The Wonderful World of Plankton
What do we already know about Plankton?  <ul><li>Autotrophic  </li></ul><ul><li>Primary producers  </li></ul><ul><li>Impor...
Three types of plankton we will be studying  <ul><li>Diatoms </li></ul><ul><li>Dinoflagellates  </li></ul><ul><li>Formamin...
Diatoms
Diatoms  <ul><li>Single Celled organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Phytoplankton  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Account for 25% of all phy...
Diatoms: Structure  <ul><li>Characterized by their  frustule : a two part organic box that encloses the diatom  </li></ul>...
Diatoms: Structure  <ul><li>Radial symmetry : circular symmetry </li></ul><ul><li>Bilateral symmetry : parallel symmetry  ...
Diatoms: Reproduction  <ul><li>Fission   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Splitting in half  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cell divides: eac...
Diatomaceous Earth  <ul><li>Used to Filter  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pools  </li></ul></ul><u...
Economic Value  <ul><li>diatoms’ glass like frustule does not dissolve in water  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Settles to the bott...
Can cause Health Risks  <ul><li>Diatoms Cause harmful toxic blooms  </li></ul><ul><li>Some produce toxins </li></ul><ul><l...
Diatoms: CFU  <ul><li>How do diatoms consume energy? </li></ul><ul><li>What are two economical impacts of diatoms?  </li><...
Dinoflagellates
Dinoflagellates  <ul><li>Gobular, Single celled organisms  </li></ul><ul><li>Some </li></ul><ul><ul><li>platonic  </li></u...
Dinoflagellate: Structure  <ul><li>Two groves: two flagellums  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal: cingulum </li></ul></ul><...
Dinoflagellates: Structure  <ul><li>Outer structure is made up of plates  </li></ul><ul><li>Armored Dinos:  </li></ul><ul>...
Dinoflagellates: food/digestion <ul><li>Many are mixotrophic  </li></ul><ul><li>They have Chloroplasts:  </li></ul><ul><ul...
Dinoflagellates: reproduction  <ul><li>Binary Fission: one division per day  </li></ul><ul><li>Can depend on conditions:  ...
Dinoflagellates: ecological Role  <ul><li>Red Tides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Release toxins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digest...
Foraminiferans
Foraminiferans  <ul><li>Amoeboid protozoans  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Branch like  psuedopods   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fo...
Forams: digestion/energy  <ul><li>Consume a lot of diatoms and dinoflagellates  </li></ul><ul><li>Some host green/red alga...
Forams: Structure  <ul><li>Produce Elaborate Tests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multichamber </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grow as t...
Forams’ ecological role  <ul><li>Hel form beaches and sediment  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chalk  </li></ul></ul>
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1 25-11

  1. 1. The Wonderful World of Plankton
  2. 2. What do we already know about Plankton? <ul><li>Autotrophic </li></ul><ul><li>Primary producers </li></ul><ul><li>Important to life on earth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consume carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Drifters </li></ul><ul><li>Phytoplankton and zooplankton </li></ul>
  3. 3. Three types of plankton we will be studying <ul><li>Diatoms </li></ul><ul><li>Dinoflagellates </li></ul><ul><li>Formaminiferans </li></ul><ul><li>ALL ARE EUKARYOTIC, SINGLE CELLED ORGANISMS </li></ul>
  4. 4. Diatoms
  5. 5. Diatoms <ul><li>Single Celled organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Phytoplankton </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Account for 25% of all phytoplankton on earth </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Diatoms: Structure <ul><li>Characterized by their frustule : a two part organic box that encloses the diatom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made up of two valves: one larger than the other. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Surface of frustule : porous, groves, spines, hooks </li></ul><ul><li>Geometric patterns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Looks: like glass, fragile </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Made of silicon </li></ul>
  7. 7. Diatoms: Structure <ul><li>Radial symmetry : circular symmetry </li></ul><ul><li>Bilateral symmetry : parallel symmetry </li></ul>
  8. 8. Diatoms: Reproduction <ul><li>Fission </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Splitting in half </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cell divides: each daughter cell inherits one side of the frustule (a valve ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grows a new smaller valve inside frustule </li></ul></ul><ul><li>50% of each generation is smaller than the last </li></ul><ul><li>too small forms an auxospore: increases volume back to original size </li></ul><ul><li>In summer seasons more than 1 million diatoms can come from a single parent </li></ul>
  9. 9. Diatomaceous Earth <ul><li>Used to Filter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Champagne </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Abrasive used in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Toothpaste </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Silver polish </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Soundproofing </li></ul><ul><li>Insulation </li></ul>
  10. 10. Economic Value <ul><li>diatoms’ glass like frustule does not dissolve in water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Settles to the bottom of the sea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fossil Fuels </li></ul>
  11. 11. Can cause Health Risks <ul><li>Diatoms Cause harmful toxic blooms </li></ul><ul><li>Some produce toxins </li></ul><ul><li>How would this be dangerous to humans? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Diatoms: CFU <ul><li>How do diatoms consume energy? </li></ul><ul><li>What are two economical impacts of diatoms? </li></ul><ul><li>What are two environmental impacts of diatoms? </li></ul><ul><li>How do diatoms reproduce </li></ul><ul><li>What are diatom’s characteristic structure </li></ul>
  13. 13. Dinoflagellates
  14. 14. Dinoflagellates <ul><li>Gobular, Single celled organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Some </li></ul><ul><ul><li>platonic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>others are benthic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some </li></ul><ul><ul><li>symbiotic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>others parasitic </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Dinoflagellate: Structure <ul><li>Two groves: two flagellums </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal: cingulum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spinning flagellum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertical: suclus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Whipping flagellum: forward motion </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Dinoflagellates: Structure <ul><li>Outer structure is made up of plates </li></ul><ul><li>Armored Dinos: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spines, other structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help with predation, floatation </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Dinoflagellates: food/digestion <ul><li>Many are mixotrophic </li></ul><ul><li>They have Chloroplasts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But also absorb food </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Osmotrophy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eat other plankton: copepods, diatoms, other dinoflagellates </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Dinoflagellates: reproduction <ul><li>Binary Fission: one division per day </li></ul><ul><li>Can depend on conditions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>nutrients, light, temperature </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Dinoflagellates: ecological Role <ul><li>Red Tides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Release toxins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digestion of toxins can cause: numbness, slurred speech, nausea, paralysis, death </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paralytic shellfish poisoning </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Foraminiferans
  21. 21. Foraminiferans <ul><li>Amoeboid protozoans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Branch like psuedopods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Form elaborate net like structures: Tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Help catch prey </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Most are benthic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use psuedopod to crawl around </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Forams: digestion/energy <ul><li>Consume a lot of diatoms and dinoflagellates </li></ul><ul><li>Some host green/red algae </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbiotic relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forams get nutrients </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coral reefs get calcium carbonate </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Forams: Structure <ul><li>Produce Elaborate Tests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multichamber </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grow as the foram grows </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Geometric </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resembles microscopic snail shell </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Forams’ ecological role <ul><li>Hel form beaches and sediment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chalk </li></ul></ul>
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