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In law and economics, insurance is a form of risk management primarily used
to hedge against the risk of a contingent, uncertain loss. Insurance is defined as the
equitable transfer of the risk of a loss, from one entity to another, in exchange for
payment. An insurer is a company selling the insurance; an insured, or policyholder,
is the person or entity buying the insurance policy. The insurance rate is a factor
used to determine the amount to be charged for a certain amount of insurance
coverage, called the premium. Risk management, the practice of appraising and
controlling risk, has evolved as a discrete field of study and practice.
The transaction involves the insured assuming a guaranteed and known relatively
small loss in the form of payment to the insurer in exchange for the insurer's promise
to compensate (indemnify) the insured in the case of a financial (personal) loss. The
insured receives a contract, called the insurance policy, which details the conditions
and circumstances under which the insured will be financially compensated.
3 Insurers' business model
3.1 Underwriting and investing
4 History of insurance
5 Types of insurance
5.1 Auto insurance
5.2 Home insurance
5.3 Health insurance
5.4 Accident, sickness and unemployment insurance
5.6.1 Burial insurance
5.10 Other types
5.11 Insurance financing vehicles
5.12 Closed community self-insurance
6 Insurance companies
7 Across the world
7.1 Regulatory differences
8.1 Insurance insulates too much
8.2 Complexity of insurance policy contracts
8.3 Limited consumer benefits
8.5 Insurance patents
8.6 The insurance industry and rent-seeking
8.7 Religious concerns
9 See also
12 External links
Financial market participants
Banks and banking
Insurance involves pooling funds from many insured entities (known as exposures)
to pay for the losses that some may incur. The insured entities are therefore
protected from risk for a fee, with the fee being dependent upon the frequency and
severity of the event occurring. In order to be insurable, the risk insured against must
meet certain characteristics in order to be an insurable risk. Insurance is a
commercial enterprise and a major part of the financial services industry, but
4. individual entities can also self-insurethrough saving money for possible future
Main article: Insurability
Risk which can be insured by private companies typically share seven common
1. Large number of similar exposure units: Since insurance operates through
pooling resources, the majority of insurance policies are provided for
individual members of large classes, allowing insurers to benefit from the law
of large numbers in which predicted losses are similar to the actual losses.
Exceptions include Lloyd's of London, which is famous for insuring the life or
health of actors, sports figures and other famous individuals. However, all
exposures will have particular differences, which may lead to different
2. Definite loss: The loss takes place at a known time, in a known place, and
from a known cause. The classic example is death of an insured person on a
life insurance policy. Fire, automobile accidents, and worker injuries may all
easily meet this criterion. Other types of losses may only be definite in
theory. Occupational disease, for instance, may involve prolonged exposure
to injurious conditions where no specific time, place or cause is identifiable.
Ideally, the time, place and cause of a loss should be clear enough that a
reasonable person, with sufficient information, could objectively verify all
3. Accidental loss: The event that constitutes the trigger of a claim should be
fortuitous, or at least outside the control of the beneficiary of the insurance.
The loss should be pure, in the sense that it results from an event for which
there is only the opportunity for cost. Events that contain speculative
elements, such as ordinary business risks or even purchasing a lottery ticket,
are generally not considered insurable.
4. Large loss: The size of the loss must be meaningful from the perspective of
the insured. Insurance premiums need to cover both the expected cost of
losses, plus the cost of issuing and administering the policy, adjusting losses,
and supplying the capital needed to reasonably assure that the insurer will be
able to pay claims. For small losses these latter costs may be several times
5. the size of the expected cost of losses. There is hardly any point in paying
such costs unless the protection offered has real value to a buyer.
5. Affordable premium: If the likelihood of an insured event is so high, or the
cost of the event so large, that the resulting premium is large relative to the
amount of protection offered, it is not likely that the insurance will be
purchased, even if on offer. Further, as the accounting profession formally
recognizes in financial accounting standards, the premium cannot be so
large that there is not a reasonable chance of a significant loss to the insurer.
If there is no such chance of loss, the transaction may have the form of
insurance, but not the substance. (See the U.S. Financial Accounting
Standards Board standard number 113)
6. Calculable loss: There are two elements that must be at least estimable, if not
formally calculable: the probability of loss, and the attendant cost. Probability
of loss is generally an empirical exercise, while cost has more to do with the
ability of a reasonable person in possession of a copy of the insurance policy
and a proof of loss associated with a claim presented under that policy to
make a reasonably definite and objective evaluation of the amount of the loss
recoverable as a result of the claim.
7. Limited risk of catastrophically large losses: Insurable losses are
ideally independent and non-catastrophic, meaning that the losses do not
happen all at once and individual losses are not severe enough to bankrupt
the insurer; insurers may prefer to limit their exposure to a loss from a single
event to some small portion of their capital base. Capital constrains insurers'
ability to sell earthquake insurance as well as wind insurance
in hurricane zones. In the U.S., flood risk is insured by the federal
government. In commercial fire insurance it is possible to find single
properties whose total exposed value is well in excess of any individual
insurer's capital constraint. Such properties are generally shared among
several insurers, or are insured by a single insurer who syndicates the risk
into the reinsurance market.
When a company insures an individual entity, there are basic legal requirements.
Several commonly cited legal principles of insurance include: 
6. 1. Indemnity – the insurance company indemnifies, or compensates, the insured
in the case of certain losses only up to the insured's interest.
2. Insurable interest – the insured typically must directly suffer from the loss.
Insurable interest must exist whether property insurance or insurance on a
person is involved. The concept requires that the insured have a "stake" in
the loss or damage to the life or property insured. What that "stake" is will be
determined by the kind of insurance involved and the nature of the property
ownership or relationship between the persons.
3. Utmost good faith – the insured and the insurer are bound by a good
faith bond of honesty and fairness. Material facts must be disclosed.
4. Contribution – insurers which have similar obligations to the insured
contribute in the indemnification, according to some method.
5. Subrogation – the insurance company acquires legal rights to pursue
recoveries on behalf of the insured; for example, the insurer may sue those
liable for insured's loss.
6. Causa proxima, or proximate cause – the cause of loss (the peril) must be
covered under the insuring agreement of the policy, and the dominant cause
must not be excluded
7. Principle of loss minimization - In case of any loss or casualty, the asset
owner must attempt to keep the loss to a minimum, as if the asset was not
Main article: Indemnity
To "indemnify" means to make whole again, or to be reinstated to the position that
one was in, to the extent possible, prior to the happening of a specified event or peril.
Accordingly, life insurance is generally not considered to be indemnity insurance, but
rather "contingent" insurance (i.e., a claim arises on the occurrence of a specified
event). There are generally two types of insurance contracts that seek to indemnify
1. an "indemnity" policy, and
2. a "pay on behalf" or "on behalf of" policy.
The difference is significant on paper, but rarely material in practice.
7. An "indemnity" policy will never pay claims until the insured has paid out of pocket to
some third party; for example, a visitor to your home slips on a floor that you left wet
and sues you for $10,000 and wins. Under an "indemnity" policy the homeowner
would have to come up with the $10,000 to pay for the visitor's fall and then would
be "indemnified" by the insurance carrier for the out of pocket costs (the $10,000). 
Under the same situation, a "pay on behalf" policy, the insurance carrier would pay
the claim and the insured (the homeowner in the above example) would not be out of
pocket for anything. Most modern liability insurance is written on the basis of "pay on
An entity seeking to transfer risk (an individual, corporation, or association of any
type, etc.) becomes the 'insured' party once risk is assumed by an 'insurer', the
insuring party, by means of a contract, called an insurance policy. Generally, an
insurance contract includes, at a minimum, the following elements: identification of
participating parties (the insurer, the insured, the beneficiaries), the premium, the
period of coverage, the particular loss event covered, the amount of coverage (i.e.,
the amount to be paid to the insured or beneficiary in the event of a loss), and
exclusions (events not covered). An insured is thus said to be "indemnified" against
the loss covered in the policy.
When insured parties experience a loss for a specified peril, the coverage entitles
the policyholder to make a claim against the insurer for the covered amount of loss
as specified by the policy. The fee paid by the insured to the insurer for assuming the
risk is called the premium. Insurance premiums from many insureds are used to fund
accounts reserved for later payment of claims — in theory for a relatively few
claimants — and for overhead costs. So long as an insurer maintains adequate
funds set aside for anticipated losses (called reserves), the remaining margin is an
Insurance can have various effects on society through the way that it changes who
bears the cost of losses and damage. On one hand it can increase fraud, on the
other it can help societies and individuals prepare for catastrophes and mitigate the
effects of catastrophes on both households and societies.
Insurance can influence the probability of losses through moral hazard, insurance
fraud, and preventive steps by the insurance company. Insurance scholars have
8. typically used morale hazard to refer to the increased loss due to unintentional
carelessness and moral hazard to refer to increased risk due to intentional
carelessness or indifference. Insurers attempt to address carelessness through
inspections, policy provisions requiring certain types of maintenance, and possible
discounts for loss mitigation efforts. While in theory insurers could encourage
investment in loss reduction, some commentators have argued that in practice
insurers had historically not aggressively pursued loss control measures - particularly
to prevent disaster losses such as hurricanes - because of concerns over rate
reductions and legal battles. However, since about 1996 insurers began to take a
more active role in loss mitigation, such as through building codes.
The business model is to collect more in premium and investment income than is
paid out in losses, and to also offer a competitive price which consumers will accept.
Profit can be reduced to a simple equation: Profit = earned premium + investment
income - incurred loss - underwriting expenses.
Insurers make money in two ways:
1. Through underwriting, the process by which insurers select the risks to insure
and decide how much in premiums to charge for accepting those risks;
2. By investing the premiums they collect from insured parties.
The most complicated aspect of the insurance business is the actuarial science of
ratemaking (price-setting) of policies, which usesstatistics and probability to
approximate the rate of future claims based on a given risk. After producing rates,
the insurer will use discretion to reject or accept risks through the underwriting
At the most basic level, initial ratemaking involves looking at
the frequency and severity of insured perils and the expected average payout
resulting from these perils. Thereafter an insurance company will collect historical
loss data, bring the loss data to present value, and comparing these prior losses to
the premium collected in order to assess rate adequacy.  Loss ratios and expense
loads are also used. Rating for different risk characteristics involves at the most
basic level comparing the losses with "loss relativities" - a policy with twice as money
9. policies would therefore be charged twice as much. However, more
complex multivariate analyses through generalized linear modeling are sometimes
used when multiple characteristics are involved and a univariate analysis could
produce confounded results. Other statistical methods may be used in assessing the
probability of future losses.
Upon termination of a given policy, the amount of premium collected and the
investment gains thereon, minus the amount paid out in claims, is the
insurer's underwriting profit on that policy. Underwriting performance is measured by
something called the "combined ratio" which is the ratio of expenses/losses to
premiums. A combined ratio of less than 100 percent indicates an underwriting profit,
while anything over 100 indicates an underwriting loss. A company with a combined
ratio over 100% may nevertheless remain profitable due to investment earnings.
Insurance companies earn investment profits on "float". Float, or available reserve, is
the amount of money on hand at any given moment that an insurer has collected in
insurance premiums but has not paid out in claims. Insurers start investing insurance
premiums as soon as they are collected and continue to earn interest or other
income on them until claims are paid out. The Association of British
Insurers (gathering 400 insurance companies and 94% of UK insurance services)
has almost 20% of the investments in the London Stock Exchange.
In the United States, the underwriting loss of property and casualty
insurance companies was $142.3 billion in the five years ending 2003. But overall
profit for the same period was $68.4 billion, as the result of float. Some insurance
industry insiders, most notably Hank Greenberg, do not believe that it is forever
possible to sustain a profit from float without an underwriting profit as well, but this
opinion is not universally held.
Naturally, the float method is difficult to carry out in an economically
depressed period. Bear markets do cause insurers to shift away from investments
and to toughen up their underwriting standards, so a poor economy generally means
high insurance premiums. This tendency to swing between profitable and
unprofitable periods over time is commonly known as the underwriting, or insurance,
Claims and loss handling is the materialized utility of insurance; it is the actual
"product" paid for. Claims may be filed by insureds directly with the insurer or
10. through brokers or agents. The insurer may require that the claim be filed on its own
proprietary forms, or may accept claims on a standard industry form, such as those
produced by ACORD.
Insurance company claims departments employ a large number of claims
adjusters supported by a staff of records management and data entry clerks.
Incoming claims are classified based on severity and are assigned to adjusters
whose settlement authority varies with their knowledge and experience. The adjuster
undertakes an investigation of each claim, usually in close cooperation with the
insured, determines if coverage is available under the terms of the insurance
contract, and if so, the reasonable monetary value of the claim, and authorizes
The policyholder may hire their own public adjuster to negotiate the settlement with
the insurance company on their behalf. For policies that are complicated, where
claims may be complex, the insured may take out a separate insurance policy add
on, called loss recovery insurance, which covers the cost of a public adjuster in the
case of a claim.
Adjusting liability insurance claims is particularly difficult because there is a third
party involved, the plaintiff, who is under no contractual obligation to cooperate with
the insurer and may in fact regard the insurer as a deep pocket. The adjuster must
obtain legal counsel for the insured (either inside "house" counsel or outside "panel"
counsel), monitor litigation that may take years to complete, and appear in person or
over the telephone with settlement authority at a mandatory settlement conference
when requested by the judge.
If a claims adjuster suspects under-insurance, the condition of average may come
into play to limit the insurance company's exposure.
In managing the claims handling function, insurers seek to balance the elements of
customer satisfaction, administrative handling expenses, and claims overpayment
leakages. As part of this balancing act, fraudulent insurance practices are a major
business risk that must be managed and overcome. Disputes between insurers and
insureds over the validity of claims or claims handling practices occasionally escalate
into litigation (see insurance bad faith).
11. Insurers will often use insurance agents to initially market or underwrite their
customers. Agents can be captive, meaning they write only for one company, or
independent, meaning that they can issue policies from several companies.
Commissions to agents represent a significant portion of an insurance cost and
insurers such as State Farm that sell policies directly via mass marketing campaigns
can offer lower prices. The existence and success of companies using insurance
agents (with higher prices) is likely due to improved and personalized service. 
Main article: History of insurance
In some sense we can say that insurance appears simultaneously with the
appearance of human society. We know of two types of economies in human
societies: natural or non-monetary economies (using barter and trade with no
centralized nor standardized set of financial instruments) and more modern
monetary economies (with markets, currency, financial instruments and so on). The
former is more primitive and the insurance in such economies entails agreements of
mutual aid. If one family's house is destroyed the neighbours are committed to help
rebuild. Granaries housed another primitive form of insurance to indemnify against
famines. Often informal or formally intrinsic to local religious customs, this type of
insurance has survived to the present day in some countries where modern money
economy with its financial instruments is not widespread.
Turning to insurance in the modern sense (i.e., insurance in a modern money
economy, in which insurance is part of the financial sphere), early methods of
transferring or distributing risk were practised by Chinese and Babylonian traders as
long ago as the 3rd and 2nd millenniaBC, respectively. Chinese merchants
travelling treacherous river rapids would redistribute their wares across many
vessels to limit the loss due to any single vessel's capsizing. The Babylonians
developed a system which was recorded in the famous Code of Hammurabi, c. 1750
BC, and practised by early Mediterranean sailing merchants. If a merchant received
a loan to fund his shipment, he would pay the lender an additional sum in exchange
for the lender's guarantee to cancel the loan should the shipment be stolen or lost at
Achaemenian monarchs of Ancient Persia were the first to insure their people and
made it official by registering the insuring process in governmental notary offices.
The insurance tradition was performed each year in Norouz (beginning of the Iranian
12. New Year); the heads of different ethnic groups as well as others willing to take part,
presented gifts to the monarch. The most important gift was presented during a
special ceremony. When a gift was worth more than 10,000 Derrik (Achaemenian
gold coin) the issue was registered in a special office. This was advantageous to
those who presented such special gifts. For others, the presents were fairly
assessed by the confidants of the court. Then the assessment was registered in
The purpose of registering was that whenever the person who presented the gift
registered by the court was in trouble, the monarch and the court would help him.
Jahez, a historian and writer, writes in one of his books on ancient Iran: "[W]henever
the owner of the present is in trouble or wants to construct a building, set up a feast,
have his children married, etc. the one in charge of this in the court would check the
registration. If the registered amount exceeded 10,000 Derrik, he or she would
receive an amount of twice as much." 
A thousand years later, the inhabitants of Rhodes invented the concept of
the general average. Merchants whose goods were being shipped together would
pay a proportionally divided premium which would be used to reimburse any
merchant whose goods were deliberately jettisoned in order to lighten the ship and
save it from total loss.
The Talmud deals with several aspects of insuring goods. Before insurance was
established in the late 17th century, "friendly societies" existed in England, in which
people donated amounts of money to a general sum that could be used for
Separate insurance contracts (i.e., insurance policies not bundled with loans or other
kinds of contracts) were invented in Genoa in the 14th century, as were insurance
pools backed by pledges of landed estates. These new insurance contracts allowed
insurance to be separated from investment, a separation of roles that first proved
useful in marine insurance. Insurance became far more sophisticated in postRenaissance Europe, and specialized varieties developed.
13. Lloyd's of London, pictured in 1991, is one of the world's leading and most famous insurance markets
Some forms of insurance had developed in London by the early decades of the 17th
century. For example, the will of the English colonist Robert Hayman mentions two
"policies of insurance" taken out with the diocesan Chancellor of London, Arthur
Duck. Of the value of £100 each, one relates to the safe arrival of Hayman's ship in
Guyana and the other is in regard to "one hundred pounds assured by the said
Doctor Arthur Ducke on my life". Hayman's will was signed and sealed on 17
November 1628 but not proved until 1633. Toward the end of the seventeenth
century, London's growing importance as a centre for trade increased demand for
marine insurance. In the late 1680s, Edward Lloyd opened a coffee house that
became a popular haunt of ship owners, merchants, and ships' captains, and
thereby a reliable source of the latest shipping news. It became the meeting place for
parties wishing to insure cargoes and ships, and those willing to underwrite such
ventures. Today, Lloyd's of London remains the leading market (note that it is an
insurance market rather than a company) for marine and other specialist types of
insurance, but it operates rather differently than the more familiar kinds of insurance.
Insurance as we know it today can be traced to the Great Fire of London, which in
1666 devoured more than 13,000 houses. The devastating effects of the fire
converted the development of insurance "from a matter of convenience into one of
14. urgency, a change of opinion reflected in Sir Christopher Wren's inclusion of a site
for 'the Insurance Office' in his new plan for London in 1667."  A number of
attempted fire insurance schemes came to nothing, but in 1681 Nicholas Barbon,
and eleven associates, established England's first fire insurance company, the
'Insurance Office for Houses', at the back of the Royal Exchange. Initially, 5,000
homes were insured by Barbon's Insurance Office. 
The first insurance company in the United States underwrote fire insurance and was
formed in Charles Town (modern-day Charleston), South Carolina, in
1732. Benjamin Franklin helped to popularize and make standard the practice of
insurance, particularly against fire in the form ofperpetual insurance. In 1752, he
founded the Philadelphia Contributionship for the Insurance of Houses from Loss by
Fire. Franklin's company was the first to make contributions toward fire prevention.
Not only did his company warn against certain fire hazards, it refused to insure
certain buildings where the risk of fire was too great, such as all wooden houses. In
the United States, regulation of the insurance industry is highly Balkanized, with
primary responsibility assumed by individual state insurance departments. Whereas
insurance markets have become centralized nationally and internationally, state
insurance commissioners operate individually, though at times in concert through
a national insurance commissioners' organization. In recent years, some have called
for a dual state and federal regulatory system (commonly referred to as the Optional
federal charter (OFC)) for insurance similar to that which oversees state banks and
Any risk that can be quantified can potentially be insured. Specific kinds of risk that
may give rise to claims are known as perils. An insurance policy will set out in detail
which perils are covered by the policy and which are not. Below are non-exhaustive
lists of the many different types of insurance that exist. A single policy may cover
risks in one or more of the categories set out below. For example, vehicle
insurance would typically cover both the property risk (theft or damage to the vehicle)
and the liability risk (legal claims arising from anaccident). A home insurance policy
in the U.S. typically includes coverage for damage to the home and the owner's
belongings, certain legal claims against the owner, and even a small amount of
coverage for medical expenses of guests who are injured on the owner's property.
15. Business insurance can take a number of different forms, such as the various kinds
of professional liability insurance, also called professional indemnity (PI), which are
discussed below under that name; and the business owner's policy (BOP), which
packages into one policy many of the kinds of coverage that a business owner
needs, in a way analogous to how homeowners' insurance packages the coverages
that a homeowner needs.
Main article: Vehicle insurance
A wrecked vehicle in Copenhagen
Auto insurance protects the policyholder against financial loss in the event of an
incident involving a vehicle they own, such as in a traffic collision.
Coverage typically includes:
1. Property coverage, for damage to or theft of the car;
2. Liability coverage, for the legal responsibility to others for bodily injury or
3. Medical coverage, for the cost of treating injuries, rehabilitation and
sometimes lost wages and funeral expenses.
Most countries, such as the United Kingdom, require drivers to buy some, but not all,
of these coverages. When a car is used as collateral for a loan the lender usually
requires specific coverage.
Main article: Home insurance
Home insurance provides coverage for damage or destruction of the policyholder's
home. In some geographical areas, the policy may exclude certain types of risks,
16. such as flood or earthquake, that require additional coverage. Maintenance-related
issues are typically the homeowner's responsibility. The policy may include
inventory, or this can be bought as a separate policy, especially for people who rent
housing. In some countries, insurers offer a package which may include liability and
legal responsibility for injuries and property damage caused by members of the
household, including pets.
Main articles: Health insurance and Dental insurance
Great Western Hospital, Swindon
Health insurance policies cover the cost of medical treatments. Dental insurance, like
medical insurance, protects policyholders for dental costs. In the U.S. and Canada,
dental insurance is often part of an employer's benefits package, along with health
sickness and unemployment insurance
Workers' compensation, or employers' liability insurance, is compulsory in some countries
Disability insurance policies provide financial support in the event of the
policyholder becoming unable to work because of disabling illness or injury. It
provides monthly support to help pay such obligations as mortgage
loans and credit cards. Short-term and long-term disability policies are available
to individuals, but considering the expense, long-term policies are generally
obtained only by those with at least six-figure incomes, such as doctors, lawyers,
17. etc. Short-term disability insurance covers a person for a period typically up to six
months, paying a stipend each month to cover medical bills and other
Long-term disability insurance covers an individual's expenses for the long
term, up until such time as they are considered permanently disabled and
thereafter. Insurance companies will often try to encourage the person back into
employment in preference to and before declaring them unable to work at all and
therefore totally disabled.
Disability overhead insurance allows business owners to cover the overhead
expenses of their business while they are unable to work.
Total permanent disability insurance provides benefits when a person is
permanently disabled and can no longer work in their profession, often taken as
an adjunct to life insurance.
Workers' compensation insurance replaces all or part of a
worker's wages lost and accompanying medical expenses incurred because of a
Main article: Casualty insurance
Casualty insurance insures against accidents, not necessarily tied to any specific
property. It is a broad spectrum of insurance that a number of other types of
insurance could be classified, such as auto, workers compensation, and some
Crime insurance is a form of casualty insurance that covers the policyholder
against losses arising from the criminal acts of third parties. For example, a
company can obtain crime insurance to cover losses arising
from theft or embezzlement.
Political risk insurance is a form of casualty insurance that can be taken out
by businesses with operations in countries in which there is a risk
that revolution or other political conditions could result in a loss.
Main article: Life insurance
18. Life insurance provides a monetary benefit to a descendant's family or other
designated beneficiary, and may specifically provide for income to an insured
person's family, burial, funeral and other final expenses. Life insurance policies often
allow the option of having the proceeds paid to the beneficiary either in a lump sum
cash payment or an annuity.
Annuities provide a stream of payments and are generally classified as insurance
because they are issued by insurance companies, are regulated as insurance, and
require the same kinds of actuarial and investment management expertise that life
insurance requires. Annuities and pensions that pay a benefit for life are sometimes
regarded as insurance against the possibility that a retiree will outlive his or her
financial resources. In that sense, they are the complement of life insurance and,
from an underwriting perspective, are the mirror image of life insurance.
Certain life insurance contracts accumulate cash values, which may be taken by the
insured if the policy is surrendered or which may be borrowed against. Some
policies, such as annuities and endowment policies, are financial instruments to
accumulate or liquidate wealthwhen it is needed.
In many countries, such as the U.S. and the UK, the tax law provides that the
interest on this cash value is not taxable under certain circumstances. This leads to
widespread use of life insurance as a tax-efficient method of saving as well as
protection in the event of early death.
In the U.S., the tax on interest income on life insurance policies and annuities is
generally deferred. However, in some cases the benefit derived from tax deferral
may be offset by a low return. This depends upon the insuring company, the type of
policy and other variables (mortality, market return, etc.). Moreover, other income tax
saving vehicles (e.g., IRAs, 401(k) plans, Roth IRAs) may be better alternatives for
Burial insurance is a very old type of life insurance which is paid out upon death to
cover final expenses, such as the cost of a funeral.
TheGreeks and Romans introduced burial insurance circa 600 AD when they
organized guilds called "benevolent societies" which cared for the surviving families
and paid funeral expenses of members upon death. Guilds in the Middle
Ages served a similar purpose, as did friendly societies during Victorian times.
Main article: Property insurance
This tornado damage to an Illinois home would be considered an "Act of God" for insurance purposes
Property insurance provides protection against risks to property, such
as fire, theft or weatherdamage. This may include specialized forms of insurance
such as fire insurance, flood insurance,earthquake insurance, home insurance,
inland marine insurance or boiler insurance. The termproperty insurance may, like
casualty insurance, be used as a broad category of various subtypes of insurance,
some of which are listed below:
US Airways Flight 1549 was written offafter ditching into the Hudson River
Aviation insurance protects aircraft hulls and spares, and associated liability
risks, such as passenger and third-party liability. Airports may also appear under
this subcategory, including air traffic control and refuelling operations for
international airports through to smaller domestic exposures.
Boiler insurance (also known as boiler and machinery insurance, or
equipment breakdown insurance) insures against accidental physical damage to
boilers, equipment or machinery.
Builder's risk insurance insures against the risk of physical loss or damage to
property during construction. Builder's risk insurance is typically written on an "all
20. risk" basis covering damage arising from any cause (including the negligence of
the insured) not otherwise expressly excluded. Builder's risk insurance is
coverage that protects a person's or organization's insurable interest in materials,
fixtures and/or equipment being used in the construction or renovation of a
building or structure should those items sustain physical loss or damage from an
Crop insurance may be purchased by farmers to reduce or manage various
risks associated with growing crops. Such risks include crop loss or damage
caused by weather, hail, drought, frost damage, insects, or disease. 
Earthquake insurance is a form of property insurance that pays the
policyholder in the event of an earthquake that causes damage to the property.
Most ordinary home insurance policies do not cover earthquake damage.
Earthquake insurance policies generally feature a highdeductible. Rates depend
on location and hence the likelihood of an earthquake, as well as
the construction of the home.
Fidelity bond is a form of casualty insurance that covers policyholders for
losses incurred as a result of fraudulent acts by specified individuals. It usually
insures a business for losses caused by the dishonest acts of its employees.
Hurricane Katrina caused over $80 billion of storm and flood damage
Flood insurance protects against property loss due to flooding. Many insurers
in the U.S. do not provide flood insurance in some parts of the country. In
response to this, the federal government created the National Flood Insurance
Program which serves as the insurer of last resort.
Home insurance, also commonly called hazard insurance, or homeowners
insurance (often abbreviated in the real estate industry as HOI), is the type of
property insurance that covers private homes, as outlined above.
Landlord insurance covers residential and commercial properties which are
rented to others. Most homeowners' insurance covers only owner-occupied
Fire aboard MV Hyundai Fortune
Marine insurance and marine cargo insurance cover the loss or damage of
vessels at sea or on inland waterways, and of cargo in transit, regardless of the
method of transit. When the owner of the cargo and the carrier are separate
corporations, marine cargo insurance typically compensates the owner of cargo
for losses sustained from fire, shipwreck, etc., but excludes losses that can be
recovered from the carrier or the carrier's insurance. Many marine insurance
underwriters will include "time element" coverage in such policies, which extends
the indemnity to cover loss of profit and other business expenses attributable to
the delay caused by a covered loss.
Supplemental natural disaster insurance covers specified expenses after a
natural disaster renders the policyholder's home uninhabitable. Periodic
payments are made directly to the insured until the home is rebuilt or a specified
time period has elapsed.
Surety bond insurance is a three-party insurance guaranteeing the
performance of the principal.
22. The demand for terrorism insurance surged after 9/11
Terrorism insurance provides protection against any loss or damage caused
by terroristactivities. In the U.S. in the wake of 9/11, the Terrorism Risk Insurance
Act 2002 (TRIA) set up a federal Program providing a transparent system of
shared public and private compensation for insured losses resulting from acts of
terrorism. The program was extended until the end of 2014 by the Terrorism Risk
Insurance Program Reauthorization Act 2007 (TRIPRA).
Volcano insurance is a specialized insurance protecting against damage
arising specifically from volcanic eruptions.
Windstorm insurance is an insurance covering the damage that can be
caused by wind events such as hurricanes.
Main article: Liability insurance
Liability insurance is a very broad superset that covers legal claims against the
insured. Many types of insurance include an aspect of liability coverage. For
example, a homeowner's insurance policy will normally include liability coverage
which protects the insured in the event of a claim brought by someone who slips and
falls on the property; automobile insurance also includes an aspect of liability
insurance that indemnifies against the harm that a crashing car can cause to others'
lives, health, or property. The protection offered by a liability insurance policy is
twofold: a legal defense in the event of a lawsuit commenced against the
policyholder and indemnification (payment on behalf of the insured) with respect to a
settlement or court verdict. Liability policies typically cover only the negligence of the
insured, and will not apply to results of wilful or intentional acts by the insured.
23. The subprime mortgage crisis was the source of many liability insurance losses
Public liability insurance covers a business or organization against claims
should its operations injure a member of the public or damage their property in
Directors and officers liability insurance (D&O) protects an organization
(usually a corporation) from costs associated with litigation resulting from errors
made by directors and officers for which they are liable.
Environmental liability insurance protects the insured from bodily injury,
property damage and cleanup costs as a result of the dispersal, release or
escape of pollutants.
Errors and omissions insurance is business liability insurance for
professionals such as insurance agents, real estate agents and brokers,
architects, third-party administrators (TPAs) and other business professionals.
Prize indemnity insurance protects the insured from giving away a large prize
at a specific event. Examples would include offering prizes to contestants who
can make a half-court shot at a basketball game, or a hole-in-one at
a golf tournament.
Professional liability insurance, also called professional indemnity
insurance (PI), protects insured professionals such as architectural corporations
and medical practitioners against potential negligence claims made by their
patients/clients. Professional liability insurance may take on different names
depending on the profession. For example, professional liability insurance in
reference to the medical profession may be called medical
Main article: Credit insurance
24. Credit insurance repays some or all of a loan when certain circumstances arise to
the borrower such as unemployment, disability, or death.
Mortgage insurance insures the lender against default by the borrower.
Mortgage insurance is a form of credit insurance, although the name "credit
insurance" more often is used to refer to policies that cover other kinds of debt.
Many credit cards offer payment protection plans which are a form of credit
Accounts Receivable insurance also know as Credit or Trade Credit
insurance is business insurance over the accounts receivables of the insured.
The policy pays the policy holder for covered accounts receivable if the debtor
defaults on payment.
All-risk insurance is an insurance that covers a wide-range of incidents and
perils, except those noted in the policy. All-risk insurance is different from perilspecific insurance that cover losses from only those perils listed in the policy.
In car insurance, all-risk policy includes also the damages caused by the own
High-value horses may be insured under a bloodstock policy
Bloodstock insurance covers individual horses or a number of horses under
common ownership. Coverage is typically for mortality as a result of accident,
illness or disease but may extend to include infertility, in-transit loss, veterinary
fees, and prospective foal.
Business interruption insurance covers the loss of income, and the expenses
incurred, after a covered peril interrupts normal business operations.
Collateral protection insurance (CPI) insures property (primarily vehicles) held
as collateral for loans made by lending institutions.
Defense Base Act (DBA) insurance provides coverage for civilian workers
hired by the government to perform contracts outside the U.S. and Canada. DBA
is required for all U.S. citizens, U.S. residents, U.S. Green Card holders, and all
employees or subcontractors hired on overseas government contracts.
Depending on the country, foreign nationals must also be covered under DBA.
This coverage typically includes expenses related to medical treatment and loss
of wages, as well as disability and death benefits.
Expatriate insurance provides individuals and organizations operating outside
of their home country with protection for automobiles, property, health, liability
and business pursuits.
Kidnap and ransom insurance is designed to protect individuals and
corporations operating in high-risk areas around the world against the perils of
kidnap, extortion, wrongful detention and hijacking.
Legal expenses insurance covers policyholders for the potential costs of legal
action against an institution or an individual. When something happens which
triggers the need for legal action, it is known as "the event". There are two main
types of legal expenses insurance: before the event insurance and after the
Locked funds insurance is a little-known hybrid insurance policy jointly issued
by governments and banks. It is used to protect public funds from tamper by
unauthorized parties. In special cases, a government may authorize its use in
protecting semi-private funds which are liable to tamper. The terms of this type of
insurance are usually very strict. Therefore it is used only in extreme cases
where maximum security of funds is required.
Livestock insurance is a specialist policy provided to, for example,
commercial or hobby farms, aquariums, fish farms or any other animal holding.
Cover is available for mortality or economic slaughter as a result of accident,
illness or disease but can extend to include destruction by government order.
Media liability insurance is designed to cover professionals that engage in film
and television production and print, against risks such asdefamation.
Nuclear incident insurance covers damages resulting from an incident
involving radioactive materials and is generally arranged at the national level.
26. (See the nuclear exclusion clause and for the U.S. the Price-Anderson Nuclear
Industries Indemnity Act.)
Pet insurance insures pets against accidents and illnesses; some companies
cover routine/wellness care and burial, as well.
Pollution insurance usually takes the form of first-party coverage for
contamination of insured property either by external or on-site sources.
Coverage is also afforded for liability to third parties arising from contamination of
air, water, or land due to the sudden and accidental release of hazardous
materials from the insured site. The policy usually covers the costs of cleanup
and may include coverage for releases from underground storage tanks.
Intentional acts are specifically excluded.
Purchase insurance is aimed at providing protection on the products people
purchase. Purchase insurance can cover individual purchase
protection, warranties, guarantees, care plans and even mobile phone insurance.
Such insurance is normally very limited in the scope of problems that are
covered by the policy.
Title insurance provides a guarantee that title to real property is vested in the
purchaser and/or mortgagee, free and clear of liens or encumbrances. It is
usually issued in conjunction with a search of the public records performed at the
time of a real estate transaction.
Travel insurance is an insurance cover taken by those who travel abroad,
which covers certain losses such as medical expenses, loss of personal
belongings, travel delay, and personal liabilities.
Fraternal insurance is provided on a cooperative basis by fraternal benefit
societies or other social organizations.
No-fault insurance is a type of insurance policy (typically automobile
insurance) where insureds are indemnified by their own insurer regardless of
fault in the incident.
Protected self-insurance is an alternative risk financing mechanism in which
an organization retains the mathematically calculated cost of risk within the
organization and transfers the catastrophic risk with specific and aggregate limits
to an insurer so the maximum total cost of the program is known. A properly
designed and underwritten Protected Self-Insurance Program reduces and
27. stabilizes the cost of insurance and provides valuable risk management
Retrospectively rated insurance is a method of establishing a premium on
large commercial accounts. The final premium is based on the insured's actual
loss experience during the policy term, sometimes subject to a minimum and
maximum premium, with the final premium determined by a formula. Under this
plan, the current year's premium is based partially (or wholly) on the current
year's losses, although the premium adjustments may take months or years
beyond the current year's expiration date. The rating formula is guaranteed in the
insurance contract. Formula: retrospective premium = converted loss + basic
premium × tax multiplier. Numerous variations of this formula have been
developed and are in use.
Formal self insurance is the deliberate decision to pay for otherwise insurable
losses out of one's own money. This can be done on a formal basis by
establishing a separate fund into which funds are deposited on a periodic basis,
or by simply forgoing the purchase of available insurance and paying out-ofpocket. Self insurance is usually used to pay for high-frequency, low-severity
losses. Such losses, if covered by conventional insurance, mean having to pay a
premium that includes loadings for the company's general expenses, cost of
putting the policy on the books, acquisition expenses, premium taxes, and
contingencies. While this is true for all insurance, for small, frequent losses the
transaction costs may exceed the benefit of volatility reduction that insurance
Reinsurance is a type of insurance purchased by insurance companies or
self-insured employers to protect against unexpected losses.Financial
reinsurance is a form of reinsurance that is primarily used for capital
management rather than to transfer insurance risk.
Social insurance can be many things to many people in many countries. But a
summary of its essence is that it is a collection of insurance coverages (including
components of life insurance, disability income insurance, unemployment
insurance, health insurance, and others), plus retirement savings, that requires
participation by all citizens. By forcing everyone in society to be a policyholder
and pay premiums, it ensures that everyone can become a claimant when or if
he/she needs to. Along the way this inevitably becomes related to other concepts
such as the justice system and the welfare state. This is a large, complicated
28. topic that engenders tremendous debate, which can be further studied in the
following articles (and others):
Social safety net
Social Security debate (United States)
Social Security (United States)
Social welfare provision
Stop-loss insurance provides protection against catastrophic or unpredictable
losses. It is purchased by organizations who do not want to assume 100% of the
liability for losses arising from the plans. Under a stop-loss policy, the insurance
company becomes liable for losses that exceed certain limits called deductibles.
Some communities prefer to create virtual insurance amongst themselves by other
means than contractual risk transfer, which assigns explicit numerical values to risk.
A number of religious groups, including the Amish and some Muslim groups, depend
on support provided by their communities when disasters strike. The risk presented
by any given person is assumed collectively by the community who all bear the cost
of rebuilding lost property and supporting people whose needs are suddenly greater
after a loss of some kind. In supportive communities where others can be trusted to
follow community leaders, this tacit form of insurance can work. In this manner the
community can even out the extreme differences in insurability that exist among its
members. Some further justification is also provided by invoking the moral hazardof
explicit insurance contracts.
In the United Kingdom, The Crown (which, for practical purposes, meant the civil
service) did not insure property such as government buildings. If a government
building was damaged, the cost of repair would be met from public funds because, in
the long run, this was cheaper than paying insurance premiums. Since many UK
government buildings have been sold to property companies, and rented back, this
arrangement is now less common and may have disappeared altogether.
Insurance companies may be classified into two groups:
Life insurance companies, which sell life insurance, annuities and pensions
Non-life, general, or property/casualty insurance companies, which sell other
types of insurance.
General insurance companies can be further divided into these sub categories.
In most countries, life and non-life insurers are subject to different regulatory regimes
and different tax and accounting rules. The main reason for the distinction between
the two types of company is that life, annuity, and pension business is very long-term
in nature — coverage for life assurance or a pension can cover risks over
many decades. By contrast, non-life insurance cover usually covers a shorter period,
such as one year.
In the United States, standard line insurance companies are "mainstream" insurers.
These are the companies that typically insure autos, homes or businesses. They use
pattern or "cookie-cutter" policies without variation from one person to the next. They
usually have lower premiums than excess lines and can sell directly to individuals.
They are regulated by state laws that can restrict the amount they can charge for
Excess line insurance companies (also known as Excess and Surplus) typically
insure risks not covered by the standard lines market. They are broadly referred as
being all insurance placed with non-admitted insurers. Non-admitted insurers are not
licensed in the states where the risks are located. These companies have more
flexibility and can react faster than standard insurance companies because they are
not required to file rates and forms as the "admitted" carriers do. However, they still
have substantial regulatory requirements placed upon them. State laws generally
require insurance placed with surplus line agents and brokers not to be available
through standard licensed insurers.
Insurance companies are generally classified as either mutual or stock companies.
Mutual companies are owned by the policyholders, while stockholders (who may or
may not own policies) own stock insurance companies. Demutualization of mutual
insurers to form stock companies, as well as the formation of a hybrid known as a
30. mutual holding company, became common in some countries, such as the United
States, in the late 20th century.
Other possible forms for an insurance company include reciprocals, in which
policyholders reciprocate in sharing risks, and Lloyd's organizations.
Insurance companies are rated by various agencies such as A. M. Best. The ratings
include the company's financial strength, which measures its ability to pay claims. It
also rates financial instruments issued by the insurance company, such as bonds,
notes, and securitization products.
Reinsurance companies are insurance companies that sell policies to other
insurance companies, allowing them to reduce their risks and protect themselves
from very large losses. The reinsurance market is dominated by a few very large
companies, with huge reserves. A reinsurer may also be a direct writer of insurance
risks as well.
Captive insurance companies may be defined as limited-purpose insurance
companies established with the specific objective of financing risks emanating from
their parent group or groups. This definition can sometimes be extended to include
some of the risks of the parent company's customers. In short, it is an in-house selfinsurance vehicle. Captives may take the form of a "pure" entity (which is a 100%
subsidiary of the self-insured parent company); of a "mutual" captive (which insures
the collective risks of members of an industry); and of an "association" captive
(which self-insures individual risks of the members of a professional, commercial or
industrial association). Captives represent commercial, economic and tax
advantages to their sponsors because of the reductions in costs they help create and
for the ease of insurance risk management and the flexibility for cash flows they
generate. Additionally, they may provide coverage of risks which is neither available
nor offered in the traditional insurance market at reasonable prices.
The types of risk that a captive can underwrite for their parents include property
damage, public and product liability, professional indemnity, employee benefits,
employers' liability, motor and medical aid expenses. The captive's exposure to such
risks may be limited by the use of reinsurance.
Captives are becoming an increasingly important component of the risk management
and risk financing strategy of their parent. This can be understood against the
heavy and increasing premium costs in almost every line of coverage;
difficulties in insuring certain types of fortuitous risk;
differential coverage standards in various parts of the world;
rating structures which reflect market trends rather than individual loss
insufficient credit for deductibles and/or loss control efforts.
There are also companies known as 'insurance consultants'. Like a mortgage broker,
these companies are paid a fee by the customer to shop around for the best
insurance policy amongst many companies. Similar to an insurance consultant, an
'insurance broker' also shops around for the best insurance policy amongst many
companies. However, with insurance brokers, the fee is usually paid in the form of
commission from the insurer that is selected rather than directly from the client.
Neither insurance consultants nor insurance brokers are insurance companies and
no risks are transferred to them in insurance transactions. Third party administrators
are companies that perform underwriting and sometimes claims handling services for
insurance companies. These companies often have special expertise that the
insurance companies do not have.
The financial stability and strength of an insurance company should be a major
consideration when buying an insurance contract. An insurance premium paid
currently provides coverage for losses that might arise many years in the future. For
that reason, the viability of the insurance carrier is very important. In recent years, a
number of insurance companies have become insolvent, leaving their policyholders
with no coverage (or coverage only from a government-backed insurance pool or
other arrangement with less attractive payouts for losses). A number of independent
rating agencies provide information and rate the financial viability of insurance
Life insurance premiums written in 2005
32. Non-life insurance premiums written in 2005
Global insurance premiums grew by 3.4% in 2008 to reach $4.3 trillion. For the first
time in the past three decades, premium income declined in inflation-adjusted terms,
with non-life premiums falling by 0.8% and life premiums falling by 3.5%. The
insurance industry is exposed to the global economic downturn on the assets side by
the decline in returns on investments and on the liabilities side by a rise in claims. So
far the extent of losses on both sides has been limited although investment returns
fell sharply following the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers and bailout ofAIG in
September 2008. The financial crisis has shown that the insurance sector is
sufficiently capitalised. The vast majority of insurance companies had enough capital
to absorb losses and only a small number turned to government for support.
Advanced economies account for the bulk of global insurance. With premium income
of $1,753bn, Europe was the most important region in 2008, followed by North
America $1,346bn and Asia $933bn. The top four countries generated more than a
half of premiums. The US and Japan alone accounted for 40% of world insurance,
much higher than their 7% share of the global population. Emerging markets
accounted for over 85% of the world’s population but generated only around 10% of
premiums. Their markets are however growing at a quicker pace. 
Main article: Insurance law
In the United States, insurance is regulated by the states under the McCarranFerguson Act, with "periodic proposals for federal intervention", and a nonprofit
coalition of state insurance agencies called the National Association of Insurance
Commissioners works to harmonize the country's different laws and regulations.
The National Conference of Insurance Legislators (NCOIL) also works to
harmonize the different state laws. 
In the European Union, the Third Non-Life Directive and the Third Life Directive, both
passed in 1992 and effective 1994, created a single insurance market in Europe and
allowed insurance companies to offer insurance anywhere in the EU (subject to
33. permission from authority in the head office) and allowed insurance consumers to
purchase insurance from any insurer in the EU. 
The insurance industry in China was nationalized in 1949 and thereafter offered by
only a single state-owned company, the People's Insurance Company of China,
which was eventually suspended as demand declined in a communist environment.
In 1978, market reforms led to an increase in the market and by 1995 a
comprehensive Insurance Law of the People's Republic of China  was passed,
followed in 1998 by the formation of China Insurance Regulatory
Commission (CIRC), which has broad regulatory authority over the insurance market
In India, IRDA is insurance regulatory authority. As per the section 4 of IRDA Act'
1999, Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority (IRDA), which was
constituted by an act of parliament. National Insurance Academy, Pune is apex
insurance capacity builder institute promoted with support from Ministry of Finance
and by LIC, Life & General Insurance compnies.
insulates too much
By creating a "security blanket" for its insureds, an insurance company may
inadvertently find that its insureds may not be as risk-averse as they might otherwise
be (since, by definition, the insured has transferred the risk to the insurer), a concept
known as moral hazard. To reduce their own financial exposure, insurance
companies have contractual clauses that mitigate their obligation to provide
coverage if the insured engages in behavior that grossly magnifies their risk of loss
or liability.
For example, life insurance companies may require higher premiums or deny
coverage altogether to people who work in hazardous occupations or engage in
dangerous sports. Liability insurance providers do not provide coverage for liability
arising from intentional tortscommitted by or at the direction of the insured. Even if a
provider were so irrational as to want to provide such coverage, it is against the
public policy of most countries to allow such insurance to exist, and thus it is usually
of insurance policy contracts
34. 9/11 was a major insurance loss, but there were disputes over the World Trade Center's insurance policy
Insurance policies can be complex and some policyholders may not understand all
the fees and coverages included in a policy. As a result, people may buy policies on
unfavorable terms. In response to these issues, many countries have enacted
detailed statutory and regulatory regimes governing every aspect of the insurance
business, including minimum standards for policies and the ways in which they may
be advertised and sold.
For example, most insurance policies in the English language today have been
carefully drafted inplain English; the industry learned the hard way that many courts
will not enforce policies against insureds when the judges themselves cannot
understand what the policies are saying. Typically, courts construe ambiguities in
insurance policies against the insurance company and in favor of coverage under the
Many institutional insurance purchasers buy insurance through an insurance broker.
While on the surface it appears the broker represents the buyer (not the insurance
company), and typically counsels the buyer on appropriate coverage and policy
limitations, it should be noted that in the vast majority of cases a broker's
compensation comes in the form of a commission as a percentage of the insurance
premium, creating a conflict of interest in that the broker's financial interest is tilted
towards encouraging an insured to purchase more insurance than might be
necessary at a higher price. A broker generally holds contracts with many insurers,
thereby allowing the broker to "shop" the market for the best rates and coverage
Insurance may also be purchased through an agent. Unlike a broker, who represents
the policyholder, an agent represents the insurance company from whom the
35. policyholder buys. Just as there is a potential conflict of interest with a broker, an
agent has a different type of conflict. Because agents work directly for the insurance
company, if there is a claim the agent may advise the client to the benefit of the
insurance company. It should also be noted that agents generally can not offer as
broad a range of selection compared to an insurance broker.
An independent insurance consultant advises insureds on a fee-for-service retainer,
similar to an attorney, and thus offers completely independent advice, free of the
financial conflict of interest of brokers and/or agents. However, such a consultant
must still work through brokers and/or agents in order to secure coverage for their
Economists and consumer advocates generally consider insurance to be worthwhile
for low-probability, catastrophic losses, but not for high-probability, small losses.
Because of this, consumers are advised to select high deductibles and to not insure
losses which would not cause a disruption in their life. However, consumers have
shown a tendency to prefer low deductibles and to prefer to insure relatively highprobability, small losses over low-probability, perhaps due to not understanding or
ignoring the low-probability risk. This is associated with reduced purchasing of
insurance against low-probability losses, and may result in increased inefficiencies
from moral hazard.
Redlining is the practice of denying insurance coverage in specific geographic areas,
supposedly because of a high likelihood of loss, while the alleged motivation is
unlawful discrimination. Racial profiling or redlining has a long history in the property
insurance industry in the United States. From a review of industry underwriting and
marketing materials, court documents, and research by government agencies,
industry and community groups, and academics, it is clear that race has long
affected and continues to affect the policies and practices of the insurance industry.
In July, 2007, The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) released a report presenting
the results of a study concerning credit-based insurance scores in automobile
insurance. The study found that these scores are effective predictors of risk. It also
showed that African-Americans and Hispanics are substantially overrepresented in
the lowest credit scores, and substantially underrepresented in the highest, while
36. Caucasians and Asians are more evenly spread across the scores. The credit scores
were also found to predict risk within each of the ethnic groups, leading the FTC to
conclude that the scoring models are not solely proxies for redlining. The FTC
indicated little data was available to evaluate benefit of insurance scores to
consumers. The report was disputed by representatives of the Consumer
Federation of America, the National Fair Housing Alliance, the National Consumer
Law Center, and the Center for Economic Justice, for relying on data provided by the
All states have provisions in their rate regulation laws or in their fair trade practice
acts that prohibit unfair discrimination, often called redlining, in setting rates and
making insurance available.
In determining premiums and premium rate structures, insurers consider quantifiable
factors, including location, credit scores, gender,occupation, marital status,
and education level. However, the use of such factors is often considered to be
unfair or unlawfully discriminatory, and the reaction against this practice has in some
instances led to political disputes about the ways in which insurers determine
premiums and regulatory intervention to limit the factors used.
An insurance underwriter's job is to evaluate a given risk as to the likelihood that a
loss will occur. Any factor that causes a greater likelihood of loss should theoretically
be charged a higher rate. This basic principle of insurance must be followed if
insurance companies are to remain solvent. Thus, "discrimination" against
(i.e., negative differential treatment of) potential insureds in the risk evaluation and
premium-setting process is a necessary by-product of the fundamentals of insurance
underwriting. For instance, insurers charge older people significantly higher
premiums than they charge younger people for term life insurance. Older people are
thus treated differently than younger people (i.e., a distinction is made, discrimination
occurs). The rationale for the differential treatment goes to the heart of the risk a life
insurer takes: Old people are likely to die sooner than young people, so the risk of
loss (the insured's death) is greater in any given period of time and therefore the risk
premium must be higher to cover the greater risk. However, treating insureds
differently when there is no actuarially sound reason for doing so is unlawful
What is often missing from the debate is that prohibiting the use of legitimate,
actuarially sound factors means that an insufficient amount is being charged for a
37. given risk, and there is thus a deficit in the system.  The failure to address
the deficit may mean insolvency and hardship for all of a company's insureds. [citation
The options for addressing the deficit seem to be the following: Charge the
deficit to the other policyholders or charge it to the government (i.e., externalize
outside of the company to society at large). 
Further information: Insurance patent
New assurance products can now be protected from copying with a business method
patent in the United States.
A recent example of a new insurance product that is patented is Usage Based auto
insurance. Early versions were independently invented and patented by a major U.S.
auto insurance company, Progressive Auto Insurance (U.S. Patent 5,797,134) and a
Spanish independent inventor, Salvador Minguijon Perez (EP 0700009).
Many independent inventors are in favor of patenting new insurance products since it
gives them protection from big companies when they bring their new insurance
products to market. Independent inventors account for 70% of the new U.S. patent
applications in this area.
Many insurance executives are opposed to patenting insurance products because it
creates a new risk for them. The Hartford insurance company, for example, recently
had to pay $80 million to an independent inventor, Bancorp Services, in order to
settle a patent infringement and theft of trade secret lawsuit for a type of corporate
owned life insurance product invented and patented by Bancorp.
There are currently about 150 new patent applications on insurance inventions filed
per year in the United States. The rate at which patents have issued has steadily
risen from 15 in 2002 to 44 in 2006.
Inventors can now have their insurance U.S. patent applications reviewed by the
public in the Peer to Patent program. The first insurance patent application to be
posted was US2009005522 “Risk assessment company”. It was posted on March 6,
2009. This patent application describes a method for increasing the ease of
changing insurance companies.
insurance industry and rent-seeking
38. Certain insurance products and practices have been described as rent-seeking by
critics. That is, some insurance products or practices are useful primarily
because of legal benefits, such as reducing taxes, as opposed to providing
protection against risks of adverse events. Under United States tax law, for example,
most owners of variable annuities and variable life insurance can invest their
premium payments in the stock market and defer or eliminate paying any taxes on
their investments until withdrawals are made. Sometimes this tax deferral is the only
reason people use these products. Another example is the legal
infrastructure which allows life insurance to be held in an irrevocable trust which is
used to pay an estate tax while the proceeds themselves are immune from the
Muslim scholars have varying opinions about insurance. Insurance policies that earn
interest are generally considered to be a form of riba(usury) and some consider
even policies that do not earn interest to be a form of gharar (speculation). Some
argue that gharar is not present due to the actuarial science behind the underwriting.
Jewish rabbinical scholars also have expressed reservations regarding insurance as
an avoidance of God's will but most find it acceptable in moderation. 
Some Christians believe insurance represents a lack of faith  and there is a long
history of resistance to commercial insurance inAnabaptist communities
(Mennonites, Amish, Hutterites, Brethren in Christ) but many participate in
community-based self-insurance programs that spread risk within their communities.