Discriminative listening is the most basic typeof listening, whereby the difference betweendifference sounds is identified. If you cannothear differences, then you cannot make senseof the meaning that is expressed by suchdifferences.
The next step beyond discriminating betweendifferent sound and sights is to make senseof them. To comprehend the meaningrequires first having a lexicon of words at ourfingertips and also all rules of grammar andsyntax by which we can understand whatothers are saying. Comprehension listening is also known ascontent listening, informative listening andfull listening.
Critical listening is listening in order toevaluate and judge, forming opinion aboutwhat is being said. Judgment includesassessing strengths and weaknesses,agreement and approval. This form of listening requires significantreal-time cognitive effort as the listeneranalyzes what is being said, relating it toexisting knowledge and rules, whilstsimultaneously listening to the ongoingwords from the speaker.
Biased listening happens when the personhears only what they want to hear, typicallymisinterpreting what the other person saysbased on the stereotypes and other biasesthat they have. Such biased listening is oftenvery evaluative in nature.
In evaluative listening, or critical listening, wemake judgments about what the other personis saying. We seek to assess the truth of whatis being said. We also judge what they sayagainst our values, assessing them as goodor bad, worthy or unworthy. Evaluative listening is also calledcritical, judgmental or interpretive listening.
In appreciative listening, we seek certaininformation which will appreciate, forexample that which helps meet our needsand goals. We use appreciative listeningwhen we are listening to good music, poetryor maybe even the stirring words of a greatleader.
In sympathetic listening we care about theother person and show this concern in theway we pay close attention and express oursorrow for their ills and happiness at theirjoys.
When we listen empathetically, we go beyondsympathy to seek a truer understand howothers are feeling. This requires excellentdiscrimination and close attention to thenuances of emotional signals. When we arebeing truly empathetic, we actually feel whatthey are feeling.
In therapeutic listening, the listener has apurpose of not only empathizing with thespeaker but also to use this deepconnection in order to help the speakerunderstand, change or develop in someway.
This not only happens when you go tosee a therapist but also in many socialsituations, where friends and familyseek to both diagnose problems fromlistening and also to help the speakercure themselves, perhaps by somecathartic process. This also happens inwork situations, where managers, HRpeople, trainers and coaches seek tohelp employees learn and develop.
The word dialogue stems from the Greekwords dia, meaning through and logosmeaning words. Thus dialogic listeningmean learning through conversation and anengaged interchange of ideas andinformation in which we actively seek to learnmore about the person and how they think. Dialogic listening is sometimes known asrelational listening.
Sometimes the most important factor inlistening is in order to develop or sustain arelationship. This is why lovers talk for hoursand attend closely to what each other has tosay when the same words from someone elsewould seem to be rather boring. Relationship listening is also important inareas such as negotiation and sales, where itis helpful if the other person likes you andtrusts you.
Receiving• It refers to the response caused by sound wavesstimulating the sensory receptors of the ear; it isphysical response.Understanding• It is the stage at which you learn what the speakermeans-the thoughts and emotional tone.
Remembering It is important listening process because itmeans that an individual has not only receivedand interpreted a message but has also addedit to the minds storage bank. But just as our attention is selective, so too isour memory- what is remembered may be quitedifferent from what was originally seen orheard.
Evaluating It consists of judging the messages in someway. At times, you may try to evaluate thespeaker’s underlying intentions or motives. Often this evaluation process goes on withoutmuch conscious awareness.
RespondingThis stage requires that the receivercomplete the process through verbaland/or nonverbal feedback; because thespeaker has no other way to determine ifa message has been received .This stage becomes the only overt meansby which the sender may determine thedegree of success in transmitting themessage.
No one would talk much in society ifthey knew how often theymisunderstood others.(Goethe)
Top-down strategies are listener based; thelistener taps into background knowledge of thetopic, the situation or context, the type oftext, and the language. This backgroundknowledge activates a set of expectations thathelp the listener to interpret what is heard andanticipate what will come next. Top-downstrategies include listening for the main idea predicting drawing inferences summarizing
Bottom-up strategies are text based; thelistener relies on the language in themessage, that is, the combination ofsounds, words, and grammar that createsmeaning. Bottom-up strategies include listening for specific details recognizing cognates recognizing word-order patterns
Strategic listeners also use metacognitivestrategies to plan, monitor, and evaluate theirlistening. They plan by deciding which listeningstrategies will serve best in a particularsituation. They monitor their comprehension and theeffectiveness of the selected strategies. They evaluate by determining whether theyhave achieved their listening comprehensiongoals and whether the combination oflistening strategies selected was an effectiveone.