http: library/thinkquest/com – not mla1938.r, When coming across with glittering generalities, we should especially consider the merits of the idea itself when separated from specific words.
http: library/thinkquest/com – not mla
http: library/thinkquest/com – not mla. When coming in contact with this technique, the subject should attempt to consider all other factors tied into the situation. As with almost all propaganda techniques, the subject should attempt to find more information on the topic. An informed person is much less susceptible to this sort of propaganda.
http: library/thinkquest/com – not mlaHowever, in modern propaganda, bandwagon has taken a new twist. The subject is to be convinced by the propaganda that since everyone else is doing it, they will be left out if they do not. This is, effectively, the opposite of the other type of bandwagon, but usually provokes the same results. Subjects of bandwagon are compelled to join in because everyone else is doing so as well. When confronted with bandwagon propaganda, we should weigh the pros and cons of joining in independently from the amount of people who have already joined, and, as with most types of propaganda, we should seek more information.
http: library/thinkquest/com – not mlang blame on an enemy country or political group. One idea or proposal is often depicted as one of the only options or paths. When confronted with this technique, the subject should consider the value of any proposal independently of those it is being compared with.
http: library/thinkquest/com – not mla The best way to deal with card stacking is to get more information.
http: library/thinkquest/com – not mlaWhen examining name calling propaganda, we should attempt to separate our feelings about the name and our feelings about the actual idea or proposal.
When confronted by this type of propaganda, the subject should consider the proposals and ideas separately from the personality of the presenter.
When faced with simplification, it is often useful to examine other factors and pieces of the proposal or idea, and, as with all other forms of propaganda, it is essential to get more information.
http: library/thinkquest/com – not mla When coming across testimonials, the subject should consider the merits of the item or proposal independently of the person of organization giving the testimonial
http: library/thinkquest/com – not mlaroposal or idea independently of convictions about other objects or proposals.
PROPAGANDAThe manipulation of groups ofpeople through informationand use of language .Must include three basicqualities: (1.) Dehumanization ofone’s opponent, devaluingtheir stance (2.) Nationalization ofone’s audience, building aboundary between “us” and“them” (3.) Works to produceeconomic or political valuewithin a group or nation
Basic Qualities ofPropaganda –DEHUMANIZATION • Devalues the enemy or opponent • Raises value of “Us” – because “We” are not “Them” • Takes away humanity of enemy or opponent • Compares opponent or enemy to lower than human – animalistic • Helps strengthen the boundary between “Us” and “Them”
Basic Qualities ofPropaganda –NATIONALIZATION•Nationalizes the viewers intoa group “Us”•Provides a commonopponent, enemy or cause –”Them” -- for “Us” to fightagainst together•Strengthens the idea that“Us” is valued higher than“Them”•Strengthens national,ideological, or politicalboundaries
Basic Qualities of Propaganda– POPULARITY,POLITICAL POWER, orMONETARY PROFIT • Strengthens the notion that “Our” way is the correct way to think, vote, follow, etc. • Physically or socially strengthens the differences between “Us” and “Them” • Provides power through profit • Provides a political or economic base for “Us”
PROPAGANDA TECHNIQUESGLITTERING GENERALITIES • Words that have different positive meaning for individual viewers – linked to highly valued concepts • Words meant to demand approval without thinking • Accept words because of high value of concept • Examples: “equality now,” “for your country” “freedom” • Often occurs in political propaganda • Identified as a technique of propaganda in 1938
PROPAGANDA TECHNIQUES ASSERTION• An enthusiastic, forceful or energetic statement presented as fact• Often implies that the statement requires no explanation or backing up, and should be accepted without question• The viewer should simply agree with the statement without question or searching for additional information or reasoning• Often include falsehoods or lies• Typically used in advertising
PROPAGANDA TECHNIQUESPINPOINTING THE ENEMY • Most often used during wartime, in political campaigns and debates • Attempts to simplify a complex situation by presenting a particular person or group as the opponent • Viewer is expected to view the situation in clear-cut terms of right and wrong
PROPAGANDA TECHNIQUES BANDWAGON• Entices the viewer to follow the crowd -- “Everyone is doing it”• Convinces the subject that one side is the right side by mass popularity – “Majority rules”• Victory is inevitable, defeat impossible – “safety in numbers”• Identified as a technique in 1938 by the Institute for Propaganda Analysis• One of the most common techniques in both wartime, peacetime , and modern advertising
PROPAGANDA TECHNIQUESLESSER OF TWO EVILS • Attempts to convince viewer of an idea or proposal by presenting is as the least offensive option • Often employed during wartime • Convinces viewer of need for sacrifice • Justifies difficult decisions - represented as the only option or path in a bad situation • Typically blames enemy country or political group
PROPAGANDA TECHNIQUES CARDSTACKING• Selective omission – presenting information that is positive to one idea and leaves out any different points of view• Uses the truth (without stating differing truths) to manipulate public perspective• Used in all forms of propaganda to convince the general public
PROPAGANDA TECHNIQUESNAME CALLING • Occurs during wartime and political situations • Use of derogatory language when describing and enemy or opponent • Attempts to arouse prejudice in viewers by labeling target as something disliked • Often employed using sarcasm, ridicule, political humor, cartoons, satire
PROPAGANDA TECHNIQUES PLAINFOLKS• Device attempts to convince viewer that ideas reflect those of the common person, so they must work to benefit the general public• Often attempts to target specific viewers using jargon, idioms, or common humor• Attempts to create the illusion of humility or “just-like-you humanity”• Attempts to appear sincere and spontaneous• Effective when used with “glittering generalities” – gives stance a higher value, which are similar to the viewers – for validation
PROPAGANDA TECHNIQUESSTEREOTYPING / SIMPLIFICATION • Reduces complex situations into clear-cut choices • Usually involves conflicts between good and evil • Builds boundaries between “us” and “them” • Similar to Pinpointing the Enemy - purposefully used to sway uneducated viewers
PROPAGANDA TECHNIQUES TESTIMONIALS• Quotations or endorsements (in or out of context) that attempts to connect a famous person with a product, idea, or item• Connects a person or idea with another item, person or idea• Often used in advertisements and political campaigns
PROPAGANDA TECHNIQUES TRANSFER • Often used in politics and during wartime • Attempts to make a viewer see a certain item or idea the same way they look at another item or idea – likes the two ideas, images, or items in a viewer’s mind • Often used to transfer blame, bad feelings, or negative events • First recognized as a technique in 1938 • Closely related to Testimonials
CULT OF PERSONALITY•The development is thedevelopment of a “heroic” or“godlike” public image IN LVING COLOR•Main goal is to gain “Cult ofunconditional support of the Personality”people – develops a “cult-like” Video Linkfollowing of a nation’s citizens http://www.youtube .com/watch?v=RZ5S•Uses propaganda spread VDYBNrYthrough the media (news,posters, public serviceannouncements, etc.)• Originated in 1965-70 as atranslation of the Russianphrase “kulʾtíchnosti” l(dictionary.com)
What does this poster say to you? What techniques, themes,and purposes are portrayed here? Include what images yousee, what they say to you. What messages is the artist trying toportray? What does s/he want you to think or believe? (PosterTitle: Bricks in the Wall)
Bibliography• www.youtube.com – last visited 6.29.09• www.librarythinkquest.com – last visited 6.29.09• www.lyricsfreak.com – last visited 6.29.09