Calvinism Institutes of the Christian Religion
• Good works could not save those predestined
• No one could be certain of their spiritual
• Gnawing doubts led to constantly seeking
signs of “conversion.”
Want to totally reform [purify] the Church
Grew impatient with the slow process of
Protestant Reformation back in England.
Separatist Beliefs:Separatist Beliefs:
Puritans who believed only “visiblePuritans who believed only “visible
saints” [those who could demonstrate insaints” [those who could demonstrate in
front of their fellow Puritans theirfront of their fellow Puritans their
elect status] should be admitted toelect status] should be admitted to
church membership.church membership.
Because the Church of England enrolledBecause the Church of England enrolled
all the king’s subjects, Separatists feltall the king’s subjects, Separatists felt
they had to share churches with thethey had to share churches with the
Therefore, they believed in a totalTherefore, they believed in a total
break from the Church of England.break from the Church of England.
16201620 a group of 102a group of 102
people [half Separatists]people [half Separatists]
Negotiated with theNegotiated with the
Virginia Company toVirginia Company to
settle in itssettle in its
included Captain Mylesincluded Captain Myles
Plymouth Bay wayPlymouth Bay way
outside the domain of the Virginia Company.outside the domain of the Virginia Company.
Became squatters without legal right to land &Became squatters without legal right to land &
specific authority to establish a govt.specific authority to establish a govt.
November 11, 1620
Written and signed before the
Pilgrims disembarked from the ship.
Not a constitution, but an
agreement to form a crude govt. and
submit to majority rule.
Signed by 41 adult males.
Led to adult male settlers meeting
in assemblies to make laws in town
“Covenant of Grace”:
between Puritan communities and
Between members of Puritan
communities with each other.
Required mutual watchfulness.
No toleration of deviance or
That First Year….
Winter of 1620-1621
Only 44 out of the original 102 survived.
None chose to leave in 1621 when the
Mayflower sailed back.
Fall of 1621 First “Thanksgiving.”
Colony survived with fur [especially
beaver], fish, and lumber.
Plymouth stayed small and economically
1691 only 7,000 people
Merged with Massachusetts Bay Colony.
Chosen governor of
Plymouth 30 times in
springing up nearby
A Model of Christian
The MA Bay Colony
1629 non-Separatists got a royal charter
to form the MA Bay Co.
Wanted to escape attacks by conservatives in
the Church of England.
They didn’t want to leave the Church, just
1630 1,000 people set off in 11 well-
Established a colony with Boston as its hub.
“Great Migration” of the 1630s
Turmoil in England [leading to the English Civil
War] sent about 70,000 Puritans to America.
Not all Puritans 20,000 came to MA.
We shall be as aWe shall be as a
city on a hill..city on a hill..
and manor lord in
Believed that he
had a “calling” from
God to lead there.
Served as governor
for 19 years.
Characteristics of New
Low mortalityLow mortality average lifeaverage life
expectancy was 70 years of age.expectancy was 70 years of age.
Many extended families.Many extended families.
Average 6 children per family.Average 6 children per family.
Average age at marriage:Average age at marriage:
Women – 22 years oldWomen – 22 years old
Men – 27 years old.Men – 27 years old.
Authoritarian male father figures
controlled each household.
Patriarchal ministers and magistrates
Young, popular minister inYoung, popular minister in
Argued for a full breakArgued for a full break
with the Anglican Church.with the Anglican Church.
Condemned MA BayCondemned MA Bay
• Did not give fairDid not give fair
compensation to Indians.compensation to Indians.
Denied authority of civilDenied authority of civil
govt. to regulate religiousgovt. to regulate religious
16351635 found guilty of preachingfound guilty of preaching newe &newe &
dangerous opinionsdangerous opinions and was exiled.and was exiled.
Roger WilliamsRoger Williams
16361636 Roger Williams fled there.Roger Williams fled there.
MA Bay Puritans had wanted to exile him toMA Bay Puritans had wanted to exile him to
England to prevent him from founding aEngland to prevent him from founding a
competing colony.competing colony.
Remarkable political freedom in Providence,Remarkable political freedom in Providence,
• Universal manhood suffrageUniversal manhood suffrage later restrictedlater restricted
by a property qualification.by a property qualification.
• Opposed to special privilege of any kindOpposed to special privilege of any kind
freedom of opportunity for all.freedom of opportunity for all.
RI becomes known as the “Sewer” becauseRI becomes known as the “Sewer” because
it is seen by the Puritans as a dumpingit is seen by the Puritans as a dumping
ground for unbelievers and religiousground for unbelievers and religious
dissentersdissenters More liberal than any otherMore liberal than any other
Intelligent, strong-willed,Intelligent, strong-willed,
well-spoken woman.well-spoken woman.
Threatened patriarchalThreatened patriarchal
Means “against the law.”Means “against the law.”
Carried to logical extremesCarried to logical extremes
Puritan doctrine ofPuritan doctrine of
Holy life was no sure sign of salvation.Holy life was no sure sign of salvation.
Truly saved didn’t need to obey the law ofTruly saved didn’t need to obey the law of
either God or man.either God or man.
16381638 she confounded the Puritan leadersshe confounded the Puritan leaders
for days.for days.
Eventually bragged that she had receivedEventually bragged that she had received
her beliefs DIRECTLY from God.her beliefs DIRECTLY from God.
Direct revelation was even more seriousDirect revelation was even more serious
than the heresy of antinomianism.than the heresy of antinomianism. WHY??WHY??
Puritan leaders banished herPuritan leaders banished her she & hershe & her
family traveled to RI and later to NY.family traveled to RI and later to NY.
She and all but one member of her familyShe and all but one member of her family
were killed in an Indian attack in Westchesterwere killed in an Indian attack in Westchester
John Winthrop saw God’s hand in this!John Winthrop saw God’s hand in this!
Indians especially weak in New EnglandIndians especially weak in New England
epidemics wiped out ¾ of the native popul.epidemics wiped out ¾ of the native popul.
Wampanoags [near Plymouth] befriendedWampanoags [near Plymouth] befriended
the settlers.the settlers.
Cooperation between the twoCooperation between the two
helped byhelped by SquantoSquanto..
16211621 Chief Massasoit signedChief Massasoit signed
treaty with the settlers.treaty with the settlers.
Autumn, 1621Autumn, 1621 both groupsboth groups
celebrated the First Thanksgiving.celebrated the First Thanksgiving.
Puritans vs. Native
In 1863, President Lincoln proclaimedIn 1863, President Lincoln proclaimed
Thanksgiving an official US holiday.Thanksgiving an official US holiday.
The Pequot Wars: 1636-
powerful tribepowerful tribe
in CT river valley.in CT river valley.
Whites, withWhites, with
Indian allies,Indian allies,
attacked Pequotattacked Pequot
village on Mysticvillage on Mystic
Whites set fireWhites set fire
to homes & shot fleeing survivors!to homes & shot fleeing survivors!
Pequot tribe virtually annihilatedPequot tribe virtually annihilated an uneasyan uneasy
peace lasted for 40 years.peace lasted for 40 years.
Only hope for NativeOnly hope for Native
Americans to resistAmericans to resist
white settlers was towhite settlers was to
MetacomMetacom [King Philip to[King Philip to
white settlers]white settlers]
Massasoit’s son unitedMassasoit’s son united
Indians and stagedIndians and staged
coordinated attackscoordinated attacks
on white settlements throughout New England.on white settlements throughout New England.
Frontier settlements forced to retreat toFrontier settlements forced to retreat to
King Philip’s War (1675-1676}
The war ended in failure for the IndiansThe war ended in failure for the Indians
Metacom beheaded and drawn and quartered.Metacom beheaded and drawn and quartered.
His son and wife sold into slavery.His son and wife sold into slavery.
Never a serious threat in New England again!!Never a serious threat in New England again!!
King Philip’s War (1675-1676}