To End All Wars

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While studying WWII, this is a film that shows hope amid death and the base desctruction of humanity. It is used for an educational tool to show American students the Samurai code. In studying such a depressing topic, this movie truly shows hope, and is based on a true story.

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To End All Wars

  1. 1. TO END ALL WARS “In a jungle war of survival, they learned sacrifice. In a prison ofbrutal confinement, they found true freedom.”
  2. 2. TO END • To End All Wars is a film based on the book of the same title, written byALL WARS Captain Ernest Gordon, who served in the Royal Army in WWII.. • His regiment was captured by the Japanese (who were known for their merciless brutality toward all enemies) in Thailand. • POWs were forced to build 415km railway across Thailand and into India in order to supply soldiers in the Japanese Imperial Army. • His story is one of hope, faith, and forgiveness in the face of the worst miseries humans can cause one another.
  3. 3. ErnestGordon•Birth: May 31, 1916 inGreenock, Scotland, UK•Served as Captain in theUnited Royal Army duringWorld War II•Wrote at least two books:To End All Wars (2001release) and Through theValley of the River Kwai(1962).•Served as Dean of theChapel at PrincetonUniversity•Death: January 16, 2002in Princeton, NJ, USA
  4. 4. The Japanese Imperial Occupation Across Asia The Japanese Imperial Army intended to build a railway across Thailand to Burma, India – a total of 415 km. This would allow an alternative supply-line to soldiers fighting to occupy India. Until the railway was built, supplies were primarily delivered around Singapore by sea, which often led to attacks from Allied submarines. The disposable labor force was supplied by Allied Prisoners of War. On June 23, 1942, the first prisoners arrived to begin construction.
  5. 5. The Japanese Occupation of• Thailand The Japanese Imperial Army pressured itself to widen its occupation over the Far East. Therefore, the railway was a necessary supply line for the thousands of soldiers pushing into India• Prior to the railway, Japanese suppliers used the Irrawaddy River – which runs the full length of Burma – but the boats moved too slowly and were often subject to Allied attacks.• The railway would also create a line of supply between Malaya and Burma, India. This would hasten needed supplies, enabling the soldiers to push further into India.• The landscape was inhospitable, and the Japanese used expendable POWs and other forced laborers.
  6. 6. Building the Railroad “over the backs of the white man”
  7. 7. Workers onthe Death Railway•The Japanese Imperial Armyplanned to build a supply railwayacross Thailand and intoBurma, India. Constructionbegan at opposite ends duringSummer, 1942.• On October 17, 1943, the twolines met, and the work wascompleted: 415km or railway wasbuilt in 15 months.•The railway spanned 415 km:Burma teams built 152 km;Thailand teams built theremaining 263 km.•The first bridge crossed the riverMae Khlaung -- a wooden trestlespanning 220 meters –completed in July, 1943.
  8. 8. WORKERS on the DEATH RAILWAY LABORERS TOTAL FORCED LABOR TOTAL DEATHSAsian Laborers 200,000 (+/-) 80,000British POWs 30,000 6,540Dutch POWs 18,000 2,830Australian POWs 13,000 2,710American POWs 700 (+/-) 356Korean & Japanese Soldiers 15,000 1,000TOTALS 276,700 (+/-) 93,436
  9. 9. Allied Forces Turn the Tides of WWII prime targets for bombing they • Once the bridges were finished, were by Allied Forces. • A number of raids were carried out, and many Allied POWs were killed in these attacks. • On February 13, 1945, two bridges were successfully bombed by the Royal Air Force. Forced labor repaired the bridges by April (2 months). • On April 3, 1945, another raid carried out by the U.S. Air Force damaged a single bridge. Repair were made, and the bridge was operational by the end of May (1 month). • On June 24, 1945, a 2nd attack by the Royal Air Force put one bridge out of commission for the rest of the war. • On August 14, 1945, Japan surrendered unconditionally to the Allied Forces. • On September 2, 1945, Japan signs terms for surrender.
  10. 10. Understandingthe BushidoWarrior
  11. 11. Seven Principles from :”The Zen Way to the Martial Arts” Bushido: BU (martial arts) – SHI (warrior) – DO (the way)The way of the Samurai grew out of the fusion of Buddhism and Shintoism, summarized in seven (7) basic principles.1. Gi - the right decision taken with composure, the right attitude, the truth2. Yu – bravery tinged with heroism3. Jin – universal love, generosity toward mankind, compassion4. Rei – right action – a most essential quality – courtesy5. Makoto – utter sincerity – truthfulness6. Malyo – honor and glory7. Chugo - devotion and loyalty
  12. 12. The Samurai Creed I have no parents; I make the Heavens and the Earth my parents. I have no home; I make the Tan T’ien my home. I have no divine power; I make Honesty my divine power. I have no means; I make Docility my means. I have no magic power; I make Personality my magic power. I have neither life nor death; I make A Um my Life and Death. I have no body; I make Stoicism my body. I have no eyes; I make The Flash of Lightening my eyes. I have no ears; I make Sensibility my ears. I have no limbs; I make Promptitude my Limbs. I have no laws; I make Self-Protection my Laws.
  13. 13. The Samurai CreedI have no strategy; I make the Right to Kill and the Right to Restore Life my Strategy.I have no designs; I make Seizing the Opportunity by the Forelock my Designs.I have no miracles; I make Righteous Laws my Miracle.I have no principles; I make Adaptability to all circumstances my PrinciplesI have no tactics; I make Emptiness and Fullness my tactics.I have no talent; I make Ready With my Talent.I have no friends; I make my Mind my Friend.I have no enemy; I make Incautiousness my Enemy.I have no armour; I make Benevolence my Armour.I have no castle; I make Immovable Mind my Castle.I have no sword; I make No Mind my Sword.
  14. 14. History ofBushido
  15. 15. Bushido & The Samurai WarriorHistory of the Samurai Culture Warrior Samurai Qualities• Samurai were also called “bushi” • Unsurpassable loyalty to kin, (martial artists), hence Bushido overlord, and emperor• During the 9th century, Samurai • Trustworthy & honest formed as a class.• By the 12th century Samurai • Lived frugal lives – Samurai emerged from provinces to become wealth was measured in honor a ruling class. & pride• In 1876, the emperor saw no more • Skilled martial artists, bow & need for the Samurai and outlawed arrow, swordsmen, the warrior class. equestrians, but were likely to• At this time, guns were introduced kill with bare hands to the Imperial Army outdating the Samurai as ruling warriors. (Think • Samurai entered battle no of the movie, The Last Samurai matter what the odds; to die with Tom Cruise; this was based on in battle brought honor to a true story). one’s family, lord & emperor
  16. 16. Samurai Battle & Death “They were men of true valor”• In a battle, a Samurai would call out his family name, rank & accomplishments, then sought out a like rival to battle.• When a warrior killed his rival, he severed the head to show proof of his victory. It was customary to take heads of generals and others of high rank to the capital. Here, they were displayed for Japanese officials.• The way out for a defeated warrior was death. If the foe didn’t kill the samurai, he would perform ritual suicide over capture.
  17. 17. The Defeated Samurai -Seppuku was a true act of honor-• Ritual Suicide: “Seppuku” (disembowelment) or “Hara- Kiri” (belly slicing)• Ritual Suicide was preferred over capture• Contrary to popular belief, capture was not considered undignified or shameful, but general bad policy.• After Seppuku, a friend or kin would decapitate the warrior.• Various circumstances warrant Hara-Kiri: to avoid capture; atone for an shameful act; sacrifice for his overlord’s misdeed; or avoid bringing disgrace to family name, lord, or emperor
  18. 18. Lessons in Forgiveness & Redemption
  19. 19. Forgiveness & Redemption Ernest Gordon & Takashi Nagase• During filming, Ernest Gordon and Takashi Nagase–a Japanese translator from the POW camp- met again.• Since the war, Takashi Nagase became a Buddhist monk.• Meeting again allowed Takashi to share his emotions over the horrors caused by Japanese imperialism.• This allowed him to forgive himself for the role he played in the war, as well as the acceptance of a culture that encouraged those horrors.
  20. 20. Redemption: Never ForgettingThe Hellfire Pass Railway is now open to tourists. Visit: www. Hellfirepass.com
  21. 21. Movie trailer: TO END ALL WARS......FilmsThings For SchoolTRAILER to end all wars.htm
  22. 22. MOVIE ASSIGNMENT – WRITE THIS DOWN!!!Take the following Thematic Subjects, and create themes you see while watching the film. (In other words, take the subjects and make statements about them.)Cultural Similarities FaithForgiveness HopeJustice SacrificeWarriorship
  23. 23. Sources• http: www.amazon.com – visited 7.8.09• http://www.hellfirepass.com – visited 7.7.09• http://www.IMDb.com - visited 7.7.09 & 7.10.09• http://www.library.thinkquest.org – visited 7.8.09 & 7.9.09• http://www.vicgtorian.fortunecity.com. “Samurai and Their Use of Bushido” – visited 7.7.09 & 7.8.09• http://www.ww2db.com – visited 7.8.09 & 7.9.09• To End All Wars – release date: 2001

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