Pronouns and Nouns
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Pronouns and Nouns Presentation Transcript

  • 1. What is a Pronoun?
    • A pronoun can replace a noun or another pronoun. You use pronouns like "he," "which," "none," and "you" to make your sentences less cumbersome and less repetitive.
    • Grammarians classify pronouns into several types:
    • Personal pronoun
    • Demonstrative pronoun
    • Interrogative pronoun
    • Indefinite pronoun
    • Relative pronoun
    • Reflexive pronoun
    • Intensive pronoun By: Ledys Avendaño
  • 2. Example:
    • 1. Marge went for a walk.
    • She went for a walk.
    • In the second sentence, she is a pronoun that takes the place of the noun Marge .
  • 3. Common Pronouns
  • 4. Types of pronouns
    • 1. Personal pronouns refer to specific persons or things.
      • Karen ate pizza.
      • She was hungry.
    • The word " she " is a personal pronoun that refers to "Karen."
  • 5. Types of pronouns
    • 2. Reflexive pronouns are personal pronouns that have "-self" or "-selves" added to the end.
    • Bob finished the homework himself.
    • The reflexive pronoun is " himself ."
  • 6. Types of pronouns
    • 4. A demonstrative pronoun is used to single out one or more nouns referred to in the sentence.
    • This , that , these , and those are demonstrative pronouns.
    • These lemons are sour.
    • The word " these " is a demonstrative pronoun .
  • 7. Types of pronouns
    • 3. Indefinite pronouns are pronouns that do not refer to a specific person or thing.
    • Someone , anybody , and, everyone are indefinite pronouns.
    • Someone stole my wallet!
    • The word " someone " is the indefinite pronoun .
  • 8. Types of pronouns
    • 5. Interrogative pronouns are used to ask a question.
      • Who , whom , and which are interrogative pronouns.
      • Which shoes are mine?
      • The word " which " is an interrogative pronoun .
  • 9. Types of pronouns
    • 6. Possessive pronouns are used to show ownership, but they never have an apostrophe.
      • Ours , his , their , and her are possessive pronouns.
      • Those are his pencils.
      • The word " his " is a
      • possessive pronoun .
  • 10. What is a Noun?
    • A noun is a word used to name a person, animal, place, thing, and abstract idea. Nouns are usually the first words which small children learn. The highlighted words in the following sentences are all nouns:
      • Late last year our neighbours bought a goat .
      • Portia White was an opera singer .
      • The bus inspector looked at all the passengers' passes .
      • According to Plutarch , the library at Alexandria was destroyed in 48 B.C.
      • Philosophy is of little comfort to the starving .
    • A noun can function in a sentence as a subject , a direct object , an indirect object , a subject complement , an object complement , an appositive , an adjective or an adverb .
  • 11. A noun names a person, thing or feeling
  • 12. Types of nouns
    • All nouns can be divided into common and proper nouns.
    • Common nouns can then be divided into countable and uncountable nouns.
    • Both countable and uncountable nouns can then be further divided into concrete and abstract nouns.
    • We’ll look at each type in turn.
  • 13. Countable nouns
    • Use these tests for countable nouns:
    • Countable (or just “count”) nouns can be made plural: a tree… two trees; a man… men; a pony… ponies.
    • In the singular, they may have the determiner a or an : a sausage; an asterisk.
    • We ask: How many words/pages/chairs?
    • We say: A few minutes/friends/chips?
  • 14. Uncountable nouns
    • Use these tests for uncountable nouns:
    • Uncountable (or non-count) nouns cannot be made plural. We cannot say: two funs, three advices or five furnitures .
    • We never use a or an with them.
    • We ask: How much money/time/milk? (Not How many? )
    • We say: A little help/effort. (Not A few. )
  • 15. Concrete nouns
    • Concrete nouns are the words that most people think of as nouns.
    • They are mostly the names of objects and animals (countable) and substances or materials (uncountable).
    • Cake, oxygen, iron, boy, dog, pen, glass, pomegranate, earthworm and door are all concrete nouns.
  • 16. Abstract nouns
    • Abstract nouns name ideas, feelings and qualities.
    • Most, though not all, are uncountable.
    • Many are derived from adjectives and verbs and have characteristic endings such as –ity, -ness, -ence, and -tion.
    • They are harder to recognise as nouns than the concrete variety.
  • 17. Proper nouns
    • Proper nouns start with capital letters.
    • They are the names of people, places, times, organisations etc.
    • They refer to unique individuals.
    • Most are not found in the dictionary.
    • They often occur in pairs or groups.
    • Here are some examples.
  • 18. Common nouns
    • All nouns which are not proper nouns are common nouns.
    • A few examples: cup, art, paper, work, frog, bicycle, atom, family, mind.
    • Common nouns are either countable or uncountable .