View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new iOS app!Introducing SlideShare for AndroidExplore all your favorite topics in the SlideShare appGet the SlideShare app to Save for Later — even offline
View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new Android app!View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new iOS app!
A Study of Curation Interface on Social Network Services Jeonghoon Lee Abstract— A ‘Big Data’ environment has been created from an Big data is data that are produced in digital environment. Itsexplosion of information that cannot even be measured thanks to the scale is grand and production cycle short . Also, Big datarapid development of technology. People can use smartphones to make includes text and video data, not just numeric data. We can nowvideos, upload content on SNS easily and quickly thanks to LTE analyze and predict thought and comments through people’snetwork, and send them to friends. There is valuable information on the internet, but there are also actions, location information and SNS as data amount anderroneous ones. Also there may be information that is useful, but at the variety has exploded in Big data environment. Thus, itssame time, often exposed to information that are not useful. importance has increased as data processing technology has Pinterest, which started service in March 2011, has more than one developed.thousand members as of December 2011. The rapid rise of Pinterest Curation is a keyword that has emerged with Big data. Figurehas led many online media professionals to spotlight the word 1,2 shows the rapid increased in frequency of searches for these‘curation. One of many factors for Pinterest’s success is the tile view interface two terms since 2011.which allows simultaneous identification of many images and Curation is a word often used in the museum or art galleries.assistance in collection using one’s own Pinterest account. Curation is the act of structuring and showing contents made by In this research, we defined curation interface as an interface that others in a valuable way in accordance with objective. But thishelps such curation, in other words, interface that helps eliminates word has become widely used since the start of digital era.unnecessary information and conveniently collect only information Naver.com (a Korean search portal site) curates notices on thewanted by the user. Also, we organized curation interface by finding main page and advertisements and sellers of online shoppingand analyzing curation interface in other services such as Twitter andFacebook that helps filter information in similar ways. malls leave curations of products they want to sell to consumers. There are now people whose friends continue to increase on SNS A curator can also be a blogger who formulate and distribute aand get stressed from the oversupply of information on their timelines. particular topic.In such an environment, curation interface will delight users in that itwill allow them to experience something completely new. Above all,curation interface is an excellent interface that helps users acquire onlyinformation they are interested in. This research has the goal ofinforming the importance of curation interface in the field of interfaceresearch, and we suggested the need for further research on matterssuch as analysis on usability. Keywords—Curation, SNS, User Interface, Curation Service,Curation Interface I. INTRODUCTION Fig.1 Web Search Interest: curation. Worldwide, 2004 - present . A. Background and Goal of the StudyM edia paradigm is shifting on the rapid development of IT and emergence of social media. Smart device marketwhich allows content production and internet uploading hasgrown and ‘Big data’ is being produced much more than in thepast. Jeonghoon Lee is with the Hongik University, Visual CommunicationDesign department, Seoul, South Korea (phone: +82-10-4005-4853; e-mail:email@example.com). Fig.2 Web Search Interest: curation. Worldwide, 2004 - present .
B. The scope of the research and the method Curation is a subtle suggestion to solve such problems. To find a This study conducted the research based on Pinterest, the good restaurant in Seoul, one searches for blogs and twitterimage based SNS, Twitter, the text best SNS and Facebook, the comments by accessing portal sites on his/her PC or mobilecomprehensive SNS, all of which are the most commonly used phone. The user may also ask friends on SNS or recallSNS services among a variety of SNS services in order to define comments from friends on Twitter of Facebook’s timeline. Canthe curation interface. The research methodology of this study is location be shared even if it is not a professional interview onas follows. the web or a column? Or can a frequently visited restaurant or First, it investigated the meaning of curation the background bar be shared? How about the content of credit card statementsin which the word curation has emerged through the researches or equity transaction statements? If so, the user may havesuch as literary survey, website, etc. inadvertently become a curator on Facebook, Twitter or a blog. Second, it deducted and summarized the elements that could If you can uploaded praises or criticisms of a restaurant or anbe called “Curation Interface” of SNS in order to define the airline you have in essence contributed to web knowledge as acuration interface. curator . Third, as for the subject of analysis, it conducted the research As such, curation has taken its place deep in our everydaybased on Pinterest, the image based SNS, Twitter, the text best lives in the 21st century and is something that people are oftenSNS and Facebook, the comprehensive SNS, all of which are obliviously knowledgeable of.the most commonly used SNS services as of the fourth quarter The new words such as curation service and digital curationof 2012, and it analyzed and summarized the curation interface have emerged due to the drastic increase of the subscribers ofof SNS based on the derived analysis elements. Pinterest in 2011. In other words, Pinterest should be regarded The curation interface was defined based on the above as the starting point of the keyword of curation and the curationanalysis; thus, the conclusion of this study was derived. service in the era of Big Data. There exist some similar services such as ‘Pinspire’, ‘Scoop.it’, etc. II. THE THEORETICAL BACKGROUND A. Pondering for Curation The word curation cannot be found in the English dictionarybut in the French dictionary. In the French dictionary, curationis defined as a treatment or a cure. Wikipedia has four more definitions. 1. The work performedby a curator, 2. Archiving, historical record keeping, 3.Evidence management, indexing and cataloguing of evidence, 4.Cultural heritage management, conservation of cultural sitesand resources . The word curation has not been in the spotlight for so long.Figure 1,2 shows a Google Trend result of changes in interest ofthe term curation through time in the search engine. The termhas exploded in search frequency since mid-2011. Also a search Fig.3 www.pinspire.comfor books on curation on the online retail book store Amazon Quara is the question-answer based curation service asshows that books on this topic as been published since 2011. integrating Q&A and SNS.The same has happened in Korea. 1. Curation and curator in the digital era Curation is often related to art galleries. What does it exactlymean? Curation has come to be defined as ‘search’ in the digitalage. Today there is so much data, and the definition of curationhas expanded to ‘search intervened by people.’ Curation hasbecome an important tool in the era of content oversupply byallowing user-friendly search rather than a mechanic searchsimply done by the machine, and the need has risen for a newcurator to play that role. The American Museum Associationclaims that curators now include rappers, DJs, bloggers, editors,and shopping mall merchandisers . B. Curation Service In curation era, there are an abundance of a variety of contentproducers, but it has become more difficult to find the contentswe need due to the explosion in the number of contents. Fig.4 www.quora.com
This is the global trend; Korea is also seeing the increasing messages, meaning Facebook processes 50,000 messages pertrend of the curation service. Quincee.co.kr is the curation second. Last year, monthly Twitter users amounted to 100commerce for mothers, which sells products for infants. million and they produced an average of 200 million tweets perwww.heybread.com is the shopping mall that gathers the day. On Naver intellect, there are more than 7 million questionsfamous bakeries in Seoul, Korea. and 100 million answers registered. The amount of videos uploaded on YouTube over 60 days exceeds the amount produced over the past 60 years by America’s major broadcasters . According to SK Telecom(Telecommunication company in Korea), smartphone users consume 300 terabytes daily, which is equal to about 300,000 of 1 gigabyte videos. We live in a world of data explosion. It is imperative there is such service as curation that will classify such data amount. 2. Change in media paradigm Telecommunication technology is improving and people communicate with others through different channels by using the internet on their PCs and smartphones. The dissemination rate of smartphones in Korea is about 63%, which is over half of the population . It is not an overstatement to say that contents are being created and used anytime, anywhere. Times spent on Fig.5 www.quincee.co.kr (Curation Commerce in Korea) smartphones, tablet PCs and the Internet has exceeded times Then, how can the curation service with various shapes be spent on mass media such as TV, newspaper, radio, anddefined? The curation service can be called as “the service to magazines. Advertisers are shifting their focus to mobile and theenable users, who are interested in specific areas, to see more Internet. We are more familiar with the word curator thaneasily and conveniently through gathering many information”. curation. The dictionary definition of a curator is someone who The people who are interested in the subject called A can takes charge in the collection, storage, management, exhibition,check the contents in the item of curation A and the people who investigation, research, promotion and other relevant activitiesare interested in the subject B can see in the item of curation B. to works of art and history at the museum or the art gallery. But recently, the use of the term has expanded to include the role of C. Background of introduction data collection, classification, selection, distribution, with 1. Development of IT technology increasing attention to social curators and social curation The development of technology has made content production services. In the past it was difficult to find information due to theeasier and more accessible, but ‘noise’ is increasing at the same lack of information. So there weren’t many channels to gettime. Our email inboxes are filled with spam emails in this era of information and people therefore relied heavily on mass mediainformation explosion, we have too many friends on registered . Figure 6 is summary of change in media paradigm.on Facebook, and our Twitter accounts are uncontrollable. Itmay have become easier to create contents, but it has becomemore difficult to find contents. Eric Schmidt, Google’s former CEO, said the following in2010 at a tech media conference: “Until 2003 the amount of datacreated since the start of civilization had been 5 exabyte. Now,new data is being added every other day with increasing speed”.On Twitter, an average of 155 million contents is created dailyand on YouTube, the average number of video plays adds up to4 billion. Global data is projected to reach 2.7 zettabytes in Fig.6 Change in media paradigm2012 and 7.9 zettabytes by 2015(IDC, 2011). 1 zettabyte isequal to one thousand exabytes, and one Exabyte is equal to100,000 times the information at American nationallibrary(Lynman, P., & Varian, H., 2003). Facebook is the most prominent service that creates Big data.According to Facebook’s operating status informationsubmitted for IPO, its mobile users amount to 488 million andFacebook’s registered users was 901 million as of May 2012.The users upload 250 million images daily and exchange
TABLE I key word. This eventually phased into a stage of information EVOLUTION OF MEDIA  oversupply due to the recent change of the internet to social Media 1.0 Media2.0 Media 3.0 service predominance. People began to feel the need for an (Mass Mdia) (Micro Mdia) (Curation Media) easier and quicker way to find optimal information, because a simple search produced too much information. In other words, Message Producer ↔ Producer ≠ Producer ↔ mining service began to be applied to reality. Producing Intermediary ↔ Consumer Consumer Entity Consumer The emergence of mining service has allowed Internet users to generate search results that not only list information gathered Message from the incredible mass of information, but are filtered based Passive Selective Active Accepting Acceptance Acceptance Acceptance on relevance and importance of the search results. It has also Form become possible to get all at once, information relevant by topic. Unidirection Bilateral In terms of technology, search and mining service is a creation Distribution Multidirectional from the effort of professionals trying to provide results by more al Single Numerous Path Multi Distribution Distribution Distribution precise filtering and analysis through solution wanted by the users. Such approach from the technological perspective Authoritative Brand Brand Individual Brand Trusted Brand challenged its limit by meeting social and ultimately created the word social curation. Information Information Information Concentrated Information Circulative- III. CURATION INTERFACE ON SOCIAL NETWORKING SERVICES Flow - Division-Sharing Accumulation Distribution A. Curation Interface on Social Networking Services Authoritative Trifling, Comprehensive, Nature of , Universal, Professional, Descriptive, The curation interface is the integrated expression of curation Contents Comprehensi Fragmentary, Altruistic, and interface; thereby, meaning the interface to help conducting ve, Objective Subjective Reasonable curation. The unstructured data mining is becoming important in the era of Big Data and the role of software engineers is Comprehensive Comprehensi Unit Product gaining more importance; however, to make an interface of Information Collection, ve Edition Separate Sequence Organization Distribution Concentrated these solutions should be the role of designers. And the interface Sequence of these solutions is the core element of the curation interface, Subscription Fee which is to be defined by this study. & Advertising, Unstructured data is not like numeric data that has a uniform Advertising & Advertising Long-tail format or form; it is the date that is not structured as its form and Long-tail Income Income & Event Income, Income Source Sponsorship through System Abandonment – structure is different like picture, video or document. The Expectation of examples of unstructured data are the data generated from the Separate Income mobile devices and online such as email, Twitter and blog in addition to the conventional data such as book, magazine, 3. Rise of Curation medical document record, voice information and video In fact, the word curator is more familiar to use than the word information.curation. The definition of curator by dictionary is “the people More than 80 percent of online information is unstructuredwho are responsible for collection, management, exhibition, data, which is explosively increasing with the gradual popularityinvestigation, research, promotion and other relevant of SNS. The tremendous amount of information generated inprofessional tasks in relation to documents at museums or art online includes many important information such as customers’galleries”. However, it is being leveraged as the broader evaluation on corporations in the unstructured data, tales aboutmeaning of “the classification, collection, selection, distribution, products and customers’ needs. In overseas, a variety of theetc. of information” as surpassing the specific area called art in professional corporations have been providing assistance forrecent years; thus, the social curator and the social curation social analysis tasks of corporations upon realization ofservice have been garnering much attention. importance of social analysis a long time ago. In Korea as well, The past was the era of the information shortage in which a variety of social analysis companies have been born in recentthere was not sufficient amount of information that was in need. days.Therefore, there did not exist a variety of channels through B. Blog, Online Community, RSS Feed Readerwhich information could be obtained, and the role of massmedia as a provider of information was regarded to be very If regarding online community and blog as the early-phaseimportant. SNS, the search (search, search title, search both body texts and But with the emergence of the World Wide Web and search title, search only body texts) within blog and online communityfeatures, people have been able to fulfill their needs for as shown in Figure 7 can be regarded the curation interface ofinformation. Also as the amount of data increased, search the early-phase SNS. Furthermore, the interface such as “viewengines emerged and the form search switched from directory to only the posts of specific members”, which is displayed when
pressing the ID of a specific member in online community automatically and conveniently at the website in which contentswhere several members gather together is the excellent curation are updated frequently like portal site or blog offersinterface as shown in Figure 8. convenience to check and use the updated information However, such interface remains as the mere function to automatically without logging in or visiting all the time uponsearch the information registered in portal like portal; thus, it is registering the RSS address provided by the site in a specificnot an appropriate curation interface with which this study RSS reader. When looking at RSS from the perspective ofshould deal. operators and users, the service operators can provide new or Figure 9, 10 is curation interface on recently SNS. recommended information to users in an easier way and the users can view the needed information in an easier and fast way. It was required to visit the relevant sites in order to obtain the desired information before the emergence of this RSS feed; however, the users can now view only the latest information at one single place without visiting each site since it is possible to collect the information automatically using RSS related programs (or services). Pressing the RSS icon in the blog or online community as shown in Figure 11 enables users to view the RSS feed address, and registering that address in RSS readers such as Google Reader enables users to read only the information that they curated. Fig.7 Curation Interface on ealry Social Network Services (a) diverse RSS icon on Blog, Communities (b) diverse search Function on Blog, Web Communities Figure.11 A variety of RSS reader applications in AppStore Fig.8 Curation Interface on ealry Social Network Services (view Some people can use it as a magazine that gathers only IT only the posts of specific members) information, whereas other people use it as an economic newspaper and some other people can use it as a magazine that gathers only the information of restaurants with delicious foods. Figure 12 is the interface of the RSS reader. This study skips the interface analysis of the RSS reader since it focuses on analyzing the SNS of the era of Media 3.0 intensively. Fig.9 Curation Interface on recently Social Network Services (SNS sharing interface) Fig.10 Curation Interface on recently Social Network Services(SNS Reply interface)1. RSS [Rich Site Summary, Really Simple Syndication]? The service to provide the updated information to users
Figure.12 Interface of RSS reader application: It is possible to view the selected information of the blogs and online communities, for Figure.13 Tile view interface of Pinterest which one registered A. Pinterest Pinterest, which started its first service in March 2011, hasgained more than 10 million subscribers as of December 2011.Many media experts and online media have paid their attentionto the word of curation due to the rapid rise of Pinterest.Pinterest is being called in many terms such as contents curationservice, contents curation SNS and social curation service . Table II is the relevant search words related to curation from2004 to November 2012. TABLE II EVOLUTION OF MEDIA  Related terms Rising terms Content Curation Blog Curation Digital Curation Content Curation Figure.14 Pinterest able to following only someone’s interest Definition curation Curation tools Museum curation Data curation B. Twitter Art Curation Definition curation As for Twitter service, when the number of following Social Curation Media curation increases, it will be hard to cope with the amount of twits flooding in the timeline. The number of following of the Curation Tools Social curation author’s Twitter account has exceeded 500 and there are some Blog curation What is curation people who have more than 10,000 and 100,000 followings. Therefore, if using the list function, it will be possible to read It can be found from the simple analysis of Pinterest that it is only the desired friends’ tweets. Such interface can be regardedequipped with the interface to allow following into one’s board as curation interface. It is very inconvenient to view the list inonly through the tile view interface and friends’ interest board as the web; however, there is the service called TweetDeck, whichshown in Figure 13, 14. It is reasonable to say that Pinterest has is the third party application to offer this list function. As forbecome a frontier of “curation service” with these two Twitter service, when the number of following increases, it willfundamental interfaces. The tile view interface is an interface to be hard to cope with the amount of tweets flooding in themake it possible to view easily and share conveniently the timeline. There are already some people who have more thaninfo-graphic, whose height length is long as shown in Figure 13. 1,000, 10,000 and 100,000 followings. In this case, it is impossible to control tweet information. 1. Open System and Third-Party Application API, which stands for Application Programming Interface, is open API where not only can internet users be provided with web-searching result and users’ interface, but also they are able
to develop applications and services  That is, Twitter APIincludes Twitter clients’ data and it is also used for makingapplications that allow us to log in Twitter from the Twitterwebsite. The third-party application allows products made by othercompanies to access twitter or other data. That is, the third-partyapplication refers to an applications developed by a third party(individuals or corporations) using API open to public byanother company. Even though twitter started with only two developers, thanksto the open API, thousands of ideas and developers’ effort havebeen added to become one of the global company these days. This is the reason why we pursue open API. The siteobviously becomes more affluent with external data. Then, thedata from the original site can have more value to its customerswhen the data is transferable to other sites where the data can beconsumed more conveniently. Facebook, Flickr, Google map, and Yahoo were other majoropen API cases. Fig.16 3rd Party Application Usage  3. Curation interface on 3rd party Application of Twitter As for Twitter service, when the number of following increases, it will be hard to cope with the amount of twits flooding in the timeline. The number of following of the author’s Twitter account has exceeded 500 and there are some people who have more than 10,000 and 100,000 followings. Therefore, using the list function as shown in Figure 17 makes it possible to read only the desired friends’ tweets. As for Twitter, the interface related to the list is the curation interface. Fig.15 Twitter Developers’ portal for supporting developers It is very inconvenient to see one’s list in web or Twitter official application; it is the Twitter third party application TweetDeck 2. Trend of Third-Party Application Market of Twitter to provide this solution for the first time. Twitter is more optimized to mobiles than web in that thetwitter provides service with limited 140 characters. Due to thesynergy effect between smart phones and twitter service, thecombination among web-smart phones- third party applicationis considered vital and emerging as a new model in the industry.In fact, the statistics shows that only 20% of twitter usersaccessed twitter from web, and the rest of them did from mobileservice with smart phones. The statistics support thephenomenon . As the number of people accessing the SNS service withmobiles increases, various sorts of mobile-based third-partyapplications are consistently coming out. In the most activeapplication store which has the most applications, it turned outthat there were 590 applications relevant to twitter. This figureis twice as many as the Facebook (300 applications), which isthe largest social networking service in the world . In addition, the case in which Twitter took over TweetDeckto keep the market share of the Third Party Applications incheck reassured the influence and marketability of the thirdparty applications as shown Figure 16.
Figure. 19 Deck interface of TweetDeck to make it easier to see friends’ tweets classified in the list(Curation interface) Figure 20 is the mobile third party application called ‘Tweet list’. It is equipped with the curation interface to modify easily the list that one edited through “swipe” gesture. swiping as shown in Figure 20 (b) enables users to move easily to another list. Fig.17 Twitter’s List function and interface TweetDeck is Twitter third party application in the form of‘Deck interface’, which can be regarded as curation interface asshown in Figure 18,19. Fig.20 (a) App Store Ratings of TweetList (b) List It enables users to see the list in the form of board and has an interface(curation interface), (c) List interface(curation interface)advantage of checking all the information at a glance. Twitterheavy users have positive embraced TweetDeck; thus, it has Tweet Boot enables users to find icons to see the list in thegained a lot of users, and Twitter acquired TweetDeck for USD main menu as shown in Figure 21.40 million in order to check TweetDeck’s application marketshare . It is possible to confirm the influence power andmarketability of third party applications and the importance ofcuration interface, which has been hidden behind the scene. Fig.21 (a) App Store Ratings of TweetBot (b) List interface(curation interface), (c) List interface(curation interface) Twitter official application has been also updating the list interface consistently. Figure 22 is the interface of Twitter Fig.18 TweetDeck’s interface application for iPad; it is possible to confirm that there is the list tab on the left side of the main screen. This means that Twitter official application has been also updating curation interface consistently.
As a result of the analysis of the interface within the group, the search function of the current group is very inconvenient and the inconvenience of the interface making it very hard to find old information does exist everywhere as shown figure 25. Fig.22 Twitter Official Application for iPad C. facebook Fig.25 Group interface (very inconvenient and the Facebook has gained more than 1 billion subscribers as of inconvenience of the interface making it very hard to find oldSeptember 2012 since the beginning of the service in February information does exist everywhere)2004. It has the largest number of subscribers and staying timein the world and has been breaking records on a daily basis. IV. CONCLUSION As for Facebook, the curation interface has been evolving The unstructured data generated exponentially in the era ofsince Facebook users with too many friends have hard time Big Data and digital curation, in other words, the social analysis,catching up with information flooding in their “news feeds”. has emerged as the global task. The reason is that the Facebook is providing the function of adding new list like unstructured data include important information such asTwitter, which is “Close Friends Tab” as shown in Figure 23 in customers’ evaluation of corporations, tales about products,order to prevent such information flooding. This function is the customers’ needs. Therefore, to solve the inconvenience offunction that was offered in the early times of Facebook; individual users in using SNS and information confusionhowever, it has been consistently improved. through curation interface is a new role of interface designers. Furthermore, it is providing curation functions such as group, The purpose of this study is to arouse the fact that mostclose friends, page feed, etc. in order to expand into public or related to Big Data and curation have focused on the role ofnon-public, and there is a tendency that the related interface has software engineers. It aimed to propose the direction of curationbeen in the changing mode. to the tendency somewhat tilted toward interaction and usability analysis for interface research. It is necessary to conduct usability test or a variety of studies as to curation interface helping to easily classify information in designing an interface and find the information desired by users. In other words, it is imperative to utilize the keyword of curation more broadly in studies for interface. Currently, Facebook group and timeline did not have the function and interface of looking up someone’s posts, specific people’s posts or searching through specific keywords, and there was not any such third party application for this function. Fig.23 Curation interface of Facebook It is believed that further studies on usability analysis related to this will be needed, and it is also believed that they will get good reviews if third party applications reflecting the research data get launched. The case of TweetDeck is a good example to support this argument. In other words, if it finds curation interface, which cannot be offered in SNS, and releases it as a third party application upon designing, it will likely become an excellent curation service on Fig.24 List function and interface Facebook (a) Facebook also to its own. Moreover, a variety of opportunities exist to general make it easier to see friends’ tweets classified in the list (b) Close developers and designers since the global SNS companies such Frinds, Pages Tab as Facebook, Twitter, etc., maintain open API ecosystem.
In fact, some of the SNS companies, which were selected asthe subject of this study, have consistently improve the function,there are some cases in which the contents analyzed through thisstudy have been reflected and complemented at certain extent.However, the main point that this study aimed to derive was thefact that curation interface was playing an effective role in termsof information filtering and it is believed that it has done itsubstantially. It is expected that UI of the SNSs that can induceabundant and various curations will be developed in terms of thedevelopment of information filtering interface of SNS in thefuture through studies on curation interface as well as thederived outcomes of this study. It is hoped that many people willbe come a navigation of the digital era as invigorating studies oncuration interface and improving interface of Big Data solutionsand interface of the existing SNS as well as the third partyapplications of SNS. REFERENCES Jeong Yong Chan, “Big data”, Communication Books, 2012 Google., http://www.google.com/trends Google., http://www.google.com/trends Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Curation Accessed Dec 17,2012 Steven Rosenbaum, “Curation Nation: How to Win in a World Where Consumers are Creators,” McGraw-Hill, 2011, pp29-58. Steven Rosenbaum, “Curation Nation: How to Win in a World Where Consumers are Creators,” McGraw-Hill, 2011, pp29-58. Available at: http://news.mk.co.kr/newsRead.php?year=2012&no=325023 Accessed Dec 12,2012 http://www.mediatoday.co.kr/news/articleView.html?idxno=106569 http://www.imaso.co.kr/?doc=bbs/gnuboard.php&bo_table=article&wr_ id=41043 Myung Seoung Eun, “Media2.0 Evolution of Media Platform,” Hanbit Media, 2008 Steven Rosenbaum, “Curation Nation: How to Win in a World Where Consumers are Creators,” McGraw-Hill, 2011 MK Available at: http://terms.naver.com/entry.nhn?cid=390&docId=20130&mobile&cate goryId=390 Apple itunes, http://itunes.apple.com. Comscore Available at: http://techcrunch.com/2012/02/07/pinterest-monthly-uniques Google., http://www.google.com/trends Twitter Inc., https://support.twitter.com/ Available at: http://www.zdnet.co.kr/column/column_view.asp?artice_id=200908100 90751&type=det Accessed October 30. Apple itunes, http://itunes.apple.com. Sysomos Inc., Available at: http://blog.sysomos.com/2011/03/15/non-official-twitter-clients-still-wi dely-used/ Accessed April 4, 2012. http://techcrunch.com/2011/05/02/twitter-to-buy-tweetdeck-for-40-milli on-50-million/ Accessed Dec 9, 2012.