MEDIA OBJECT RENDERING PROCESS LEARNERS
COURSE IN COMPUTER-BASED MULTIMEDIA
DI SUSUN OLEH :
Nova Purnama Sari
UNIVERSITAS PEMBANGUNAN PANCA BUDI
Jurnal Sarjana Teknik Informatika e-ISSN: 2338-5197
Volume 1 Nomor 1, June 2013
MEDIA OBJECT RENDERING PROCESS LEARNERS COURSE IN COMPUTER-
BASED MULTIMEDIA GRAFIKA
Angga Prasetio Romadhon (07,018,288), Murinto (0510077302)
Engineering Program Information
Ahmad Dahlan University
Prof. Dr. Supomo, SH, Janturan, Umbulharjo, Yogyakarta 55164
Learning Computer Graphic Rendering on material objects for some students it is
difficult to understand. Based on data obtained from 20 students who were and who never
took a computer graphics course, be seen that the amount of the percentage of students who
do not understand the material object rendering more than the students who understand the
material object rendering. The number of students who need aids, instructional media are
more than the number of students who are not in need. For applications it is necessary to
build learning computer graphics rendering, especially in the material object to be used as a
learning tool and students facilitate faculty in presenting the material.
Subjects in this study were of multimedia applications as a learning medium computer
graphics rendering on material objects. Collecting data in this study using the method of
literature review, observation, and interview methods. Applications compiled with procedures
that include problem identification obtained, requirements analysis, designing concept,
designing the content, design document and navigational charts, manuscripts designing,
graphic designing, producing system, testing the system with a black box and the alpha test.
The results of this study are multimedia applications as a learning medium in the computer
graphics object rendering material for students of Informatics at the University of Ahmad
Dahlan is based on the test results it can be concluded that the application of this study can
help the learning process of the students to understand the material and can be used as a tool
help lecturers to support learning computer graphics.
Keywords: Computer graphics, Rendering Objects, Learning, Multimedia.
Multimedia has changed the culture of the user to interact with a computer through the
incorporation of media text, graphics, sound, and animation. One area that is expanding the
field of education is a form of interactive teaching and learning in order to make it easier to
understand the lessons presented. Sometimes learning activities are exposed to materials that
can not be done in the classical style. For example, a trial takes a long time, while the limited
learning time is 100 minutes or object is difficult to be shown and explored by students.
While the subject of this object rendering learn about the representation of 3D objects and
object rendering process.
Based on the results of interviews with lecturers for computer graphics courses Murinto S.Si.
father, M.Kom. on December 28, 2011 stated that there are many students who get poor
grades in the final exams. Exam at the end of the semester computer graphics course covers
the historical development of computer graphics matter, Introduction to OpenGL, 2D and 3D
Transformations, 3D object representation and Ray Tracing where the weight of the material
to be focused about the representation of 3D objects and Ray Tracing. Based on the results of
the semester Final Exam FY 2010/2011, of 240 161 students obtained facts or 60.08% of
students scored below 60. Lecturers also outlines that the object is rendering the material
rendering it difficult for students because the object has several important components to
generate objects from the rendering process, one of which is the rendering algorithm in which
the student difficulties in understanding the algorithm. Based on the data from the
questionnaire that was obtained from 20 students who have been and are taking a computer
graphics course, a large part menyabutkan that meteri object rendering is very difficult to
understand, the number of 14 students or 70% of students said they agree, the difficulty of
working on the problems in the course computer graphics rendering for material objects with
16 students or 80% agreed, students not only learn the material computer graphics just look at
the power point and an explanation of lecturers in the lecture course with 18 students or 90%
agreed, the level of student understanding and interest in learning, especially eyes lecture
materials computer graphics rendering for objects still less if only diperkuliahan course with
16 students or 80% agreed, therefore, 85% of students expect any other tools in the form of a
more interactive medium of learning about the material object rendering.
Based on the above background, it will be made "OBJECT RENDERING PROCESS
MEDIA LEARNING COURSE ON COMPUTER-BASED MULTIMEDIA GRAFIKA"
which is a general overview of the elaboration of the computer graphics matter. The goal is to
help facilitate faculty and students in giving and understanding the material object rendering
in computer graphics courses.
2 . LITERATURE
Previous research with the title " Software engineering 3D object using VB " by Herni
Ardani. In this study, the authors apply the processes in the manufacture of three-dimensional
objects using Visual Basic applications such as lighting, viewpoint and some other processes
forming three-dimensional objects on the object that was shaped two- dimensional. The study
will be conducted also refer to the study entitled " Comparison of algorithms Scanline, Ray -
Casting algorithm and algorithm accuracy Ray - Tracing the lighting in the software 3Ds Max
" by Eva Handriyantin that in doing comparative research quality of an object that fotoralistik
with several rendering algorithms algorithm in order to obtain what should be used in 3D
computer graphics for rendering an object with the accuracy of the optimal lighting. This
research was supported by the visualization of each stage of the process of rendering images
that display information in detail .
Other previous studies is the application of " Making Learning Media For Conversion
Process In Finate Automata -Based Multimedia " by Wantah Satria. This study discusses the
material in the course Automata Theory Languages , especially the conversion process on
finate automata using Adobe Flash CS3. In the discussion of research material delivered by
any method, program menu display, spesific color, and combines with Articulate QuizMaker
'09 with Flash CS3 is already quite good. This application is able to simulate the process of
converting the finate automata and also a matter of evaluating the results of the evaluation
can be sent to email lecturers.
Based on the above studies, this research conducted to develop how to create a learning tool
in computer graphics courses which include display, suitability animations, demos and add a
reference to the analysis of media interactive learning aids especially rendering the material
object on a computer graphics course that Students will be able to master the material
properly in terms of both theory and practice. In these multimedia applications in addition to
showing a tutorial session material in interactive material that will also feature several
exercises that serves as an evaluation.
2.1 The concept of computer graphics ( Computer Vision )
The concept of computer graphics (Computer Vision) an idea which represents an
abstract science or theory. A concept according to Brunner, Goodnow, and Austin has five
elements: having a name, emblem or attribute has, has a definition, has a value, price, atatu
formulation, and has examples.
The concept is always related to natural phenomena and the symptoms are usually expressed
in a state of mathematical language that is easy or difficult. Graphic Concepts Computer
(Computer Vision ) basically trying to imitate the workings of the human visual system
(human vision) which actually very complex.
2.2 Basic Concepts of 3D Objects
3D objects are representations of 3 -dimensional geometric data as a result of the
processing and delivery of light effects to 2D computer graphics. This result is sometimes
shown in real time ( real time ) for simulation purposes. In general, the principle is similar to
that used 2d object, in which case : the use of algorithms, vector graphics, wire frame models
(wire frame models), and graphics rasternya.
3D objects are often referred to as 3D models. However, the 3D model is more emphasis on
mathematical representation for 3D objects. The mathematical data can not be regarded as
graphic images displayed visually to date on the computer screen or printer. Process
performances of a mathematical model to form 2D image is usually known as 3D rendering
2.3 Representation of 3D Objects
To present 3D Objects can be done by several methods , including :
2.3.1 . equations Geometry
A 3D object can be represented directly using the geometry of the object equation .
2.3.2 . Constructive Solid Geometry ( CSG )
CSG is a way of shaping objects by way of combining or cutting ( reducing ) of some
primitive 3D object.
Operators are used to form a CSG object are :
a. Merging (union).
b . The intersection (intersection).
c . The difference (difference).
CSG difference with regular geometry object lies in the differences in the calculation of the
time when the light hit the object.
2.3.3 . Bezier Curves and Surfaces
Bezier curves formed by four dots , one dot serves as a starting point ( x0 , y0 ) , 1 as
the end point ( x3 , y3 ) and the other is 2 points ( x1 , y1 ) and ( x2 , y2 ) serves as a control
Image 1. The points on the Bezier curve
Bezier curve is a function defined on a single parameter that inserts a sequence of points.
When parameters are changed, the line formed a line from the first point to the last point,
moving along the curve is influenced by the control points.
2.4 Basic Concept Rendering 3D Objects .
Rendering is a process for generating a 2D image from 3D data. This process aims to
to provide visualization of the 3D data about the user through the monitor or printer can only
display 2D data.
The image created through digital rendering process is a digital image or raster image, the
same type of image that we see everyday on the computer desktop or wallpaper. The digital
images created through the digital rendering process as the last major step before compiled
into an animation. Animation is used as a final destination in the movies, video games,
computer games, simulators, and for special effects in television. Each uses a digital
rendering process that uses different features and techniques to achieve the desired results.
In general, the process to produce a two- dimensional rendering of 3D objects involves five
main components :
1 . geometry
2 . camera
3 . light
4 . Surface characteristics
5 . Rendering algorithm
2.4.1 . camera
In 3D graphics, the angle of view (point of view ) is part of the camera. The camera in
the 3D graphics are usually not defined physically, but only to determine our perspective on a
world, so it is often called a virtual camera.
On camera, known field of view is the area seen by a camera. Field of view at the pyramid-
shaped 3D graphics, because a computer monitor screen quadrangular. Objects that are in the
field of view it will be seen from the screen, while objects that are outside the field of view is
not visible on the monitor screen. Field of view is very important in the selection of objects to
be processed in the rendering. Objects outside the field of view is usually not taken into
account, so the calculations in the rendering process, does not need to be done on the entire
Image 3. Angle field of view
2.4.2 . Light
The light source in the 3D graphics is an object that is important, because the light is a
visible world and can do the rendering process. The light source also makes a world
becoming more realistic by the shadow of a 3D objects that exist.
A light source has a type. In 3D graphics known several kinds of light sources, namely :
220.127.116.11 . Point Light
Radiating in all directions, but the intensity of light received depends on the position
of the object light source . This type is similar to incandescent lamps in the real world .
18.104.22.168 . Spotlight
Emit light into certain areas in the form of a cone. The light source is located at the
apex of the cone. Only objects that lie in the cone area will appear.
22.214.171.124 . Ambient Light
Light background / nature. This light is received with the same intensity by each
surface on the object. The backlighting is modeled to follow what happens in nature, in a
state without a light source though, the object can still be seen.
126.96.36.199 . Area Light
188.8.131.52 . Directional Light
Emit light with the same intensity in a particular direction. The layout does not affect
the intensity of light. This type of effect as if the light source is very far away from the object.
184.108.40.206 . Parallel Point
Similarly, the directional light, only the lighting direction and position.
Image 4. reflectance of light
2.4.3 . Surface Characteristics
Surface characteristics of an object is the nature of the surface of an object.
The surface characteristics include :
220.127.116.11 . Color
Color parameters in surface characteristics represented by the three basic colors, ie
RGB. When rendering, the color of an object depends on the color of the surface
characteristics and color of the light that hit it.
18.104.22.168 . Texture
Texture parameter is represented by a file name. This file will be the texture on the
surface of the object. In addition, there are several parameters in a texture that is useful to
determine the position of a texture on an object, textural properties, looping texture, and
22.214.171.124 . Surface Properties
The surface properties, such as diffuseness, refleksisifitas, and others are represented
by a value. This value determines the nature of these parameters. For example, the roughness,
the greater the value of the parameter, the object is more coarse.
2.4.4 . Rendering algorithm
Rendering algorithm is a procedure that is used by a program to do the calculation to
generate 2D images from 3D data.
Most existing rendering algorithm uses an approach called scan - line rendering which means
the program look of each pixel, one at a time, horizontally and calculate the pixel color.
Currently known 3 methods :
126.96.36.199. Ray – Casting
The method in which an image of the entire visible surface of the object is obtained
by a line beam emitting from a camera / viewer to the objects and processes implemented in
each pixel of the display monitor .
Image 5. (a). Basic Ray-Casting, (b). Results of the Ray-Casting lighting.
This method gives results similar to the Ray-Casting, but able to give a better optical
effects, such as the simulation of reflection and refraction are more accurate with better
Ray tracing works by looking for traces (tracing) a line of light that intersect (intersect) with
the camera lens, so that a variety of visual information from the whole scene was collected
and generated on the point of view of the camera / eye.
Image 6. Lighting results with Ray-Tracing method.
This method is a rendering technique based on a detailed analysis of the reflection of
light from the surface diffusion. This technique divides the field into a smaller field to find
details of the color so that the process is slow, but the resulting visualization is very neat and
smooth. Some examples of the results of rendering the rendering algorithm in image 27
above shows the following.
(a) (b) (c)
Image 7. (a). Radiosity, (b). Ray tracing, (c). Ray casting
3.1 Method of Data Collection
3.1.1 Methods Library Studies
This method is used by reading library books / references relating to computer
graphics such as Books Computer Graphics by James D. Foley, Materials Slide Show power
point computer graphics as well as studying the reports and other books relating to research.
3.1.2 Method Interview ( interview )
The method is carried out by means of direct questioning to students who have or are
taking courses in computer graphics. This method is performed to ensure that the data
obtained on the material rendering 3D objects in computer graphics courses really fit with the
3.1.3 Observation Mettode
Is a method of direct observation of the way the learning computer graphics that is
currently on the UAD . In addition to making observations also keep records of documents
pertaining to the subject of careful and systematic study.
3.1.4 Methods Koesioner
This method is done by giving questionnaires to students who have taken Computer
Graphic courses to see the problems faced by students in the classroom learning, especially in
learning the material Rendering Objects.
3.2 Analysis of Data
Phase analysis of the data is a very important step, because errors at this stage will
bringing error on the next research phase. Data analysis was conducted by means of
classifying the data that serves to classify data according to the type and function. Data were
managed dikupulkan a voice data, image data, text data, animation data, as well as
information relating to the data on the material that is computer graphics rendering 3D
objects and 3D objects.
3.3 System Design Method
Stages of system design is a continuation of the analysis of the data, so that data can
be compiled to be made easily, and right on target that has been set before making an
application. Steps that must be done is to make the design of an application to the problems
discussed in the hope of making an application that does not extend from the point.
4 . RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Implementation application Rendering Process Learning Media Objects are as follows :
4.1 Main Menu Page
Image 1 Main Menu Page
Display the Main Menu page is displayed when the Enter key on the intro page on
click. The main menu page has 7 main buttons, namely the menu button to return to the main
menu when you're entering the other page, an introduction to the key competencies and the
introduction into the page, go to the key material for the material and the process of rendering
3D Objects, exercise key to the exercise yard, button evaluation to the evaluation page, the
button about me to the page, exit button (X) to exit the program and the volume for the sound
4.2 Content Page Views
Image 2 Page Content
This page displays the sub-sub-menus that exist in the material menu page.
4.3 Tutorial Page
This page shows the tutorial video rendering using 3D Studio Max.
4.4 Exercise Page
Image 4 Page Exercise
This page presents the exercises of the whole matter by entering the answers then check
whether the results are true or false. If the answers are correct then it will go to the next
question and if the answer is wrong then there will be a notice to the correct answer.
4.5 Evaluation Page
images 5 Page Evaluation
This page shows the evaluation questions.
4.6 Testing System
Testing the system using two types of testing that is :
1) Black Box Test
The test is performed by Mr. Murinto S.Si., M.Kom. faculty member in the Computer
Graphic Ahmad Dahlan University Department of Information Engineering, the percentage
of test results can be concluded that the material presented was appropriate.
2) Alpha Test
Users of this test method is a student in the University of Ahmad Dahlan and the College of
Engineering Department of Information Engineering Adisudjipto Yogyakarta who have been
and are currently studying Computer Graphic courses totaling 10 students.
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