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Chapter 7 multicellular plants
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Chapter 7 multicellular plants



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  • 1. Chapter 7Multicellular Primary Producers
  • 2. SeaweedsSeaweeds!!!Come in all kinds of interestingShapes and sizes!• some are delicious!• some are poisonous• Some have weird names• Come in all sorts of colors
  • 3. Seaweed Structure• Thallus-body• Lack vascular tissue -Do not have roots, stems, or leaves• Holdfast -The structure that attaches the seaweed to the substrate• Stipe-stem-likestructure
  • 4. Phylum Chlorophyta (green algae)• Contain chlorophylls a and b for photosynthesis• Most are freshwater• Ecologically important – food source – Contribute to coral reef formation – Some are invasive
  • 5. Green algae structure• Most unicellular• Marine species have coenocytic thallus- containing more than 1 nucleus – Occurs by cell growing – nucleus divides but cell never divides
  • 6. Reproduction of Algae• Sexual• Gametes released from gametophyte 2 flagella• spores released from sporophyte- 4 flagella
  • 7. Representative species• Halimeda• Caluerpa-invasive
  • 8. CFU: Green Algae• Are green algae unicellular or multicellular• Autotrophic or heterotrophic• What is an important organelle in photosynthesis• How does green algae grow in length? – Same cell, division of nucleus• What is the function of the Stipe?
  • 9. Red Algae
  • 10. Phylum Rhodophyta (red algae)• Primarily marine• Most diverse among seaweeds• Cholorphylls a and d, pigments: phycoerythrins and phycocyanins• Not always red in color- can appear yellow to black
  • 11. Structure• Multicellular and less than 1 meter long• Wide variety of shapes and organization among species
  • 12. Reproduction• Can vary from simple to complex…but 2 unique features………..1. Lack flagella on spores and gametes2. 3 multicellular stages 1. Carpospore-unique to red algae
  • 13. Ecological Roles• Porphhra- used as food in oriental dishes• Seasonal food source for urchins, mollusks, fish, and crustaceans• Some grow on other plants or animals• Help form base of coral reef• Agar- used as a thickening agent in foods such as ice cream, pudding, and salad dressings• Used in cosmetics for creamy foundations
  • 14. CFU: Red Algae• Heterotrophic or Autotrophic?• Multicellular or unicellular• What are the two unique stages?• What organisms feed on red algae?
  • 15. Brown Algae
  • 16. Phaeophyta (brown algae)• Mostly marine• Higher diversity than green but less diverse than red• Size: from microscopic to kelps (100 meters)• Chlorophylls a and c and pigment fucoxanthin• Mostly in high latitudes• Large flat leaf-like blades with bladders help bouy plant toward light• Representative species Sargassum, Fucus
  • 17. reproduction• Gametophyte is eliminated from life cycle (difference from Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta)• Egg develops root-like structures (rhizoids) after fertilization
  • 18. Ecological role• Habitats for a variety of marine life• Harvested for thickening agents used in dentistry, cosmetic, and food industries• Previously iodine was extracted and put into table salt (iodized salt) to prevent a goiter
  • 19. • Excessive nutrients – Runoff from fertilizer Human Impacts• Causes huge algae blooms! – When algae dies off decomposers consume majority of the oxygen in the environment – Eutrophication• Kills off fish and marine life
  • 20. CFU: Algae• What macromolecule allows algae to live in marine environments without swelling?• What causes algae blooms?• What is this process called?• What are the harmful effects of algae blooms?
  • 21. Sea grasses, salt marsh plants, mangroves
  • 22. Salt Marsh Plants and Sea Grasses• Salt marshes are in Estuaries – The kidneys of the coasts• Nursery for small fish – 75% of commercial fish are hatched in estuaries• Estuaries are severly affected by humans – Coastal development – Pollution – Eutrophication• Protect us from storms
  • 23. Phylum Anthophyta• Seagrasses, salt marsh plants, mangroves• Ecological Roles- Primary producers, habitats, stabilizing sediments• Help slow down erosion• Have to deal with extreme changes in salinty and oxygen Mixing of salt and fresh water Eutrophication
  • 24. Sea grasses (marine flowering plants)• Related to lilies• Reproduce by pollination of seed; Male and female flowers on separate plants contain pollen• Literally look like grass• Food for manatees and sea turtles• Can live up to 100 meters below sea level
  • 25. Sea Grasses in Florida• 12 genra – Genra native to Florida • Syringodium - manateegrass • Halophila-paddlegrass • Thalassia- turtlegrass • Ruppia- • Halodule- shoalgrass
  • 26. Salt Marsh Plants• Adapted to high levels of salinity and tidal action• Found in estuaries – level of succession based on salinity and tidal tolerance• Species native to Jacksonville – SpartinaAlternaflora – BatisMaritima – Spartina patens – Juncus – Salicorniavirginica
  • 27. Mangroves• Found in south of St. Augustine to Key West• 3 genra local to Florida – Rhizophora mangle –red mangle-----prop roots – Avicennia germinans – black mangle--- pneumatophores – Laguncularia racemosa- white mangle• Distinctive by their root system and pods
  • 28. Mangroves: Highly adaptive• Use active transport to regulate water levels in their roots• Live in anaerobic mud – Why they stand above the water• Protect coral reefs from eutrophication – Filter, kidney
  • 29. Help Protect Coastal Development 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami
  • 30. Mangrove reproduction• Flowers pollinated by wind or bees• Embryo grows on the plant in a propagule (similar to seed)• Propagule eventually falls from parent and is carried by current until it settles and takes root
  • 31. Red MangroveBlack MangroveRed, White, and Black mangrove White Mangroveleaves