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Psych 41 powerpoint chap 6
Psych 41 powerpoint chap 6
Psych 41 powerpoint chap 6
Psych 41 powerpoint chap 6
Psych 41 powerpoint chap 6
Psych 41 powerpoint chap 6
Psych 41 powerpoint chap 6
Psych 41 powerpoint chap 6
Psych 41 powerpoint chap 6
Psych 41 powerpoint chap 6
Psych 41 powerpoint chap 6
Psych 41 powerpoint chap 6
Psych 41 powerpoint chap 6
Psych 41 powerpoint chap 6
Psych 41 powerpoint chap 6
Psych 41 powerpoint chap 6
Psych 41 powerpoint chap 6
Psych 41 powerpoint chap 6
Psych 41 powerpoint chap 6
Psych 41 powerpoint chap 6
Psych 41 powerpoint chap 6
Psych 41 powerpoint chap 6
Psych 41 powerpoint chap 6
Psych 41 powerpoint chap 6
Psych 41 powerpoint chap 6
Psych 41 powerpoint chap 6
Psych 41 powerpoint chap 6
Psych 41 powerpoint chap 6
Psych 41 powerpoint chap 6
Psych 41 powerpoint chap 6
Psych 41 powerpoint chap 6
Psych 41 powerpoint chap 6
Psych 41 powerpoint chap 6
Psych 41 powerpoint chap 6
Psych 41 powerpoint chap 6
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Psych 41 powerpoint chap 6

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Powerpoint for Chapter 6

Powerpoint for Chapter 6

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  • 1. Prepared by Madeleine Lacefield Tattoon, M.A.<br />1<br />Part II<br />Chapter Six<br />The First Two Years: Cognitive Development<br />Sensorimotor Intelligence<br />Information Processing<br />Language: What Develops in the First Two Years?<br />
  • 2. 2<br />The First Two Years: Cognitive Development<br />Infant cognition<br />cognition = “thinking”<br />“thinking” in a very broad sense includes…<br />language<br />learning <br />memory <br />intelligence<br />
  • 3. 3<br />The First Two Years: Cognitive Development<br />Infants organize by the end of the first year…<br />sensations and perceptions<br />sequence and direction<br />the familiar and the strange<br />objects and people<br />events and experiences<br />permanence and transiency<br />cause and effect<br />
  • 4. 4<br />Sensorimotor Intelligence<br />Remember…<br />Piaget’s first stage (chapter 2)<br />infants learn through senses and motor actions<br />
  • 5. 5<br />
  • 6. 6<br />Piaget and Research Methods<br />Piaget’s sensorimotor intelligence actually occurs earlier for most infants than Piaget predicted.<br />Habituation, the process of getting used to (i.e., bored with) a stimulus after repeated exposure. An infant can show this by looking away.<br />If a new object appears and the infant reacts (change in heart rate, sucking), it is assumed they recognize the object as something different.<br />Summing up…<br />In six stages of sensorimotor, Piaget discovered, described, and then celebrated active infant learning.<br />
  • 7. 7<br />Information Processing Theory<br />“a perspective that compares human thinking processes, by analogy, to computer analysis of data, including sensory input, connections, stored memories, and output”<br />
  • 8. 8<br />Information Processing Theory<br />With the aid of technology this theory has found some impressive intellectual capacities in the infant<br />Intellectual capacities, concepts, and categories seem to develop in the infant brain by 6 months<br />Perspective helps tie together various aspects of infant cognition: affordance and memory. <br />
  • 9. 9<br />Information Processing Theory<br />affordance<br />“…an opportunity for perception and interaction that is offered by a person, place, or object in the environment”<br />afford = offer<br />perceptionis the mental processing of information that arrives at the brain from the sensory organs<br />
  • 10. 10<br />Information Processing Theory<br />affordance<br />One puzzle of development is that two people can have discrepant perceptions of the same situation, not only interpreting it differently but actually observing it differently<br />depending on:<br />past experiences<br />current developmental level<br />sensory awareness of opportunities<br />immediate needs and motivation<br />
  • 11. 11<br />Information Processing Theory<br />Research on Early Affordance<br />Information processing improves over the first year as infants become quicker to remember<br />Experiences affect which affordances are perceived… <br />
  • 12. 12<br />Information Processing Theory<br />Sudden Drops<br />…the visual cliff, an apparatus to measure depth perception<br />infants become interested in “crossing” the cliff about 8 months (having had experience falling)<br />the cliff “affords” danger for older infants<br />
  • 13. 13<br />Information Processing Theory<br />Movement and People <br />infants have:<br />dynamic perception<br />primed to focus on movement and change<br />a people preference<br />a universal principle of infant perception, consisting of an innate attraction to other humans, which is evident in visual, auditory, tactile, and other preferences<br />
  • 14. 14<br />Information Processing Theory<br />Memory<br />Developmentalists now agree that even very young infants can remember under the following circumstances:<br />experimental conditions are similar to “real life”<br />motivation is high<br />special measures are taken to aid memory retrieval <br />
  • 15. 15<br />Information Processing Theory<br />Reminders and Repetition<br />reminder sessions<br />a perceptual experience that is intended to help a person recollect an idea, a thing, or an experience, without testing whether the person remembers it at the moment<br />
  • 16. 16<br />Information Processing Theory<br />A Little Older, a Little More Memory<br />after about 6 months infants can retain information for longer periods of time… with less training or reminding<br />by the middle of the 2nd year toddlers can remember and reenact more complex sequences<br />
  • 17. 17<br />Information Processing Theory<br />Aspects of Memory<br />Memory is not one “thing”<br />brain-imaging techniques reveal many distinct brain regions devoted to particular aspects of memory<br />implicit memory is memory for routines and memories that remain hidden until particular stimulus bring them to mind<br />explicit memory is memory that can be recalled on demand<br />
  • 18. 18<br />Language: What Develops in the First Two Years?<br />“The acquisition of language,… its idiomatic phases, grammar rules, and exceptions, is the most impressive intellectual achievement of the young child.”<br />
  • 19. 19<br />Language: What Develops in the First Two Years?<br />The Universal Sequence<br />Around the world children follow the same sequence of early language development<br />
  • 20. 20<br />
  • 21. 21<br />Language: What Develops in the First Two Years?<br />Listening and Responding<br />infants begin learning language before birth…<br />infants prefer speech over other sounds <br />child-directed speech<br />the high-pitched, simplified, and repetitive way adults speak to infants<br />
  • 22. 22<br />Language: What Develops in the First Two Years?<br />Babbling<br />repeating certain syllables (e.g., da-da-da).<br />all babies babble, even deaf babies (although later and less frequently).<br />babbling is a way to communicate.<br />
  • 23. 23<br />Language: What Develops in the First Two Years?<br />First Words<br />usually around 1 year the average baby speaks, or signs a few words<br />they are often familiar nouns<br />by 13 months spoken language increases very gradually<br />6 to 15 month-olds learn meaning rapidly and comprehend about 10 times as many words as they speak<br />
  • 24. 24<br />Language: What Develops in the First Two Years?<br />The Naming Explosion<br />a sudden increase in an infant’s vocabulary, especially in the number of nouns begins at about 18 months<br />vocabulary reaches about 50 expressed words at a rate of 50 to 100 per month, 21 month-olds saying twice as many as 18 month-olds<br />
  • 25. 25<br />Language: What Develops in the First Two Years?<br />Cultural Differences<br />the ratio of nouns to verbs and adjectives show cultural influences.<br />one explanation is the language itself (i.e. English, Chinese differ)<br />another explanation is social context (toys and objects)<br />every language has some concepts encoded in adult speech<br />
  • 26. 26<br />Language: What Develops in the First Two Years?<br />Sentences<br />“The first words soon take on nuances of tone, loudness, and cadence that are precursors of the first grammar, because a single word can convey many messages by the way it is spoken.”<br />
  • 27. 27<br />Language: What Develops in the First Two Years?<br />Sentences<br />“Dada!” “Dada?” and “Dada.”<br />each is a holophrase, a single word that expresses a complete, meaningful thought.<br />intonations varying in tone and pitch is extensive in babbling and again in holophrases at about 18 months<br />grammar--all the methods that languages use to communicate meaning. Word order, prefixes, intonation, verb forms,… are all aspects of grammar.<br />
  • 28. 28<br />Language: What Develops in the First Two Years?<br />Theories of Language Learning<br />2 year olds worldwide use language well<br />bilingual children keep two languages separate and speak whatever language a listen understands<br />each theory of language acquisition has implications for parents and educators…all want children to speak fluently…without instruction<br />
  • 29. 29<br />Language: What Develops in the First Two Years?<br />Theories of Language Learning<br />There are 3 theories of how infants learn language:<br />they are taught (view of B. F. Skinner)<br />they teach themselves (view of Noam Chomsky)<br />social impulses foster learning<br />
  • 30. 30<br />Language: What Develops in the First Two Years?<br />Theory One: Infants Need to Be Taught<br />50 years ago the dominant learning theory in North America was behaviorism<br />B. F. Skinner (1957) noticed that spontaneous babbling is usually reinforced… a grinning mother appears, repeating, praising, giving attention to the infant<br />Parents are expert teachers, other caregivers help<br />Frequent repetitions instructive when linked to daily life<br />Well-taught infants become well-spoken children<br />
  • 31. 31<br />Language: What Develops in the First Two Years?<br />Theory Two: Infants Teach Themselves<br />a contrary theory is that language learning is innate--adults need not teach it<br />Norm Chomsky (1968,1980) felt that language is too complex to be mastered merely through step-by-step conditioning<br />
  • 32. 32<br />Language: What Develops in the First Two Years?<br />Theory Two: Infants Teach Themselves<br />universal grammar--all young children master basic language at about the same age<br />Language acquisition device (LAD) <br />a term used for a hypothesized mental structure that enables humans to learn language, including the basic aspects of grammar, vocabulary and intonation<br />
  • 33. 33<br />Language: What Develops in the First Two Years?<br />Theory Three: Social Impulses Foster Infant Language<br />a third theory called social-pragmatic perceives the crucial starting point to be neither vocabulary reinforcement (behaviorism) nor innate connection (epigenetic), but rather the social reason for language; communication <br />Infants communicate in every way they can because humans are social beings and depend on one another for survival and joy<br />
  • 34. 34<br />Language: What Develops in the First Two Years?<br />
  • 35. 35<br />Language: What Develops in the First Two Years?<br />A Hybrid Theory<br />the integration of all three perspectives… notably in a monograph based on 12 experiments designed by 8 researchers<br />their model an emergentist coalition… combing valid aspects of several theories about the emergence of language during infancy<br />

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