has changed the culture of the user to interact with a computer through the incorporation of media text, graphics, sound, and animation. One area that is expanding the field of education is a form of interactive teaching and learning in order to make it easier to understand the lessons presented. Sometimes learning activities are exposed to materials that can not be done in the classical style. For example, a trial takes a long time, while the limited learning time is 100 minutes or object is difficult to be shown and explored by students. While the subject of this object rendering learn about the representation of 3D objects and object rendering process. Based on the results of interviews with lecturers for computer graphics courses Murinto S.Si. father, M.Kom. on December 28, 2011 stated that there are many students who get poor grades in the final exams. Exam at the end of the semester computer graphics course covers the historical development of computer graphics matter, Introduction to OpenGL, 2D and 3D Transformations, 3D object representation and Ray Tracing where the weight of the material to be focused about the representation of 3D objects and Ray Tracing. Based on the results of the semester Final Exam FY 2010/2011, of 240 161 students obtained facts or 60.08% of students scored below 60. Lecturers also outlines that the object is rendering the material rendering it difficult for students because the object has several important components to generate objects from the rendering process, one of which is the rendering algorithm in which the student difficulties in understanding the algorithm. Based on the data from the questionnaire that was obtained from 20 students who have been and are taking a computer graphics course, a large part menyabutkan that meteri object rendering is very difficult to understand, the number of 14 students or 70% of students said they agree, the difficulty of working on the problems in the course computer graphics rendering for material objects with 16 students or 80% agreed, students not only learn the material computer graphics just look at the power point and an explanation of lecturers in the lecture course with 18 students or 90% agreed, the level of student understanding and interest in learning, especially eyes lecture materials computer graphics rendering for objects still less if only diperkuliahan course with
  4. 4. 4 16 students or 80% agreed, therefore, 85% of students expect any other tools in the form of a more interactive medium of learning about the material object rendering. Based on the above background, it will be made "OBJECT RENDERING PROCESS MEDIA LEARNING COURSE ON COMPUTER-BASED MULTIMEDIA GRAFIKA" which is a general overview of the elaboration of the computer graphics matter. The goal is to help facilitate faculty and students in giving and understanding the material object rendering in computer graphics courses. 2 . LITERATURE Previous research with the title " Software engineering 3D object using VB " by Herni Ardani. In this study, the authors apply the processes in the manufacture of three-dimensional objects using Visual Basic applications such as lighting, viewpoint and some other processes forming three-dimensional objects on the object that was shaped two- dimensional. The study will be conducted also refer to the study entitled " Comparison of algorithms Scanline, Ray - Casting algorithm and algorithm accuracy Ray - Tracing the lighting in the software 3Ds Max " by Eva Handriyantin that in doing comparative research quality of an object that fotoralistik with several rendering algorithms algorithm in order to obtain what should be used in 3D computer graphics for rendering an object with the accuracy of the optimal lighting. This research was supported by the visualization of each stage of the process of rendering images that display information in detail . Other previous studies is the application of " Making Learning Media For Conversion Process In Finate Automata -Based Multimedia " by Wantah Satria. This study discusses the material in the course Automata Theory Languages , especially the conversion process on finate automata using Adobe Flash CS3. In the discussion of research material delivered by any method, program menu display, spesific color, and combines with Articulate QuizMaker '09 with Flash CS3 is already quite good. This application is able to simulate the process of converting the finate automata and also a matter of evaluating the results of the evaluation can be sent to email lecturers. Based on the above studies, this research conducted to develop how to create a learning tool in computer graphics courses which include display, suitability animations, demos and add a reference to the analysis of media interactive learning aids especially rendering the material object on a computer graphics course that Students will be able to master the material properly in terms of both theory and practice. In these multimedia applications in addition to showing a tutorial session material in interactive material that will also feature several
  5. 5. 5 exercises that serves as an evaluation. 2.1 The concept of computer graphics ( Computer Vision ) The concept of computer graphics (Computer Vision) an idea which represents an abstract science or theory. A concept according to Brunner, Goodnow, and Austin has five elements: having a name, emblem or attribute has, has a definition, has a value, price, atatu formulation, and has examples. The concept is always related to natural phenomena and the symptoms are usually expressed in a state of mathematical language that is easy or difficult. Graphic Concepts Computer (Computer Vision ) basically trying to imitate the workings of the human visual system (human vision) which actually very complex. 2.2 Basic Concepts of 3D Objects 3D objects are representations of 3 -dimensional geometric data as a result of the processing and delivery of light effects to 2D computer graphics. This result is sometimes shown in real time ( real time ) for simulation purposes. In general, the principle is similar to that used 2d object, in which case : the use of algorithms, vector graphics, wire frame models (wire frame models), and graphics rasternya. 3D objects are often referred to as 3D models. However, the 3D model is more emphasis on mathematical representation for 3D objects. The mathematical data can not be regarded as graphic images displayed visually to date on the computer screen or printer. Process performances of a mathematical model to form 2D image is usually known as 3D rendering process. 2.3 Representation of 3D Objects To present 3D Objects can be done by several methods , including : 2.3.1 . equations Geometry A 3D object can be represented directly using the geometry of the object equation . 2.3.2 . Constructive Solid Geometry ( CSG )
  6. 6. 6 CSG is a way of shaping objects by way of combining or cutting ( reducing ) of some primitive 3D object. Operators are used to form a CSG object are : a. Merging (union). b . The intersection (intersection). c . The difference (difference). CSG difference with regular geometry object lies in the differences in the calculation of the time when the light hit the object. 2.3.3 . Bezier Curves and Surfaces Bezier curves formed by four dots , one dot serves as a starting point ( x0 , y0 ) , 1 as the end point ( x3 , y3 ) and the other is 2 points ( x1 , y1 ) and ( x2 , y2 ) serves as a control point . Image 1. The points on the Bezier curve Bezier curve is a function defined on a single parameter that inserts a sequence of points. When parameters are changed, the line formed a line from the first point to the last point, moving along the curve is influenced by the control points. 2.4 Basic Concept Rendering 3D Objects . Rendering is a process for generating a 2D image from 3D data. This process aims to to provide visualization of the 3D data about the user through the monitor or printer can only display 2D data. The image created through digital rendering process is a digital image or raster image, the
  7. 7. 7 same type of image that we see everyday on the computer desktop or wallpaper. The digital images created through the digital rendering process as the last major step before compiled into an animation. Animation is used as a final destination in the movies, video games, computer games, simulators, and for special effects in television. Each uses a digital rendering process that uses different features and techniques to achieve the desired results. In general, the process to produce a two- dimensional rendering of 3D objects involves five main components : 1 . geometry 2 . camera 3 . light 4 . Surface characteristics 5 . Rendering algorithm 2.4.1 . camera In 3D graphics, the angle of view (point of view ) is part of the camera. The camera in the 3D graphics are usually not defined physically, but only to determine our perspective on a world, so it is often called a virtual camera. On camera, known field of view is the area seen by a camera. Field of view at the pyramid- shaped 3D graphics, because a computer monitor screen quadrangular. Objects that are in the field of view it will be seen from the screen, while objects that are outside the field of view is not visible on the monitor screen. Field of view is very important in the selection of objects to be processed in the rendering. Objects outside the field of view is usually not taken into account, so the calculations in the rendering process, does not need to be done on the entire object . Image 3. Angle field of view
  8. 8. 8 2.4.2 . Light The light source in the 3D graphics is an object that is important, because the light is a visible world and can do the rendering process. The light source also makes a world becoming more realistic by the shadow of a 3D objects that exist. A light source has a type. In 3D graphics known several kinds of light sources, namely : . Point Light Radiating in all directions, but the intensity of light received depends on the position of the object light source . This type is similar to incandescent lamps in the real world . . Spotlight Emit light into certain areas in the form of a cone. The light source is located at the apex of the cone. Only objects that lie in the cone area will appear. . Ambient Light Light background / nature. This light is received with the same intensity by each surface on the object. The backlighting is modeled to follow what happens in nature, in a state without a light source though, the object can still be seen. . Area Light . Directional Light Emit light with the same intensity in a particular direction. The layout does not affect the intensity of light. This type of effect as if the light source is very far away from the object. . Parallel Point Similarly, the directional light, only the lighting direction and position.
  9. 9. 9 Image 4. reflectance of light 2.4.3 . Surface Characteristics Surface characteristics of an object is the nature of the surface of an object. The surface characteristics include : . Color Color parameters in surface characteristics represented by the three basic colors, ie RGB. When rendering, the color of an object depends on the color of the surface characteristics and color of the light that hit it. . Texture Texture parameter is represented by a file name. This file will be the texture on the surface of the object. In addition, there are several parameters in a texture that is useful to determine the position of a texture on an object, textural properties, looping texture, and others. . Surface Properties The surface properties, such as diffuseness, refleksisifitas, and others are represented by a value. This value determines the nature of these parameters. For example, the roughness, the greater the value of the parameter, the object is more coarse. 2.4.4 . Rendering algorithm Rendering algorithm is a procedure that is used by a program to do the calculation to generate 2D images from 3D data. Most existing rendering algorithm uses an approach called scan - line rendering which means the program look of each pixel, one at a time, horizontally and calculate the pixel color. Currently known 3 methods : Ray – Casting The method in which an image of the entire visible surface of the object is obtained by a line beam emitting from a camera / viewer to the objects and processes implemented in each pixel of the display monitor .
  10. 10. 10 Image 5. (a). Basic Ray-Casting, (b). Results of the Ray-Casting lighting. Ray-Tracing This method gives results similar to the Ray-Casting, but able to give a better optical effects, such as the simulation of reflection and refraction are more accurate with better output results. Ray tracing works by looking for traces (tracing) a line of light that intersect (intersect) with the camera lens, so that a variety of visual information from the whole scene was collected and generated on the point of view of the camera / eye. Image 6. Lighting results with Ray-Tracing method. Radiosity This method is a rendering technique based on a detailed analysis of the reflection of light from the surface diffusion. This technique divides the field into a smaller field to find details of the color so that the process is slow, but the resulting visualization is very neat and smooth. Some examples of the results of rendering the rendering algorithm in image 27 above shows the following.
  11. 11. 11 (a) (b) (c) Image 7. (a). Radiosity, (b). Ray tracing, (c). Ray casting 3.METHODS 3.1 Method of Data Collection 3.1.1 Methods Library Studies This method is used by reading library books / references relating to computer graphics such as Books Computer Graphics by James D. Foley, Materials Slide Show power point computer graphics as well as studying the reports and other books relating to research. 3.1.2 Method Interview ( interview ) The method is carried out by means of direct questioning to students who have or are taking courses in computer graphics. This method is performed to ensure that the data obtained on the material rendering 3D objects in computer graphics courses really fit with the facts. 3.1.3 Observation Mettode Is a method of direct observation of the way the learning computer graphics that is currently on the UAD . In addition to making observations also keep records of documents pertaining to the subject of careful and systematic study. 3.1.4 Methods Koesioner This method is done by giving questionnaires to students who have taken Computer Graphic courses to see the problems faced by students in the classroom learning, especially in learning the material Rendering Objects.
  12. 12. 12 3.2 Analysis of Data Phase analysis of the data is a very important step, because errors at this stage will bringing error on the next research phase. Data analysis was conducted by means of classifying the data that serves to classify data according to the type and function. Data were managed dikupulkan a voice data, image data, text data, animation data, as well as information relating to the data on the material that is computer graphics rendering 3D objects and 3D objects. 3.3 System Design Method Stages of system design is a continuation of the analysis of the data, so that data can be compiled to be made easily, and right on target that has been set before making an application. Steps that must be done is to make the design of an application to the problems discussed in the hope of making an application that does not extend from the point. 4 . RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Implementation application Rendering Process Learning Media Objects are as follows : 4.1 Main Menu Page Image 1 Main Menu Page Display the Main Menu page is displayed when the Enter key on the intro page on click. The main menu page has 7 main buttons, namely the menu button to return to the main menu when you're entering the other page, an introduction to the key competencies and the introduction into the page, go to the key material for the material and the process of rendering 3D Objects, exercise key to the exercise yard, button evaluation to the evaluation page, the
  13. 13. 13 button about me to the page, exit button (X) to exit the program and the volume for the sound setting. 4.2 Content Page Views Image 2 Page Content This page displays the sub-sub-menus that exist in the material menu page. 4.3 Tutorial Page This page shows the tutorial video rendering using 3D Studio Max. 4.4 Exercise Page Image 4 Page Exercise
  14. 14. 14 This page presents the exercises of the whole matter by entering the answers then check whether the results are true or false. If the answers are correct then it will go to the next question and if the answer is wrong then there will be a notice to the correct answer. 4.5 Evaluation Page images 5 Page Evaluation This page shows the evaluation questions. 4.6 Testing System Testing the system using two types of testing that is : 1) Black Box Test The test is performed by Mr. Murinto S.Si., M.Kom. faculty member in the Computer Graphic Ahmad Dahlan University Department of Information Engineering, the percentage of test results can be concluded that the material presented was appropriate. 2) Alpha Test Users of this test method is a student in the University of Ahmad Dahlan and the College of Engineering Department of Information Engineering Adisudjipto Yogyakarta who have been and are currently studying Computer Graphic courses totaling 10 students.
  15. 15. 15 Contoh gambar 2D dan 3D  Gambar 2D  Gambar 3D
  16. 16. 16 REFERENCES [1] Handriyantini, Eva, 2010, Perbandingan algoritma Scanline, algoritma Ray-Casting dan algoritma Ray-Tracing terhadap akurasi pencahayaan pada piranti lunak 3Ds Max. Malang :skripsi S-1, Sekolah Tinggi Informatika dan Komputer Indonesia (STIKI). [2] Ardani, Herni. 2001. Rekayasa perangkat lunak objek 3D menggunakan VB. Yogyakarta: Skripsi S-1, Universitas Ahmad Dahlan. [3] Nasution, S. 2006. Berbagai Pendekatan Dalam Proses Belajar Dan Mengajar. Jakarta: Bumi Aksara. [4] Murinto. 2011, rendering objek 3D, yogyakarta, materi slideshow grafika lanjut, Universitas Ahmad Dahlan. [5] Foley, James D. 1996, Computer graphics: principles and practice The systems programming series, Addison-Wesley systems programming series. USA: Addison-Wesley. [6] , diunduh 5 Desember 2011. [7] Satria, Wantah. 2011. Pembuatan Media Pembelajaran Untuk Proses Konversi Pada Finate Automata Berbasis Multimedia. Yogyakarta: Skripsi S-1, Universitas Ahmad Dahlan. [8], diunduh 6 Desember 2011. [9] diunduh 2 Desember 2011. [10] %2012%20-%20Rendering.ppt diunduh 26 November 2011. [11] diunduh 25 November 2011. [12], diunduh 25 November 2011. [13], Dr. Vernon A. Magnesen. 1983. Tentang Teknik Belajar. 27 November 2011 [14] Pengantar%20Grafika%203D.ppt, diunduh 25 November 2011. [15], diunduh 26 November 2011. [16], diunduh 5 Desember 2011. [17], di unduh 13 mei 2012 [18] Liliana, dkk.2006. Pembuatan Generator Ruled Surface dan Rotational Object Dengan Menggunakan Kurva Bezier dan B- splines.Surabaya: Jurnal. UK