Marine habitats

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  • Open oceans have low primary productivity because of the low concentrations of nutrients in the photic zone which is called the “ biological dessert”. The parts which corresponds to low nutrient levels and low productivity is termed as “ oligotrophic ocean”.
  • Marine habitats

    1. 1. What is a habitat? an environment that has all necessary requirements for an organism to live.
    2. 2. Figure 1. Divisions of the marine environment.
    3. 3. Four major types of Ocean ecosystems : Open Ocean Deep Sea Upwelling region Continental Shelf
    4. 4. Open Ocean  areas away from the coastal boundaries and above the seabed.  encompasses the entire water column of the seas and the oceans and lies beyond the edge of the continental shelf.  extends from the tropics to the polar regions and from the sea surface to the abyssal depths.
    5. 5. Open ocean WHY OPEN OCEANS HAVE LOW PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY?
    6. 6. Figure 2. Global patterns of productivity
    7. 7. Continental shelf ecosystems  is characterized by a very gentle slope less than 1 degree. The average depth is about 150 m and it has an average width of 70 km.  local variations are common, ranging from more than 1000 km in the Arctic Ocean to a few kilometers along the Pacific coast of North and South America.  The water above the continental shelf is called neritic water
    8. 8. Continental shelf ecosystems
    9. 9. Continental Shelf WHY CONTINENTAL SHELF HAVE HIGH PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY?
    10. 10.  Tend to have relatively high concentrations of nitrate and other nutrients, averaged over the year.
    11. 11. Estuaries An area in which fresh water from a river mixes with salt water from the ocean; a transition area from the land to the ocean. Other names: bay, sound, lagoon, harbor, or bayou. River bringing freshwater to the sea The Ocean Area where fresh and salt water mix
    12. 12. Estuary animals Huge variety including… Blue crab, Stone crab, Fiddler crab, Horseshoe crab, Mosquito, Lobster, Flounder, Stripped bass, Crane, Flamingo, Sea gull, Ibis, Manatee, otters, and many more.
    13. 13. Salt Marshes  A low area that is subject to regular, but gentle, tides, dominated by grasses.  Salt marshes do not have trees or shrubs  Location: Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coast Texas salt marsh
    14. 14. Mangrove Swamps Coastal wetlands located in tropical and subtropical zones; characterized by salt- tolerant trees and shrubs, such as mangrove trees
    15. 15. Coral Reefs  Structures in the shallow oceans that are built by animals called corals; serve as a habitat for many diverse organisms  Require two things: warm temperatures and sunlight There are many different kinds of corals: Soft corals Hard corals
    16. 16. Upwelling regions bring nutrient-rich deep water to the surface, fueling primary productivity.
    17. 17. UPWELLING REGION Winds blowing across the ocean surface push water away. Water then rises up from beneath the surface to replace the water that was pushed away.
    18. 18. Three Major Mechanisms: Coastal upwelling Equatorial upwelling Island mass effects
    19. 19. Coastal upwelling  Winds moving water along the shore result in a curl Right or Left (N or S hemisphere) Figure. Productivity along the coast of South America
    20. 20. EL NINO a warm phase of the interannual climate oscillation called El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event, an example of large-scale ocean-atmosphere interaction, and is characterized by large-scale warming of the surface tropical Pacific Ocean.
    21. 21. Equatorial Upwelling The net flow of the westward currents are north on north side of the equator, and south on the south side, and this water is replaced by deeper water
    22. 22. Island Mass Effect As currents encounter islands, deeper nutrient rich water is forced toward the surface.
    23. 23. Deep Sea the lowest layer in the ocean, existing below the thermocline and above the seabed, at a depth of 1000 fathoms or more.
    24. 24. Deep sea animals exhibiting bioluminescence Deep Sea Angler Fish Lanternfish
    25. 25. Deep sea animals exhibiting bioluminescence Deep Sea Angler Fish Lanternfish
    26. 26. Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vents Figure. Black Smoker Physical and Chemical factors:  minerals  Temperatures  flow levels of their plumes
    27. 27. THANK YOU ! 

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