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  • 1. This is the electronic edition of the printed un- book. I encourage you to share ideas, pages, and graphics to spread the message, but please do not copy and distribute this file in its entirety. Download Adobe’s free Digital Editions software to make your reading of these words most Jay Cross enjoyable. November 1, 2008 Version 1.33 always beta
  • 2. Meta In case you misplace it... Your name: __________________________________ Email address: ________________________________ Objective of this un-book Provide you with tools and concepts for getting things done in organizations in todayʼs Welcome to the trek increasingly volatile, unpredictable world. Join me in learning how to nurture more effective organizations. The world is changing at an amazing Lots more online pace, new pathways to prosperity These printed pages are the front end are opening up all around us, and no to content online at one has a map. I hope youʼll join me as a fellow explorer, not just a passive reader. You will receive you user name and password by email. (Your password and subscription will expire in six months, about the time the printed material goes out of date.) Come to our community site to chat and give me your feedback. Weʼre at 2 Learnscaping
  • 3. Meta Un-book? The Informal Learning 2.0 Fieldbook. Thatʼs what I called this growing heap of words until I realized I wasnʼt writing a book, and my topic was broader than informal learning. This un-book takes the liberty of Not about learning? Learning is the cognitive process of taking many forms. It’s a acquiring skills or knowledge. This treatise is about doing. In a perpetual experiment. If you society of knowledge workers, learning is more important than want to see a topic expanded or ever, but if it does not lead to action it is simply a distraction. Iʼd to recommend any pages for the use the title Getting Things Done if someone had not beat me to it. shredder, email me or post a notice on the Learnscaping Not a book? Traditional books freeze an authorʼs thoughts in time. The faster the world flows by, the less relevant the book. The Community site. material here will probably change at least once a week. The book you buy will always be the latest, for itʼs printed on demand. This un-book is forever a work in progress. By responding to feedback, adapting to changing conditions, and building on new insights, un-books improve with age. Un-book readers participants make things better for the next guy. They learn from one another. Traditional books are one-way. The author speaks; you listen. Consider the Whole Earth Catalog, which pulled you in with information on handy tools and how to Speak up at our community: use them. The Whole Earth Catalog pre-dated the Web. Now, when you find a better tool, you can tell the community about it. Comment on any page in our cloud This un-book is only available by subscription. Youʼve purchased a printed book and six months of access to accompanying online Tell me what you’d like to see here resources. At the end of six months, your password will expire. If you choose to continue, you may purchase the latest version of Add stories to help others along the un-book and receive a fresh password to the online material. 3 Learnscaping
  • 4. Learnscaping Page by page 4 Learnscaping
  • 5. 5 Learnscaping
  • 6. Most pages here are learning objects. They present an idea that can stand alone. I encourage you to jump around. Scribble a note on each page you read, so you’ll be able to flip to new ones some other time. Read a little. Pause. Highlight meaningful text. Reflect. What can you do with that idea? Doses of about 30 minutes feel right. 6 Learnscaping
  • 7. Visit our Cloud From the opening page of More of this un-book is online than off. This is from the front page of You owe it to yourself to visit. Use the name and password you received in your welcoming email. When you see a miniature cloud, it means that an article here continues directly into the website. Participation inequality Put a hundred people in an online situation. One of them will become an activist rabble-rouser who brings up new ideas and generates excitement. Ten people will respond. And the rest will be content to sit on the sidelines; they will learn a slim fraction of what the active participants do. Please, for your sake, not mine, go online and leave a comment on any page. Break the ice and join the doers. You will gain a lot more if you do. 7 Learnscaping
  • 8. Current contents at, the Learnscape Cloud 8 Learnscaping
  • 9. This un-book is for early adopters Early adopters Meta Enthusiasts, visionaries, tinkerers, and experimenters are drink close always the first to try out something new. They are the crazy to the ones. They put up with half-baked, pre-release products in source of return for the opportunity to reap early rewards, bragging rights for beating others to the punch, and having vendors the stream. pay them respect. You know these early adopters. When a new piece of software comes out, they have to try it. When a different approach to training appears, they volunteer their organization for a pilot test. Manual? We donʼt need no stinking manual! Uncertainty engages the mind. Early adopters enjoy shaping products and services before the concrete hardens. They regard problems as opportunities Donʼt be too certain to give feedback. Frequently, they are artistic, creative people trapped in rigid organizations. Pushing the envelope All learning is co-creation, a product of a learner and an outside feeds their need for variety and innovation. Silicon Valley agent. would wither without them, for they provide the initial toe-hold for unproven concepts. A professor gave her class a paper on urban sociology to read, explaining that there would be a test. The professor gave another This is the early-adopter version of this un-book. If you are class the same paper and instructions plus a warning that the not comfortable with typos, sentence fragments, missing material was controversial; it might not be correct. In other words, chapters, and perhaps a few urban legends trying to pass the paper was beta. themselves off as truth, wait a while. The dotted-i, crossed-t version will be out eventually, and it will incorporate the The group that read the beta paper scored higher. Why? Because changes suggested. uncertainty engages the mind. If you are an enthusiast, please assume your preferred This is why it makes sense to label all learning activities beta. identity: participate. When you dig into the online material Engage the learnersʼ minds. For that matter, mark plans beta: It will here, add comments and make suggestions. Help make this invite participation. And make your department beta — after all, better. Join the community, stoke discussion, and raise a everything is an experiment ruckus. Of course, as with everything else in here, this chapter is still in beta. Everyone else You Beta 9 Learnscaping
  • 10. Learnscaping In the knowledge era, learning is the work. Foolish is the organization that tries to manage the pieces of learning as if they were independent from an overall work/learning process. Knowledge work In the previous commercial era, workers operated machinery to produce goods. You could see what they were doing and touch the goods they produced. Time-and-motion studies identified the one best way to do a job; training taught workers how to do it. Successful workers followed instructions. “Youʼre not paid to think.” Outcomes were predictable. Work was mechanical. Today, workers apply knowledge to deliver services. You canʼt see most of “The purpose of the organization is to enable common men to do uncommon things. No organization what theyʼre doing, and their output is largely intangible. Thereʼs always a can depend on genius; the supply is always scarce and better way to do a job; learning stretches minds to cope with new unreliable. The test of an organization is the spirit of situations. Successful knowledge workers are rewarded for innovation and performance. The focus must be on the strengths of a ingenuity. These workers are paid to think. Change is rampant and man—on what he can do rather than what he cannot do. The focus of the organization must be on opportunities unpredictable. Work is social. rather than problems.” Learning is the work Peter Drucker Corporate learning used to based on the proposition that knowing how people did things in the past was adequate preparation for the present. This worked when there was generally but one, unchanging way to do a task. Today, change is baked into everything. About all we can say about the future is that it wonʼt be like the past. The topic of learning must shift from what used to work to what works now. High-quality learning is that which enables a worker to turn in an exemplary performance, and this is a moving target. Pragmatic learning involves continually acquiring knowledge, figuring out how to do things, unlearning concepts that have become obsolete, and keeping abreast of change. The product of learning is adaptation. Not so long ago, knowledge was thought to reside in oneʼs head. Now we understand knowledge to be collective intelligence, a shared consensual reality. We arenʼt mere consumers of knowledge; weʼre contributors as well. 10 Learnscaping
  • 11. One platform for work and learning The new factory floor Industrial age workers created value in factories. Where do knowledge workers create value? I will call the knowledge-age factory floor a learnscape. A learnscape is the platform where knowledge workers collaborate, solve problems, converse, share ideas, brainstorm, learn, relate to others, talk, explain, communicate, conceptualize, tell stories, help one another, teach, serve customers, keep up to date, meet one another, forge partnerships, build communities, and distribute information. Learnscapes are where and how modern work is performed. Landscapes and learnscapes Landscape design is an apt metaphor for nurturing an ecology for learning. You design, climate happens, things evolve. Balanced • Design concept – strategic intent, shared vision, harmony Simple • Preparing the Land – architecture, workspace design, organizational form • Pruning – 80/20 focus, pulling the weeds, unlearning Natural • Maintenance – organizational network analysis, augmentation Robust • Life cycle – of the learners, of the ecosystem Thriving • Seasons – adaptation of the learnscape, cycle time Connected • Tending each plant – I/O, progress, fit, connections, response rate Vibrant • Nutrients – rewards, sunlight, stories, patterns, stability • Yield = revenue • Garden tours – customer feedback, beauty, charm • Experiments – plant exotic species, keep mutants, innovate often • Flows – the streams of information Platform, not program Learnscape architects work with platforms, not programs. A platform is an operating system for networks that puts their users in charge. It is a framework, not a fixed program. A program is a structured, rigid element thatʼs provided on a take-it- or-leave-it basis. Software programs and training program both operate in the context of platforms. The happenstance learning platforms of the past were as water to the fish: too close to be seen. Putting this Learnscape architects sculpt flexible, loosely-coupled frameworks for learning. They rise above events to tweak the into practice connections in processes. They consciously move to a higher plane. Their concern is not individual learning so much as the loftier vantage of meta-learning. Courses end; learnscapes persist. Organizations and their members are living things, and the landscape/learnscape 11 analogy invites us to consider nature, symbiosis, interconnections, genetic make-up, adaptation, the change of seasons, Learnscaping and life cycles.
  • 12. The learnscape architect Powers of Ten Role of the architect Gardeners donʼt control plants; managers donʼt control people. They canʼt make a plant fit into the landscape or a person fit into an organization; they can prepare an environment to make this likely. Our role as learning professionals is to protect the environment, provide nutrients for growth, and let nature take its course. Learnscape architects nurture organizations to get things done as simply and naturally as possible. Diverse elements, held in equilibrium, make for robust, thriving, vibrant organizations. Learnscapes share many characteristics with the web: simplicity, clarity, user-centricity, restraint and attention to detail. Self-service workers connect to one another, to ongoing flows of information and work, to their teams and organizations, to their customers and markets, not to mention their families and friends because they can easily navigate networks of “small pieces, loosely joined,” the conventions they know from the internet. A landscape architectʼs goal is to conceptualize a harmonious, unified, pleasing garden that makes the most of the site at hand. A learnscape architect strives to create a learning environment that increases the organizationʼs longevity and health and the individual learnerʼs happiness and well-being. Harmony is a tough sell in a topsy-turvy business climate. Business leaders are likely to be more interested in its ripples, among them: • building productive two-way relationships with customers • fostering a culture of continuous improvement • facilitating teamwork, collaboration, and joint problem-solving • increasing corporate responsiveness to change • cutting superfluous email and bureaucratic bloat • strengthening bonds with all stakeholders • attracting inquisitive, self-motivated talent • keeping abreast of new developments in industry and markets • fostering self-service learning without boundaries • replacing antiquated control systems with enlightened self-regulation Just getting started? Go to Our Cloud. Read Are you ready? and Whatʼs in it for you? 12 Learnscaping
  • 13. Meta The major obstacle The web enables the many to wrest power from the few and helps them not only change the world but change the way the world changes. The cover of Time magazine ran a picture of a computer monitor filled with one word: You. The text underneath read, “Yes, you. You control the Information Age Welcome to your world.” This is hardly the first instance of Time oversimplifying things. There’s a speed bump on the road to your world: THEM. They are skeptical. They fear that no matter how well- A New York tailor has intentioned and enthusiastic its fans, this web 2.0 stuff can an audience with the wait. It is a diversion from the core mission. It might backfire. Pope. His friends all It’s disruptive. The ROI’s not there. We need to plan first. We ask what his holiness have to assign responsibility. We have to put controls in place. was like. “Heʼs a 46 We need to assess the pitfalls. Who’s going to take Regular.” responsibility for this stuff? Murphy’s Law will kick in. Ad infinitum. The eight-letter word that summarizes these arguments is: BULLSHIT. To win them over to your cause, you may want to be less direct. Where absolute superiority is not attainable, you must produce a relative one at the decision point by making skillful use of what you have. --Karl von Clausewisz (On War, 1832) 13 Learnscaping
  • 14. “We don’t have enough time.” Human brains have not changed much in the past 20,000 years. On the savannah, evolution favored hunters who could make snap decisions. Thinking long-term didnʼt matter when people lacked the language to plan ahead, the average lifespan was under 20, and all of humanity didnʼt leave a carbon toe-print. Times have changed but brains have not. From Calvin and Hobbes… “Nothing I do is my fault. My family is “Heʼs too busy chopping down trees to stop and sharpen his axe” dysfunctional and my parents wonʼt empower exemplifies the folly of short-term thinking. You cannot postpone the me! Consequently, Iʼm not self-actualized. My inevitable. “I donʼt have enough time” is a statement of priorities, not behavior is addictive functioning on a disease a description of the availability of time. process of toxic codependency! I need holistic healing and wellness before Iʼll accept any responsibility for my actions!”–Calvin “One of us needs to stick his head in a bucket What’s holding us back? of ice water.” –Hobbes Business has already squeezed the big process improvements out of its industrial systems. For many “I love the culture of victimhood.”–Calvin companies, the benefits of collaboration and networking are virgin territory. The upside potential is staggering: people innovating, sharing, supporting one another, all naturally and without barriers. The traditional approach has been to automate routine tasks in order to reduce cost; the new vision is to empower people to take advantage of their innate desire to share and learn. Web 2.0, the “collaborative web,” makes file cabinets and hard drives overflowing with email obsolete. Members of a group can share information and make improvements to one copy thatʼs virtually available to everyone. Workers learn to remix rather than re-invent, and having everyone read from the same page overcomes the danger of mistaking obsolete information for current. Distance no longer keeps workers apart. As we remove obstacles, the time required to do anything shrivels up. 14 Learnscaping
  • 15. Purpose of the Learnscape Make organization more valuable to its stakeholders DRAFT
  • 16. Work Learning Collaborative Social Intangible On demand Cerebral Interactive Value-driven Collective Holistic Self-service Unpredictable Informal Flexible Responsive Learnscape Work Transparent Learning Connected Innovative Perpetual beta
  • 17. Platform 1. Common rules for 2. It’s everywhere, connection. pervasive standards, protocols lingua franca, mash-ups, plus-and-play 3. Contains loosely- A learnscape is the platform where knowledge workers coupled, reconfigurable collaborate, solve problems, converse, share ideas, brainstorm, networks learn, relate to others, talk, explain, communicate, conceptualize, tell stories, help one another, teach, serve customers, keep up to date, meet, forge partnerships, build communities, and distribute information. Learnscapes are where and how modern work is performed.
  • 18. Phase Change Industrial mindset to network culture End of Age of Stuff Beginning the Age of Connections Cogito ergo sum Perception is reality Material world Therefore, many realities out there WYSIWYG, one reality Everything is connected “It is I.” “We are all in this together.” More than demise of industrial era Everything is relative Newton just a summary Everything flows Focus on the visible It’s all connected World is mechanical, predictable World is complex, outcomes uncertain Pre-atomic, pre-quantum All is a work-in-progress Belief in fundamentals, absolutes Time as a artificial overlay, i.e. a tennis racket Some stuff is “finished” Ditto ownership (since things are a figment) “We are nodes” “We are connectors” Learning to do stuff Learning to be (take new vantage point) Programs Platforms 18 Learnscaping
  • 19. This is the major issue of our time. Organizations Crossing the Great Divide Survival in business requires crossing the great divide between where we are now and where we need to be a year or two from now. Weʼve lived on the left side of the divide for centuries. Enormous successes have lulled us into a complacent rhythm. We have wrought miracles: electrification, electronics, bio-tech, computers, television, mass production, trains, planes, and automobiles: you name it. Nonetheless, itʼs time to move on. Everything is going faster, swinging further out of normal limits, and behaving erratically. Weʼre ripping along so fast that the wheels are about to fall off. Think demise of the planet, using up irreplaceable resources, turning up the heat, weapons of mass destruction (unlike Iraq, we have real ones), tribal and religious hatred, etc., etc., etc. This is entropy. Crossing the great divide colors everything else weʼll be talking about here. Learning to go beyond People learn best in a context of common understanding, moral conviction, emotional intelligence, and standards of conduct. Wise educators help build platforms for learning that incorporate these qualities. They delegate the control of learning to students and concentrate on nurturing platforms that enable people to exercise their new-found discretionary learning power wisely. How can we make it from where we Collectively and individually, we need to lift our anchors to the past. Planting one are now to where we need to be? foot in the future while keeping the other in the past is not feasible. Weʼre accustomed to living atop a foundation of beliefs, assumptions, and values that we perceived as reality. Leaving that reality behind requires us to accept that there are multiple realities. The foundation we each tie ourselves to is not some solid object that glues us to the earth. The belief that our ships are immobile, as if moored in concrete, is learned helplessness. We see what we expect to see and are blind to possibilities beyond our expectations. What seemed to be a foundation is more like a personal ship. Weʼre irrevocably tied to the ship (itʼs what keeps us afloat) but the ship is free to move around. 19 Learnscaping
  • 20. Why this is hard Business context Network effects Worldview Core/context Dense interconnections Emergence Object orientation Accelerating cycle time Illusion of control Bottom-up Interdependence Holistic Customer voice Volatility Perpetual beta Unpredictable Long tail Everything flows Incessant change Ambient findability All is connected Services/intangibles Signal:noise Process Learning Internet values Knowledge Informal Connections Collective intelligence Adaptation Openness Socially-constructed Becoming Transparency Context-bound Know-who Authenticity Breakdown of disciplines Drip feed Interactivity Group phenomenon Need-driven Loosely coupled Social intelligence Performance support Interoperability Cognitive breakthroughs
  • 21. Up, up, and away Density of connections Cycle time Unpredictability Collaboration Interdependence Leveling Volatility Intangibles Services Work as improv Pace Collective intelligence Flow
  • 22. Organizations The new factory floor In the last commercial era, workers operated machinery to produce goods. You could see what the workers were doing and touch the goods they produced. Time-and-motion studies identified the one best way to do a job; training taught workers how to do it. Successful workers followed instructions. “Youʼre not paid to think.” Outcomes were predictable. Work was mechanical. Today, workers apply knowledge to deliver services. You canʼt see what theyʼre doing, and their output is largely intangible. Thereʼs always a better way to do a job; learning stretches minds to cope with new situations. Successful knowledge workers are rewarded for innovation and ingenuity. These workers are paid to think. Change is rampant and unpredictable. Work is social. View day-to-day Industrial age workers created value in factories; knowledge workers create value in learnscapes. A learnscape is the platform where knowledge workers collaborate, solve problems, converse, share ideas, brainstorm, learn, relate to others, talk, explain, communicate, conceptualize, tell stories, help one another, teach, serve customers, keep up to date, meet one another, forge partnerships, build communities, and distribute information. Corporations that learn and Learnscapes are the knowledge-age equivalent of the factory floor; they are where and how modern work is performed. adapt will prosper; those that donʼt will not endure. In the knowledge era, learning is the work.
  • 23. Push and Pull Organizations Telemarketers from the vendor with a push strategy call to sell you insurance as you sit down to dinner. The Hard Rock Café displays Bo Diddley’s guitar pick and plays throbbing music to pull you in. The itinerant Kirby vacuum cleaner salesman pushes; the Gilroy Garlic Festival is pull. Push is generally someone else’s idea; pull is what you think you want. The Industrial Age was pushy. Owners predicted what would people would buy, built the factory, made large quantities to take advantage of economies of scale, and then tried to convince people to buy. Today change is so rampant and the future so unpredictable that Dell doesn’t build your computer until you order it. You cannot set up in advance when you don’t know what the future holds. New management disciplines for the pull world all involve how organizations relate to one another (outsourcing, orchestration, productive friction). This, in turn, makes one think about where strategic advantage comes from. China is rapidly becoming the center for business management innovation, and this is the source of continuing advantage; copycats won’t catch you if you’re always ahead of them. All of this is nurtured by networks stitched together with responsive, modular IT. Value, i.e. what it takes to stay ahead, used to reside in killer products or shrewd finance. In the pull world, value results from talent. Talent, in turn, is the result of maintaining relationships. The leading organizations of the future will be those with the ability to create and retain talent. Developing talent will become the role of the firm – and the way people choose who they want to work for. I know, I know: I have hammered the Push/Pull metaphor to death here. That’s because I find it so useful for understanding what is happening in the world. Push is the phone call during supper urging me to donate $50 to some charity I never heard of. Pull is me using Google to find just what I need. 23 Learnscaping
  • 24. Learners. Designation used by Workers. People paid by learning professionals to escape organizations to get a job done. May the pesky notion that people have apply to executives, factory hands, lives outside of lessons and and paper pushers. Reminder to workshops. focus on getting the job done. Informal learning. Acquiring INATT. “It’s not about the knowledge naturally, without a technology.” Shorthand for “it’s curriculum. Often unscheduled and people that matter.” rarely graded. Performance is its measure of evaluation. Jimmy Swaggart Syndrome. People who excel at something are often overcompensating for their Performance support. own perceived shortcomings. Embedding knowledge in work to Corrupt preachers selflessly set out enable unknowledgeable people to to save us from their sins. Most perform without learning. learning gurus have learning disorders. Do-gooder politicians are usually corrupt. Ask someone how Problem. Self-limiting vantage they are helping the world, and they point for looking at a situation that will tell you how they are helping presupposes one knows the Un-anything. themselves. domain for making things better. Re-conceptualizing a traditional form such as a meeting or conference to more directly serve the wishes of its participants. Money. If a fellow tells you it’s not about the money, it’s the principle of the thing, it’s about the money Complex adaptive systems. Learning. The acquisition of The root cause of everything. The skills & knowledge. More results of the interplay of complex meaningful when the skills & adaptive systems are knowledge lasted a lifetime. The Timing. The first 90% of a job unpredictable. world is changing so rapidly today takes 90% of the time; the that adaptation is a more useful remaining 10% of the job takes the way to think about things. other 90% of the time. Learnscaping
  • 25. ADDIE. Rigid design model that IT. Organization that minimizes enables government agencies to risk in systems by minimizing user abandon systems thinking in favor choice, linkage to outside of contract simplificaiton. environments, and experimentation. ROI. Literally, Return on Control. Frequently, an Investment. Often abused by oversimplification of the results valuing intangibles at zero. cause-and-effect. I don’t have enough time. Statement of your individual priorities. Book. One-way means of sharing Curriculum. The subject matter information, while freezing it at a of formal education. Pre-supposes point in time and cutting the author learner choice. eLearning. Meaningless term. out of the feedback loop, at the Opportunities for learning offered expense of trees. or supported electronically. Grades. The measure of individual accomplishment in Portal. Doorway or entrance. In school. Outside of schools, a computer lore, a portal is often a nearly random variable unrelated Program. An element that runs one-way turnnstile that attempts to to wealth, happiness, power, or on a platform. (Why not go up a trap users inside. success. level)? 25 Learnscaping
  • 26. Everything flows. Everything’s connected. Meta Without connections, there is no meaning. Nothing exists all on its lonesome. Treating events as if they’re isolated from a broader context oversimplifies reality. It’s a mental short-cut that may save time but may also blind you to the broader situation. When thinking about a project or event, I apply a simple model to remind myself it’s part of a larger process. What came before? What comes after? This forces me to frame everything within in surroundings. Before jumping to conclusions, I often go a step further. What’s up or down a level from the one I’m on? When we try to pick out anything by itself, we find it hitched to everything else in the universe. John Muir
  • 27. Internet Cultural Values Honesty and authenticity. Simpler is better. The spirit of the The values of the Internet Culture are the strongest foundation net is to tell is like it is, to peel away the facade and be upon which to evolve a next-generation learnscape. authentic. “Be who you are!” suggested Nietsche. It’s easier than faking it. In learning, being authentic means admitting that Connections. Connections are everything. They create we don’t have all the answers. It’s recognition that we’re all in networks, and networks are growing exponentially. If your this together. It’s hooking people up so they may learn from and learning plans don’t embrace the power of networks, go back with one another. the drawing board for another look. Learning occurs in conversations, collaboration, knowledge transfer, focused news, Transparency. Seeing the inside of an organization enables us and other network phenomena. A prime directive in any to collaborate with them to make things better. People who evolving learnscape is to increase the throughput of personal hoard information shoot themselves in the foot; nobody will network connections such as instant messenger, higher know who they are. You’ve got to know an organization or bandwidth, searchable directories, optimized organizational person to form a relationship with them. You cannot make channels, and water coolers, both virtual and real. friends with someone hidden behind an opaque wall. Push the edges. Twenty years ago, training departments Perpetual beta. Nothing is ever finished. Hence, it’s better to fretted about consistency: providing precisely the same training put an unfinished offering out there before dotting the i’s and experience to everyone in the organization. That’s not a good crossing the t’s. He who hesitates for typos is lost. Do it, try it, strategy for making money. In the old days, a hyper-proficient fix it. Drive changes with feedback from learners themselves. worker might outperform the average by twenty or thirty More frequent reviews translate into less time invested in going percent. Now that products are intangible, mindware knows no down the wrong path. If someone says a project is finished, it is. limits. Google figures a superlative engineer creates 200 times as much value as his middle-tier peer. Back the superlative guy The Long Tail. When it comes to learning opportunities, small or gal, the wild ideas, and the weirdness of the new. Experiment businesses, esoteric specialists, and fast-moving teams have continuously. As IBM’s Tom Watson said, “If you want to traditionally been short-changed. It wasn’t worth the effort. You succeed, double your failure-rate.” couldn’t reach critical mass. Now you can. Web technology scales. Five-person companies use for Power to the peers. Networks subvert hierarchy. Users create customer relationship management. Expect to see a learning value and when information is plentiful, peers take over. equivalent soon. As for the esoterica, distance no longer keeps Abundant knowledge dethrones kings and fosters democracy. In specialists from conversing with one another. Rich niches imply a knowledge era, knowledge workers are the means of that a need to assess upside opportunities more closely than production. Forget command and control. Encourage bottom peers. out-of-pocket costs. Knowledge workers want you to show them the dots but demand that they connect them on their own. Think of learning Loose coupling. A specific case is Cluetrain author David as a partnership with the learners, not “delivery.” Weinberger’s conceptualization of the web as “small pieces, loosely joined.” I’ve been doing an increasing amount of my Intangibles. More and more of the world’s wealth is intangible. work on the web, and I am astounded how the ability to work You can’t see patents, brands, good will, expertise, culture, and with small chunks improves my productivity. What once took a so forth, but they account for more and more of corporations’ rewrite now requires simply changing a link. No learning value. Twenty-five years ago, intangible assets accounted for environment need resist improvements until it bites the dust. 38% of the wealth of the Standard and Poors’s 500 companies. What we once thought of as “maintenance” is becoming more Forget about measuring only what’s visible to the naked eye, important than the initial “deliverable.” Pieces of any system (”ROI”) and begin assessing transfers of value. That’s where the morph into plug-compatible chunks that can be swapped in and smart money is headed. out without disrupting the ecosystem. Changing a small item 27 Learnscaping does not require unpacking the whole apparatus.
  • 28. n = 235
  • 29. Yikes! n = 235
  • 30. Learnscaping Emergent learning Optimizing the benefits of people learning in organizations can’t be realized within the confines of training departments. Well, perhaps you can save a few dollars here and there, but the big payoff comes from changes in attitude and corporate culture. Informal learning is more a worldview than a specific intervention. Who’s in charge of ripping out cubicles and installing pool tables? Things like that undeniably increase informal learning but aren’t the responsibility of the chief learning officer. Learnscape Fertilizers Informal learning is about situated action, collaboration, coaching, and reflection, not study and reading. Developing a platform to Level 1 - Word of mouth support informal learning is analogous to landscaping a garden. A 1. Open office structure major component of informal learning is natural learning, the notion 2. Proximity and line of sight seating of treating people as organisms in nature. Workers are free-range 3. Non-departmental seating learners. Our role is to protect their environment, provide nutrients 4. Staff area with relevant magazines for growth, and let nature take its course. Self-service learners are 5. Budget for staff get-togethers connected to one another, to ongoing flows of information and work, 6. Brown bag lunches to their teams and organizations, to their customers and markets, not 7. Book club/Budget for books on Amazon to mention their families and friends. Level 2 - Word of mouse Informal learning is holistic. “It’s not my department is no excuse for 1. Skills database or profiles suboptimal results or stressed-out workers. We must address 2. Intranet with workflow structure and linked learning individuals, for helping everyone be all that they can be is not 3. Online quality system linked to workflow charity; it’s good business. 4. EPSS software 5. Email 6. Instant messenger 7. Discussion boards 8. Blogs 9. Wikis 10. Podcasting 11. Syndication 12. MMORPGs from Donald Clark 30 Learnscaping
  • 31. Push and pull Meta Push is a metaphor for imposing things on people; itʼs top- down. Pull is a metaphor for free choice; itʼs bottom-up. Push learning is mandated, formal, and curriculum-bounded. Pull learning is self-service, collaborative, driven by immediate need or curiosity, and unbounded. Learning ecologies, not schools At the point of being overwhelmed by repeated shotgun blasts of infobits, learners are turning the gun around to hunt ... the best way to support learning is from the down what they want. demand side rather than the supply side. That is, rather than deciding ahead of time what a learner They are selecting what mail, email, television programs, needs to know and making this explicitly available to phone calls, and reports they want in their lives. the exclusion of everything else, designers and instructors need to make available as much as People will rely on systems and on other people for guidance possible of the whole rich web of practice-explicit and in selecting what they want in this self-service environment. implicit-allowing the learner to call upon aspects of practice, latent in the periphery, as they are needed. An unpredictable world has no absolutes. Knowledge management thought leader Denham Gray writes, “Pull is Stolen Knowledge, good up to a point, but I suspect the really useful stuff, the by John Seely Brown and Paul Duguid key discoveries, will continue to come from the edges and beyond, from outside your strong links, from the periphery. What will be key is maintaining a fine balance between self- driven inquiry, network recommendations, individual foraging, deep ʻlisteningʼ, awareness and critical review.” Pull is something I go looking for. It attracts Push is something that comes looking for me. I want it. I go to the store or the site to me. Itʼs my growing stack of email. Itʼs find it. I request it. I assess my needs so I spam, pop-ups, corporate memos, and (and perhaps others) know what I am after. I homework assignments. Itʼs information glut. get it or have it delivered to me. It arrives on its own. 31 Learnscaping
  • 32. Learnscaping The natural evolution of communication networks Metcalfeʼs Law posits that value of a network grows exponentially with the addition of new nodes. Left unfettered, networks reproduce like rabbits on high-octane espresso. Think, for example, of the hyper growth of the internet, the web, MySpace, YouTube, and Facebook. Once social networks take hold, expect them to grow like topsy,. Moreover, the denser the network, the faster its cycle time. More connections make it quicker to get from one node to another. Imagine how this can happen in an organization. The first nodes appear as the company experiments with a few small projects such as coordinating online project groups or making it easier to find information with a “Wikipedia inside.” New hires are accustomed to going wherever they wish in a network; imagine that they begin communicating between silos. HR realizes that the company-pedia can accelerate on-boarding new employees. Customer service improves as everyone gains access to corporate resources such as who does what and how to find them. Replacing multiple versions with a single source of information cuts bureaucracy and chops email volume back. The growth of corporate connections feeds on itself. The online presentation of this is a lot easier to understand Continues on next page 32 Learnscaping
  • 33. Network Effects Learnscaping Cycle time Information glut Volatility Interconnection implies The denser its Interdependence you must keep up with connections, the faster amplifies the impacts of everything. the network. change. Business migrates to services Value migrates to intangibles The Long Tail replaces the normal distribution 1982 1990 1947 2007 33 Learnscaping
  • 34. The Long Tail Value came from the few... Limited learning Most value opportunities provided ...and has moved to the many Shorter Unlimited learning opportunities provided Most value Longer
  • 35. Clay Shirky writes that, “I am old enough to know that newspapers are where you get your political news and how you look for a job. I know that music comes from stores. I know that if you want to have a conversation with someone, you call them on the phone. I know that complicated things like software and encyclopedias have to be created by professionals. In the last fifteen years, I’ve had to unlearn every one of those things and a million others, because they have stopped being true.” “I’ve become like the grown-ups arguing in my local paper about calculators; just as it took them a long time to realize that calculators were never going away, those of us old enough to remember a time before social tools became widely available are constantly playing catch-up. Meanwhile my students, many of whom are fifteen years younger than I am, don’t have to unlearn those things, because they never had to learn them in the first place.” Here Comes Everybody Text Exercise: Pick a few symbols of the world of work when you joined it. What was it like back then? Then do the same for today. Reflect on the changes. And here’s the tricky part: cast off vestigial beliefs and habits that no longer serve their purpose. 35 Learnscaping
  • 36. Loose Coupling Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) is an approach to building systems Tools where the fundamental building blocks are connections. A software architect begins by defining the interfaces between business processes. Once these The Parrot are solid and interoperable, the business process can change without screwing up the whole system. A man and a parrot sit next to each other in a plane. The service in the plane is really bad, the man hasnʼt had a drink for hours and heʼs starting to dehydrate. The parrot on the other hand is getting drink This is important to understand, and I'm not doing the best job at it, so I'll after drink by the harrowed cabin crew. Each time the parrot orders a draw an analogy. Before loose coupling, the buzz-phrase for common drink it does so with a lot of cursing and shouting. interface standards wired to some process behind it, corporate IT applications were hard-wired to one another. Each M&M here is a separate The man decides to follow the same tactic and starts shouting. Hey, business process: bitch get me a whiskey! To his surprise he gets his whiskey and follows through with the same tactic. With loose coupling, processes (or services) are separable at the Soon, both man and parrot outdo each other in shouting and insults interfaces. We treat each process as a free-standing bundle and insert new until the cabin crew has had enough. They grab the man and parrot connections between them. Each process becomes plug-and-play. and throw them out of the plane. Now both of them are plummeting towards the ground below when the parrot says to the man: Boy, for You can see what's coming. If I want to outsource a service, all I need to do someone who can't fly you sure do curse a lot. is unplug it. In fact, I could create a business process model that replicated the service, and do what-if analysis until I hit on the best configuration of services to achieve my objectives. The prevailing business wisdom is that you should do what you're good at and hand off the rest. Thirty years ago, companies programmed their own accounts payable applications; now they all rely on someone else to do that. Fifteen years ago, companies ran their own payroll; now they hand it off to ADP. The trend to handing off anything that's not your core expertise is growing. SOA and Web Services will make it hard to resist a smoothly interoperable service managed by someone for whom it's core. Aficionados of IT feel SOA is inevitable is because it provides: Vendor independence, no lock-in Standardization: it worked for the Internet, didn't it? Modularity and granularity: like in the old days, when audiophiles were forever swapping amps and speakers in and out of their systems to achieve the optimal sound Reusability: to avoid reinventing the wheel Lower Costs: from standardization, integration breed efficiency Loose coupling, that enables one to take one step at a time and to stay in sync Reduced brittleness: because problems are contained before they hit the system level Scalability: because, like on the Web, one-to-many relationships replace one-to-one's 36 Learnscaping
  • 37. Innovation Stack Operations innovation Product/service innovation Strategic innovation (e.g. Open Source) Management innovation Software Stack Businesses have streamlined, re-engineered, and re-furbished every aspect of what they do with one exception: management. The practice of management today reveres the rules and beliefs that were invented to run textile factories and railroads. 37 Learnscaping
  • 38. Do not over-control Don’t tell me Organizations When we deal with others, control is often superfluous. The best policy for managing knowledge workers is to get up on what to do! managing them. Inspire them instead. Managers Coaches need to give people challenges and very broad boundaries to operate within. It’s analogous to a child’s puzzle. Give people the dots but let them connect them for themselves. Managers have build up elaborate rituals to double check their people are connecting the dots in the proper sequence. Cruft accumulates on the simplest of processes, obscuring their original meaning. Kevin Wheeler shared a story that provides a solid example: A new manager found herself fielding the usual headaches of dealing with “managed” workers. Some complained of having too much to do. Others had finished what they were working on and asked what to do next. Projects were falling behind schedule. People were not happy. The manager was called away for a month-long business trip. She called everyone into a conference room. They brainstormed lists of what needed to be accomplished while the manager was away. They left with an understanding of what needed to be done but no individual assignments for doing it. When the manager returned, the group had exceeded all expectation. All the projects were accomplished. People were proud of their achievement. The manager learned that her job was to set direction and then get out of people’s way so they could do it. Many managers spend Tell knowledge workers too much time managing. what you need done, not how to do it. Give them the dots; let them fill in the lines by Learnscaping themselves. 38
  • 39. What do CEOs want? the Enterprise of the Future The Enterprise of the Future radically challenges its business model, The Enterprise of the Future is capable of changing quickly and disrupting the basis of competition. It shifts the value proposition, successfully. Instead of merely responding to trends, it shapes and overturns traditional delivery approaches and, as soon as opportunities leads them. Market and industry shifts are a chance to move ahead arise, reinvents itself and its entire industry. of the competition. The Enterprise of the Future surpasses the expectations of increasingly demanding customers. Deep collaborative relationships allow it to surprise customers with innovations that make both its customers and its own business more successful. IBM Global CEO Study 2008
  • 40. Changing focus of learning In a leisurely-paced world, the past is a good guide to the future. Corporate learning focused on what has historically worked. In a fast-moving world, corporate learning must deal with issues as they come. Individuals need draw their own lessons. The learning professional must build great roads, not give directions to specific locations. 40
  • 41. Meta Nurturing informal learning People learn their work by observing colleagues, trying things out, engaging in conversation and so forth, not by attending training classes and workshops. Exploring how that happens in corporations was the major theme of my last book, Informal Learning, Rediscovering the Natural Pathways that Inspire Innovation and Performance. x2 When readers reflected on how they mastered their own jobs, they discovered that sure enough, most corporate learning is informal. They also agreed that corporations invest in formal learning, while letting informal learning fall through the cracks. No oneʼs accountable; there are no chief informal learning officers; informal learning has been an organizational orphan Formal Informal Learning Learning Formal Informal Learning Learning Spending Learning Learnscape Architecture: Getting Things Done in Organizations, examines what corporations can do to improve informal learning. Outsized returns are not assured, Spending Learning but it makes for an intriguing possibility, doesnʼt it? Informal Learning: Rediscovering the Natural Pathways that Inspire Innovation and Performance, made the point that while most corporate learning is informal, most corporate investment goes into formal learning. Organizations can do to all sorts of things to nurture informal learning and get things done. They canʼt “manage” informal learning directly, but they can actively nurture it. Knowledge organizations can think their way to operating efficiencies, innovative production, and unsurpassed service. How to do that is the topic of this un-book.
  • 42. Learning = making good connections Networks are everywhere. Cognition Our era could well be called The Age of Networks. Humanity is awakening to the realization that everything’s connected. If something’s not a node, it’s a connection. Each of us is enmeshed in social, communications, information, and neural networks. Furthermore, our bodies and brains are networks. Scientists are still conceptualizing the human protocol stack but they affirm that our personal neural intranets share a common topology with those of chimps and other animals. Maybe recognizing that people are more similar than different from, say, squirrels, will rid us of the silly notion that mind and body operate separately. Learning is a whole body experience. For the most part, we are unaware of the firewall that filters the connections between our personal neural nets and the teeming mass of networks on the other side. Many people have failed to change the default settings their personal firewalls came with, even though the factory- installed settings haven’t been upgraded since 1 million B.C. Without changing our mental macro libraries, we continually snap into flee or fight mode. Being alert to minute movements is a survival skill on the savannah but not in the executive office. The point of learning is to prosper within our chosen communities. Learning enables us to enjoy relationships and knowledge. Learning involves exploring new ground, making discoveries, and clearing paths that let us go deeper. To learn is to optimize one’s networks. Taking advantage of the double meaning of the word “network,” learning is making good connections. Designers of learning environments can borrow tools and techniques from network engineers. They would focus on such things as: Improving signal/noise ratio Installing fat pipes for backbone connections Pruning worthless & dead material Promoting standards for interoperability 42 Learnscaping
  • 43. Organizations Parallels Get rid of what Learn what you you don’t need need to know Get rid of what Unlearn what’s you once needed obsolete but no more
  • 44. Organization Aspects of Informal Learning s Informal learning does not have to be a happy accident. You can prepare the soil to encourage it to take root. No one has time. Life on earth is faster, faster, faster. We are inundated with information, showered with technological innovation, and pestered by multiple media 24/7. Business is a blur. Life is uncertain. People are stressed. Work is hell. Its time to do something about this new way of life. A woman with a watch knows what time it is; a woman with two does not. Most of us wear some watches set to agrarian age time, others to industrial age time, and yet others to internet time. Our bodies, our workgroups, our families, our employers, and our global environment are out of sync. Our lives are incoherent because our worlds are changing faster than we are. Nothing is more important to business success than the knowledge and know-how of workers. In the industrial era, managements role was showing workers what to do. In the knowledge era, workers want to learn but hate to be trained; telling them how to do something insults their intelligence. Study after study finds that workers get 80% of their job know-how informally. The choice is whether they do it well or to do it poorly. Important as it is, informal learning doesn’t show up on the corporate radar because it isn’t recorded in industrial-age charts of account. No one has a budget for it, but organizations that fail to leverage informal learning leave buckets of money on the table. In a knowledge era, it is irresponsible to disregard the prime means of creating, sharing, and replenishing intellectual capital. Informal learning is effective because it is personal. The individual calls the shots. The learner is responsible. Its real. Its self-service. It is the The shaded boxes on this and the following four pages review major concepts of Informal Learning. only thing that will work with the digital natives now entering the workforce. In the past, learning focused on what was in an individual’s head. The individual took the test, got the degree, or earned the certificate. The new learning focuses on what it takes to do the job right. That includes the business environment, workflow, colleagues, partners, and customers. 44 Learnscaping
  • 45. Organizations Accelerating change Free-Range Learning Knowledge workers demand respect for who they are. Learning is successful adaptation to change. Informal and formal They thrive when given the freedom to decide how learning are the end-points of a continuum. On one end, formal they will do what you ask them to. They rise or fall to learning is like riding a bus: the driver decides where the bus is meet expectations. We need to set those expectations going; the passengers are along for the ride. On the opposite end, and then get out of the way. informal learning is like riding a bike: the rider chooses the destination, the speed, and the route. The rider can take a detour Training, development, knowledge management, at a moments notice, to admire the scenery or go to the bathroom. performance support, informal learning, mentoring, and knowing are all components of performance networks. Informal learning happens out of class. There’s no curriculum and Networks expand or die. Linking nodes distributes no certificate of completion. It goes on all the time. Informal information and power. Networks subvert hierarchy. learning includes things like trying and failing, asking a neighbor, The flatter the organization, the denser its reading a book, or watching television. Informal learning is how we interconnections, and the faster its throughput. learn about life. Its how we make sense of things. Humans exist in networks. We belong to social Formal learning–riding the bus–is great for novices. Its useful to networks. Our heads contain neural networks. have help getting the lay of the land and getting to the destination. Learning consists of making and maintaining better Training departments are very talented at setting up bus lines. connections to our networks, be they social, operational, commercial or entertainment. Informal learning, what the bicyclists do, is most appropriate for people who already know the territory. They want tips on the new A superlative engineer can be 250 times more short cuts and the essence of a topic. They want what they want, productive than an average performer! Making a great to plug the holes in their knowledge, and they wont sit still for bus performer better gives more bang for the buck than rides to their destinations. Training departments don’t devote much moving an average performer up a notch. Its a human effort to helping cyclists. butterfly effect. Heres the irony: The cyclists are the high performers. Raising their performance 5% blows the roof off. (Whereas raising the performance of novices 5% doesn’t even register.) When it comes to learning, most corporations are spending the most money where Unconferences it will do the least good. Business meetings used to come in one flavor: dull. New Some training departments justify treating everyone as a bus approaches create meetings that people enjoy, often organized in passenger by saying that works for novices and the old pros. This scant time and at minimal cost. Unconferences are characterized is flat-out wrong. The bike riders will always find a reason not to by: take the ride. Workers with the most upside potential rarely receive any focused learning at all. No keynote speaker or designated expert Breakthrough thinking born of diversity Having fun dealing with serious subjects Emergent self-organization Genuine community, intimacy and respect 45 Learnscaping
  • 46. eLearning Organizations Networks facilitate virtually all learning. It has become trite to point out that the e doesn’t matter, and that its the learning that counts. I don’t think the learning counts for much either; what’s important is the doing that results from learning. People do not know what they like; they like what they know. Internet Inside For example, many assume that face-to-face instruction is the one best way to teach and that online learning is inherently Ten years ago, most business executives saw no value in the Internet inferior. They seek ways for online initiatives to support the beyond cheaper communications. CIO magazines December 1994 issue high-grade face-to-face experience. Capella University turns sheepishly proposed not to laud the future of electronic commerce nor to this view on its head, asking what face-to-face support is cheerlead the creation of a great national network that, like Godot, may required to supplement online learning. never materialize. Blended is a transitory term that reminds us to look at learning Since then, the internet has taught us: challenges from many directions. It makes computer-only training look ridiculous. It drives us to pick the right tools to get Time trumps perfection. In the old days, training wasn’t released until it the job done. passed through a gauntlet of editors, proofreaders, packagers, double- checkers and worrywarts. Everything is a work in progress. If its not finished, label it draft or beta, but don’t hold it up. Online networks facilitate personal connections. The internet enables Getting Better at Getting Better one to rely on the kindness of strangers. Hundreds of people I didn’t know before have helped me learn; I keep my karma account in balance by Getting better at getting better is an evolutionary challenge. You don’t helping others learn. The internet even enables you to talk with your heroes get there by taking one step at a time. Rather, you set up millions of if you’re daring enough. little experiments, let em rip, and see what you end up with. To learn something, teach it. The internet empowers each of us to express Meta-learning focuses on improving the process of learning, including ourselves publicly. Sharing ideas is both selfish and generous. Explaining how people learn, barriers to learning, and improving the learning of something online clarifies your thinking and reinforces your own learning. both individuals and organizations. Its a small world after all. Around the world in 80 milliseconds. Wow! With You’re going to spend your entire life learning so you might as well Skype, you can talk with people all over the globe through Voice over IP get good at it. Embracing mindfulness is your first step. You’ll need to (VoIP). For free. be flexible, to look at things through different lenses, to reflect on what you see, to try new things, to run thought experiments, and to pay Me-learning. Dr. Google and Professor Amazon have taught me a lot more attention. A mindful person often cuts off the mindless auto-pilot of than four years of honors studies at an Ivy League college. Why? For one aimless living to follow Nietzsche’s advice to “Become who you are!” thing, I’ve forgotten more calculus, Wittgenstein, physics, Nietzsche, and French than I’ll ever know because I was driven by someone else’s agenda Informal learning is natural. It occurs when we treat people and rather than my own. organizations as organisms in nature. Thinking is a skill. You get better at it with practice. People confuse thinking with intelligence. Bad mistake, for it leads intelligent people to squander their potential by not learning to think. 46 Learnscaping
  • 47. What’s wrong with this picture? Organizations At the turn of the century, my vision of corporate learning put the learner at the center of resources that included the web, online learning activities, communities of practice, an intranet, and instructor-led training. My thinking has changed. Can you guess several ways I would re- draw the picture today? Groups, not grades Grades in school do not predict success in life. Students from the bottom of the class are just as likely to be wealthy, happy, and powerful as those from the top. You would think that honors students would do better in life solely on the basis of the self-confidence that results from years of being told they are great. It doesnʼt work that way. Outside of school systems, grades are The center should contain more than one person. People don’t learn much in isolation. meaningless. Tall people earn more money; Phi Beta Kappas do not. For the most part, learning is social. Thinking of the learner as an individual is a legacy of the machine-age. The manager in the factory says “Just do what you are told. You are not paid to How can this be? Itʼs because grades measure think. Don’t waste your time and ours talking to your co-workers; they should be doing what they individual performance. Acquiring wealth, finding are told, too.” happiness, and exercising power depend on working with others. Taking tests is solo; living is Childhood schooling mimics the factory. Study on your own. No talking during class. social. Collaborating to accomplish the job is called cheating. Grades measure individual performance. In school, a loner can finish at the top of the class; at work, loners are losers. And so it is in business and organizations. Work is social; performance is social; learning is social. Because most people are now knowledge workers, learning is the work. Treating learning and People donʼt do things in isolation (except in work as though they are separate is wrong-headed. Schools wall themselves off to protect their school), so letʼs give up on the notion of training students from the distractions of the real world. Business managers know in their gut that taking individuals and embrace learning with others. workers off the job in order to learn defies common sense. The separation of workplace and classroom has tainted the word learning. What’s most important is know how to do the job well. Remote islands in distant seas, once cut off from the rest of the world, are now plugged into the global grid. They read the New York Times at the same time as the rest of us. Nothing exists in isolation. The learning community, the individual, the intranet, the chat groups, and everything else in the picture are connected to one another. We’re looking at a network; functional networks do not have a center. Learning often occurs via conversation, trial-and-error, mimicry, discovery, sharing, and collaboration. Ten years ago, I left them out. Now I know better. 47 Learnscaping
  • 48. Cognition How People Learn Learning is so easy that even a Curiosity. Mimicry. child can do it. Wonder. Adults learn the same way children do. Often the best way to nurture learning is to get out of its way. When critics tell me “informal learning doesn’t work,” I ask them how they learned to Exploration. speak, to walk, and to act like Discovery. Conversation. human beings. Learning is something people do. Training is something you do to people. Natural learning is self-service, not imposed. Taking risks. Collaboration. 48 Learnscaping
  • 49. How People Learn Culture Learning patterns Open Process orientation Curiosity. Wonder. Self-confident RSS at CGI Spirited Doer Sharing: Intelpedia Exploration. Discovery. Dots Blogs: Company Command Innovative Unconferences Taking Idea jams risks. Experimental 49 Learnscaping
  • 50. How People Learn Culture Learning patterns Mimicry. Social media: Facebook Visibility Transparency Models Conversation. Locators: Blue Pages Connections Online meeting spaces Social Places Professional prescriptions Collaboration. Partnering SAP Developer Network Community March of Dimes 50 8 Learnscaping
  • 51. Learning is knowing how to perform. Learning is adaptation. Flexibility, self-efficacy, fit. Learning is preparation for innovation. Future fit. · Learning to know (savoir) · Learning to do (faire) (technical skills) · Learning to be (etre) (personal skills for self-direction, guidance) · Learning to live together (vivre esemble) (community action) Canadian Council on Learning 51 Learnscaping
  • 52. 1. LEARNING IS FUNDAMENTALLY SOCIAL The choice between learning and social fulfillments—a choice that dominates most schools and many workplaces—should never arise. 2. KNOWLEDGE IS INTEGRATED IN THE LIFE OF COMMUNITIES Knowledge, activity and social relations are closely intertwined, whether in families, scientific communities, jump rope groups, jazz bands or design teams. United by a common enterprise, people come to develop and share ways of doing things, ways of talking, beliefs, values—in short, practices—as a function of their joint involvement in mutual activity. We call such informal aggregations communities of practice, because they are defined not only by their membership, but by shared ways of doing things. Every individual belongs to, and seeks membership in, many communities of practice. In communities of practice, social relations form around activities, activities take shape through relationships, and particular kinds of knowledge and expertise become part of individuals’ identities and places in the community. Because shared knowledge underlies this activity, learning is the means by which people gain membership, and participate in community activity. 3. LEARNING IS AN ACT OF MEMBERSHIP. Learning is not just the activity of a sole individual, but the primary vehicle for engagement with others. 4. KNOWING IS ENGAGEMENT IN PRACTICE. Only in the classroom is knowledge presented in the abstract, and only in the classroom are people expected to demonstrate knowledge through abstract performances. 5. ENGAGEMENT IS INSEPARABLE FROM EMPOWERMENT. Individuals perceive their identities in terms of their ability to contribute—and in terms of their contributions—to a community. 6. “FAILURE” TO LEARN IS THE NORMAL RESULT OF EXCLUSION FROM PARTICIPATION. Learning requires access and opportunity. 7. WE ALREADY HAVE A SOCIETY OF LIFELONG LEARNERS. People are learning all the time, but what they are learning is not necessarily in their best interests or in the best interests of society. Learnscaping
  • 53. Two schools of thought Cognition Best practices for learning People learn best when they... Know what's in it for them and deem it relevant * Understand what's expected * Connect with other people * Are challenged to make choices * Feel safe about showing what they do and do not know * Control the pace, navigation, and delivery * Use a process that matches their preferred learning style * Receive information in small packets * Receive frequent progress reports * Learn things close to the time they need them * Receive encouragement from coaches or mentors * Learn from a variety of styles * Confront maybes instead of certainties * Teach others * Can filter out the superfluous * Receive positive reinforcement for small victories * Screw up * Try, try, and try again * Just do it These are also great practices for working. 53 Learnscaping
  • 54. Learning: proven facts 1. Spaced practice Cognition Perhaps the most significant fact we know about learning, yet it is almost completely ignored by the 'curse of the course and classroom'. We learn through practice, little and often. We forget things quickly. The most effective way to prevent this forgetting is to practice at spaced intervals over time. Knowledge is easy to learn but hard to retain. Forget this and you condemn yourself to, at best to unnecessary effort in learning, at worst failing to learn much at all – the true story behind most learning effort. 2. Cognitive overload This well know phenomenon is extremely common in teaching and training. A lack of understanding about how memory works leads to a lack of preparation of material in terms of size, order and engagement, leading to weak encoding, a lack of deep processing then poor retention and recall. Almost all courses are too long, present material in the wrong way and lead to unnecessary 7. Context forgetting. Simplify to prevent cognitive overload. We know that recall is enhanced by learning in the physical context in which one is expected to perform. Yet most teaching is done in alien 3. Chunking environments – classrooms ad training centers. We have plenty of proof Perhaps the easiest and simplest piece of learning theory to put into practice. that work-placed learning needs to be massively increased and non- Chunking means being sensitive to the limitation of working memory. Less is contextual classroom teaching decreased. more in learning and distilling, rather than enhancing, elaborating and creating lots of distracting noise, is a virtue in teaching. Unfortunately the ‘song and 8. Learn by doing dance’ act in the classroom is often cacophonous. From William James and John Dewy through to Kolb and Schank, we’ve had a torrent of theory showing that we learn lots by doing, yet much 4. Order teaching and training is locked into a over-theoretical, knowledge and The order you learn things is critical to how they will be stored and recalled, not skills, model. There is a barely a subject around in schools ad yet education and training continues to jumble and confuse content. This is training that wouldn’t benefit from a boost in experiential learning. critical in language learning, science, maths and indeed, every subject. Learn things in the wrong order and you’ll end up having to unlearn. 9. Understand ‘peer’ groups The work of Judith Harris (The Nurture Assumption) will change the 5. Episodic and semantic memory whole way you look at parenting and teaching. Her revolutionary Once you understand that the things we learn are stored differently, i.e. we scientific work showed that most books on parenting and teaching have different types of memory, then you’ll be more sensitive to the necessary overestimate the influence of parents and teachers, and under-estimate differences in teaching. We still have far too much reliance on text (semantic) the role of genetics and peer pressure. There are some real and for subjects that need a visual (episodic) approach. You see this everywhere, practical steps one can take to avoid the obvious traps. These are from text heavy PowerPoints to whiteboards, manuals and hand-outs. largely ignored in education and training. Read the book. 6. Psychological attention 10. Murder the myths Learning does not take place without psychological attention, so setting up This is perhaps the most useful piece of scientific advice for teachers classrooms and scenarios that inhibit attention, or distract from learning, is and trainers – dump the snake-oil techniques. These include learning massively counter-productive. I fear that much so called ‘collaborative styles, playing music while you learn, Brain Gym, left-right brain theories, learning’ falls into this trap. Cramming 30 plus teenagers into a small, airless NLP, stating the objectives at the start of a course…the list goes on. classroom is no way to encourage attention. There are at least 30 other human distractions, the windows and daydreaming to content with. The bottom line is that most learning is best done on your own or one-to-one. Source: Donald Clark’s Plan B 54 Learnscaping
  • 55. Cognition Principles of Unschooling By Pam Sorooshian Learning happens all the time. The brain never stops working and it is not possible to divide time up into learning periods versus non-learning periods. Everything that goes on around a person, everything they hear, see, touch, smell, and taste, results in learning of some kind. Learning does not require coercion. In fact, learning cannot really be forced against someone's will. Coercion feels bad and creates resistance. Learning feels good. It is satisfying and intrinsically rewarding. Irrelevant rewards can Pam Sorooshian and learners have unintended side effects that do not support learning. Learning stops when a person is confused. All learning must build on what is already known. Learning becomes difficult when a person is convinced that learning is difficult. Unfortunately, most teaching methods assume learning is difficult and that lesson is the one that is really taught to the students. Intended for unschooling children, these principles apply equally well to Learning must be meaningful. When a person doesn't see the point, when they don't adults. know how the information relates or is useful in the real world, then the learning is superficial and temporary - not real learning. Learning is often incidental. This means that we learn while engaged in activities that we enjoy for their own sakes and the learning happens as a sort of side benefit. Learning is often a social activity, not something that happens in isolation from others. We learn from other people who have the skills and knowledge we're interested in and who let us learn from them in a variety of ways. We don't have to be tested to find out what we've learned. The learning will be demonstrated as we use new skills and talk knowledgeably about a topic, Feelings and intellect are not in opposition and not even separate things. All learning involves the emotions, as well as the intellect. Learning requires a sense of safety. Fear blocks learning. Shame and embarrassment, stress and anxiety - these block learning. A grasshopper walks into a bar and orders a beer. Bartender: You know we have a drink named after you. Grasshopper: Why would you have a drink named Bob? 55 Learnscaping
  • 56. Varieties of Learning Experience Person World Learning is not one activity. It’s a Emotional Know who dog’s breakfast of acquiring skills, information, knowledge, savoir faire, and more. The common Know how denominator is that learning is enables the learner to function Cognitive Know where better in his or her environment. Physical ... Co-creation Sensory Social/EI For example: • learning to talk • learning to crawl • learning your ABCs • learning to fear the number 13 DNA, innate, inherited • learning to meditate • learning to speak French • learning the way to the store • learning who to trust • learning with my pal Sally • learning how to sell • learning Ruby on Rails • learning where the answers are Learning is adaptation. • learning to negotiate • learning to play piano • learning to rollerblade • learning to taste wine critically • learning to cook bread Learnscaping • learning to lead effectively
  • 57. The Learning Organization Litmus Test Learnscaping How do you know if your company is a learning organization? These simple litmus tests can help determine whether or not your company qualifies: Does the organization have a defined learning agenda? Learning organizations have a clear picture of their future knowledge requirements. They know what they need to know, whether the subject is customers, competitors, markets, technologies, or production processes, and are actively pursuing the desired information. Even in industries that are changing as rapidly as telecommunications, computers, and financial services, broad areas of needed learning can usually be mapped with some precision. Once they have been identified, these topics are pursued through multiple approaches, including experiments, simulations, research studies, post-audits, and benchmarking visits, rather than education and training alone. Is the organization open to discordant information? If an organization regularly “shoots the messenger” who brings forward unexpected or bad news, the environment is clearly hostile to learning. Behavior change is extremely difficult in such settings, for there are few challenges to the status quo. Sensitive topics — dissension in the ranks, unhappy customers, preemptive moves by competitors, problems with new technologies — are considered to be off limits, and messages are filtered, massaged, and watered down as they make their way up the chain of command. Does the organization avoid repeated mistakes? Learning organizations reflect on past experience, distill it into useful lessons, share the knowledge internally, and ensure that errors are not repeated elsewhere. Databases, intranets, training sessions, and workshops can all be used for this purpose. Even more critical, however, is a mind-set that enables companies to recognize the value of productive failure as contrasted with unproductive success. A productive failure leads to insights, understanding, and thus an addition to commonly held wisdom of the organization. And unproductive success occurs when something goes well, but nobody knows how or why. There is a peculiar logic at work here: to avoid repeating mistakes, managers must learn to accept them the first time around. Does the organization lose critical knowledge when key people leave? The story is all too common: a talented employee leaves the company, and critical skills disappear as well. Why? Because crucial knowledge was tacit, unarticulated, and unshared, locked in the head of a single person. Learning organizations avoid this problem by institutionalizing essential knowledge. Whenever possible, they codify it in policies or procedures, retain it in reports or memos, disperse it to large groups of people, and build it into the company’s values, norms, and operating practices. Knowledge becomes common property, rather than the province of individuals or small groups. Does the organization act on what it knows? Learning organizations are not simply repositories of knowledge. They take advantage of their new learning and adapt their behavior accordingly. Information is to be used; if it languishes or is ignored, its impact is certain to be minimal. By this test, an organization that discovers an unmet market need but fails to fill it does not qualify as a learning organization, nor does a company that identifies its own best practices but is unable to transfer them across departments or divisions. 57 Learnscaping
  • 58. Behavior Change I’ve seen these patterns change hardcore meth addicts into model citizens. It’s at the heart of every successful drug rehab program. It’s not a bad proxy for changing corporate behavior in a big way as well. peer support substitute for user meetings 24/7 help learn from/with others Sponsor coach Group positive reinforcement Self partnership, not co-dependence healthy self image Family & understanding & education maintain connections maintain hope ever alert to temptations friends help one another behavior congruent with values
  • 59. Organization as ecosystem Organizations Everyone is in this together. Do not pollute. Sustaining momentum As the organizationʼs use of collaborative software crosses the chasm from specialty item to important business process, focus shifts to keeping collaboration vibrant, disseminating lessons learned, and informally benchmarking performance. Companies that have made the transition suggest these practices for maintaining momentum after initial enthusiasm wears thin: Dismantle roadblocks to collaboration. Make the goal and ground rules clear at the outset Structure the initial framework to fit the task Make the online environment attracting and inviting Pre-load templates, background info, defaults Provide emotional support for newcomers Delegate responsibility for keeping the ball rolling to the team Rely on self-regulation Donʼt micromanage Market the service: publicity, seed with enthusiasts, contests Incentives to get things ramped up Report results at least quarterly Learnscaping
  • 60. Learnscaping Reclaiming our freedom to learn Gustavo Esteva was an IBM executive and adviser to the president of Mexico before joining the guerrilla freedom fighters in Chiapas. Several years ago he had to bow out of a meeting with a group of us because the rebel leader Subcommandante Marcos was in town and needed Gustavo’s advice. “We learn better when nobody is teaching us. We can observe this in every baby and in our own experience. Our vital competence comes from learning by doing, without any kind of teaching.” The people in the villages know very well that school prevents their children from learning what they need to know to continue living in their communities, contributing to the common well-being and that of their soils, their places. And school does not prepare them for life or work outside the community. After the exercise, a very practical question came to the table. We have learned, with the Zapatistas, that while changing the world is very difficult, perhaps impossible, it is possible to create a whole new world. That is exactly what the Zapatistas are doing in the south of Mexico. How can we create our own new world, at our own, small, human scale, in our little corner in Oaxaca? How can we deschool our lives and those of our children in this real world, where the school still dominates minds, hearts and institutions? The most dramatic lesson we derived from the exercise was to discover what we were really missing in the urban setting: conditions for apprenticeship. When we all request education and institutions where our children and young people can stay and learn, we close our eyes to the tragic social desert in which we live. They have no access to real opportunities to learn in freedom. In many cases, they can no longer learn with parents, uncles, grandparents—just talking to them, listening to their stories or observing them in their daily trade. Everybody is busy, going from one place to another. No one seems to have the patience any more to share with the new generation the wisdom accumulated in a culture. Instead of education, what we really need is conditions for decent living, a community. In Unitierra we have been fruitfully following a suggestion of Paul Goodman, a friend of, and source of inspiration for, Ivan Illich. Goodman once said: “Suppose you had the revolution you are talking and dreaming about. Suppose your side won, and you had the kind of society you wanted. How would you live, you personally, in that society? Start living that way now! Whatever you would do then, do it now. When you run up against obstacles, people, or things that won’t let you live that way, then begin to think about how to get over or around or under that obstacle, or how to push it out of the way, and your politics will be concrete and practical.” 60 Learnscaping
  • 61. Organizations Getting Started with Online Collaboration Collaboration is about building relationships that foster ideas, intentions, and interests. Coworkers learn and inspire one another. They build on each another’s ideas. Small groups of them can move mountains. A collaborative enterprise with IMPLE shared values and common purpose can change the world. Why wait? Start right away. People working together create much more value than the same people working in independently. Working with others also boosts morale, for it’s more fulfilling emotionally. Until recently, collaboration was not easy, especially when distance was involved. People didn’t have access to the information they needed and couldn’t figure out who was the right person to contact. MENT Those barriers are fading fast. Software and networks that support collaboration are readily available and cheap, too. Workers complain about silos; social networks walk through silo walls. Companies are losing customers disgusted with unhelpful help desks, phone labyrinths, and not understanding what’s going on. The web’s transparency and self-service are the cure. ATION Senior management wants to see organization-wide innovation. Building communities that value authenticity, courage, and taking risks are a step toward getting there. Today’s web offers an embarrassment of riches. Online collaboration improves operations, supports strategy, and creates a limber enterprise. Organizations have so many choices, it’s hard to figure out where to begin. What’s in it for you? Pick an area that resonates with what your organization needs to accomplish: Start with something easy Fast, free, industrial-strength web software makes it easy to prototype. You need not be a programmer to try it. Don’t obsess. Do something where: Participants have a shared need. It’s easy for participants to see what’s in it for them. The information involved is not controversial. Amelia Earhart: The most A sound business case can be made. effective way to do it is to do it. Stand-alone implementation is feasible The project will make a good example when seeking support for other projects. 61 Learnscaping
  • 62. Learning Ecosystem Principles Clear roadblocks to natural learning Tap power of communities and social networks Supplement formal learning with coaching etc. Actively experiment with learning performance support, i.e. expertise location Uncap people’s potential for growth 62 Learnscaping
  • 63. Organizations Where you go depends on where you’re coming from Are you just starting out or down the path a ways? Is management pushing for the change or resisting it or unaware? Is your organization’s use of web 2.0 in infancy, childhood, or maturity? Maturity of your Just beginning Some progress made Many successes efforts Why bother? Explore, experiment, Proliferate applications Leverage enterprise solve immediate need assets Level Individual or team Group or department Enterprise or major division Focus Prototyping, small-scale Application, unbounded Infrastructure, learnscape Sample project “Wikipedia” inside the Online communities of Comprehensive product firewall practice knowledge system 63 Learnscaping
  • 64. Organization s People working together are vastly more productive than people working in isolation, and the internet connects us all. Collaboration is about building relationships that foster ideas, intentions, and interests. Co-workers learn from one another. They inspire one another. They build on each anotherʼs ideas. Small groups of them can move mountains. A collaborative enterprise with shared values and common purpose can change the world. Workers innately know that when people work together they produce greater results and enjoy their work more, too. Until quite recently, collaboration was not easy, especially if distance was involved, people It’s not about the technology. didnʼt have access to the same information, or a worker couldnʼt figure out who was the right person to contact. It’s the people that matter. Those barriers are fading fast. Software and networks that support collaboration are in place and cheap, too. Workers complain about silos; social networks enable them to walk through silo walls. Companies are losing customers disgusted with unhelpful help desks, phone labyrinths, and not understanding whatʼs going on. Transparency and self-service are the cure. ALL NOTHING In business, collaboration is a means to an end, and that end is prosperity, longevity, and growth. Question what you read here. I asked Harvard Business Schoolʼs Andrew McAfee, who coined the term Enterprise 2.0, why he thinks social software will transform the business Everything has shades of gray. world. He told me that todayʼs collaborative technologies can knit together an enterprise and facilitate knowledge work in ways that were simply not possible previously. They have the potential to usher in a new era by making both the practices of knowledge work and its outputs more visible. Continues on next page 64 Learnscaping
  • 65. Collaborate or Die The Wall Street Journal, Business Week, Forbes, Stephen Colbert, the Manchester Guardian, Learning Circuits, Business and other leading voices can’t stop talking about Web 2.0. You’ve read the stories: The web is now the read/write web. Wikipedia is an encyclopaedia of 9.1 million articles in 253 languages, written entirely by volunteers. Facebook, YouTube, and Flickr are growing faster than the web in its meteoric growth phase. There are 70 million blogs online, and 120,000 new blogs are created every day (that’s about 1.4 new blogs per second). These phenomena are global; only 35% of all blogs are in English. This is all well and good, but it provides no guidance to the manager who wants to take advantage of the new technologies. Managers need to know the opportunities and the pitfalls, applications and benefits, tricks of the trade and lessons of experience. That’s the sort of thing I intend to start (but not finish) here. The Web is chock full of explanations of blogs, tags, and other social software. I interviewed scores of people to capture their thoughts on the human side of implementing and sustaining collaborative networks. As you would expect, people have different notions of what works. I’ve tried to capture these multiple perspectives in the checklists and vignettes that follow. Collaboration rules. When people work together instead of individually, they produce greater results and derive more pleasure from their work. Until quite recently, collaboration was not easy, especially when distance was involved or people couldn’t access the same information or a worker couldn’t figure out who was the right person to contact. Those barriers are fading fast. Software and networks that support collaboration are in place and inexpensive. Everyone complains about departmental silos; social networks bore through silo walls. I asked Harvard Business School’s Andrew McAfee, who coined the term Enterprise 2.0, why he thinks social software will transform the business world. He told me that today’s collaborative technologies can knit together an enterprise and facilitate knowledge work in ways that were simply not possible previously. They have the potential to usher in a new era by making both the practices of knowledge work and its outputs more visible. Many Happy Returns Business has already squeezed the big process improvements out of its physical systems, but for many companies, collaboration and networking processes are virgin territory. The upside potential is staggering: people innovating, sharing, supporting one another, all naturally and without barriers. The traditional approach has been to automate routine tasks in order to reduce cost; the new vision is to empower people to take advantage of their innate desire to share, learn together and innovate. Web 2.0, the “collaborative web,” renders overstuffed file cabinets and hard drives overflowing with email obsolete. Members of a group can share information and make improvements to one copy that’s virtually available to everyone. Workers learn to remix rather than re-invent, and having everyone read from the same page reduces the odds of mistaking obsolete information for current. Distance no longer keeps workers apart. As we remove obstacles, the time required to do anything shrivels up. Why bother? Collaboration that does not increase revenue, improve relationships with customers, cut costs, grow employees, expand innovation, communicate values, streamline the work process, or help execute strategy should not be funded. 65 Learnscaping
  • 66. Organizations Tips for Community-building Sell, sell, sell Deficient marketing can kill the best learning program Tip #1. Create infrastructure for questions When dealing with small businesses, questions are par for the course, yet few companies think like marketers. A professional and every business’ questions are unique. While no single person can marketer identifies a position in the marketplace for the possibly answer them all, an environment that invites questions and product and creates a brand that appeals to customers. answers from businesses of all types always has someone with When Lance Dublinʼs and my book came out, we answers. presented the idea at Training, TechLearn, ASTD, eLearning Guild, and other conferences. Tip #2. Understand how comfortable users are with technology While blogs are everywhere in the press, not every individual is comfortable with them. I asked more than a thousand training managers about the image they wanted to put in the minds of their Tip #3. Foster relationships consumers. First, make sure that the environment has a variety of individuals from a variety of backgrounds. Then, build relationships with some of them in If your learning programs were a car, what brand would the same way that those individuals are building relationships with each other. And because most word of mouth happens offline, be sure to they be? encourage offline relationships as well. Tip #4. Utilize user-created content User-created content is an excellent trigger for discussion. By making the content accessible and easy to find, those discussions happen much more easily. Tip #5. Have a moderator A moderator is useful in connecting people in similar industries and with similar interests, challenges, and problems. That’s important when a site has a lot of information where it may be difficult for people with like interests to find each other. Jake McKee Why did you choose that one? ...... everything on the earth has a purpose, every disease an herb to cure it, and every person a mission. This is the Indian theory of existence. Mourning Dove Salish Community A community is a group of people who form relationships over time by interacting regularly around shared experiences, which are of interest to all of them for varying individual reasons. Jake McKee 66 Learnscaping
  • 67. Challenge the project champion Every successful collaborative effort has a champion. A champion needs more than enthusiasm to create a successful team. Work to help your champions address these issues: • What is the goal of the collaboration? • What’s the current situation? • What do you expect things to look like after the project? • How will this be accomplished? • What is the business benefit? (In business terms). • How do you quantify the outcomes? • What might go wrong? • Is this a one-time project or an on-going process? Bold moves require a champion. The • Do we have sponsorship higher up? champion’s role is so vital, you must • Who will participate on the team? challenge the champion to inspire • If it’s a one-timer, when will it be completed? collaborators to achieve their full • What is the kill date for the project? potential. 67 Learnscaping
  • 68. Rules for Successfully Scaling Startups Robert Scoble’s advice to startups applies to scaling enterprise learning: Have a story. Have everyone on board with that story. If anyone goes off of that story, make sure they get on board immediately or fire them. Make sure people are judged by the revenues they bring in. Those that bring in revenues should get to run the place. People who don't bring in revenues should get fewer and fewer responsibilities, not more and more. Work ONLY for a leader who will make the tough decisions. Build a place where excellence is expected, allowed, and is enabled. Fire idiots quickly. If your engineering team can't give a media team good measurements, the entire company is in trouble. Only things that are measured ever get improved. When your stars aren't listened to the company is in trouble. Getting rid of the CEO, even if it's all his fault, won't help unless you replace him/her with someone who is visionary and who can fix the other problems. DRAFT
  • 69. Organizations Start simply. Do not try to boil the ocean. Your mileage may vary, but in our experience, initial projects have a better chance of thriving if: Participants have a shared need. Itʼs easy for participants to see whatʼs in it for them. The information involved is not controversial. A sound business case can be made. Stand-alone implementation is feasible (i.e., not requiring connection with other systems) The project yields a good example to use when getting support for other projects. You can open in New Haven. New Haven? Sixty years ago, producers staged new plays at the Shubert Theater in New Haven, Connecticut, before taking them to Broadway. No critics were in the audience, so if a major overhaul was required before the official release, no one was the wiser. Similarly, if your first prototype bombs, itʼs nice to be able to sweep it under the carpet and begin anew. Working with social software Keep it simple Keep it flexible Do it yourself (blog/wiki) or you wonʼt understand it Be innovative, ever alert to productivity improvements Be open to new ways of doing things Release early and release often. Just do it Promotion is important. Remind people where to look Focus on the function rather than on the tools Provide step-by-step how-to guides Provide the opportunity to celebrate small successes Give people time to practice using the software Learnscaping
  • 70. Excerpts from a review by Donald Clark Worksheet for Developing an One would expect a book on eLearning Implementation Action implementation to be written by experienced implementers of e-learning, Plan and this is indeed the case with Cross and Dublin. This book is a welcome change from the general texts on e-learning, now Excerpts from Implementing eLearning that the industry is in its second wave, By Jay Cross and Lance Dublin, 2003 where practical rather than theoretical issues have come to the fore. Derived from Chapter 10 of Implementing eLearning, a 140-page guide The ten chapters cover those things to building a successful change management and internal marketing beyond the technology and content - the plan for your organization. human factors and cultural resistance that implementers face and the tools and The book asks readers to insert the information they developed techniques one can employ to overcome answering the questions that follow to assemble a successful these obstacles. The aim is to guide the implementation action plan. reader into producing an implementation strategy, with the first half of the book covering planning and definition; the second, the actual plan. Implementing e-Learning is for both those who are about to launch an e-learning After a thorough grounding in change initiative as well as those who want to realize greater returns from their existing e- management theory, pulling out summaries learning efforts. Based on extensive research on what has worked and what from the usual suspects such as Kotter, hasn’t in major organizations around the world, it offers practical approaches to Jaffe, Scott, Conner and Rogers, the book ensure the success of e-learning in your organization - based upon proven then gives advice on the readiness of your concepts from change management and consumer marketing. organisation for e-learning. This includes cultural readiness, technology readiness, Some organizations fail to achieve the results they want because they don’t organisational readiness and leadership adequately prepare for the change that e-learning represents. Make no mistake readiness. about it; implementing e-learning is tough. It takes planning and preparation, leadership and accountability, communications and education, and support and It then moves into the theory behind commitment. It takes effective change management. communications, marketing and branding. This is where it gets interesting. The short Other organizations have everything in alignment -- except the learners. They chapter on communications is excellent. assumed they knew what was good for them and they were wrong. You need to Less convincing is the chapter on market think instead of learners as customers and your e-learning as a brand. It’s a research, where some idiosyncratic tools marketing issue. are presented. Chapter seven moves up a gear with some excellent tips, tools and Implementing e-Learning offers practical advice and tools – drawing from real techniques on launching your e-learning. experiences - on how to make your e-learning successful. We believe you will The book continues in this practical vein. find it to be an indispensable tool in your e-learning toolkit. Get it! Read it! Apply Chapter eight covers practical advice on it! copy writing and other marketing techniques and chapter nine the sustaining of the marketing. 70 Learnscaping
  • 71. Implementing E-Learning The opportunity In this knowledge era, the constraint to innovation and success boils down to one factor of production: people. Companies in the forefront are discovering that human resources are the biggest constraint on business progress. Technical talent and the ability to innovate are in short supply. The soft stuff is the hard stuff. Competing successfully requires teams of inspired workers who are mentally equipped to make sound decisions on the fly…to initiate and innovate relentlessly…to execute on good ideas in a snap. The people you put on the front line with customers don’t have time to run every idea up the management flagpole. You must equip them with the resources they need to do it right in real time. Consider today’s working environment. Cycle time shrinks, demanding that all the moving parts of the business work together in real-time. The organization must be able to turn on a dime. Buffers are disintermediated out of existence. Prep time gets squeezed. Slack disappears. People are challenged to act from their individual understanding of the big picture rather than following orders and procedures. The whales of the old Fortune 500 are being surpassed by schools of minnows, each swimming where it will but at the same time synchronized with the school. Traditional approaches to training the corporate workforce are time-consuming and excruciatingly slow. Old style trickle-down training with its one-style-fits-all approach simply cannot keep the pace. Enter eLearning. eLearning keeps people at the top of their game. eLearning leverages technology in new and powerful ways to develop enthusiastic, skilled people and keep them current and operating in peak form –- in real-time, in internet time. At some companies, eLearning has radically improved productivity, fueled innovation, reduced administrative overhead, inspired employees, accelerated the internal flow of intellectual capital, and built competitive advantage. 71 Learnscaping
  • 72. The problem eLearning fails to significantly change the behavior of many who stick with it all the way through because they forget the lessons before they have an opportunity to apply them, the content is not applicable to their work, or they just get tired of rebooting out of the Blue Screen of Death. This book is about making sure you do it right. It's a complex problem. It's pointless to blame the training department, corporate IT, line managers, trainers, or employees for eLearning’s failure to meet expectations. What’s important? At the January 2001 meeting of the eLearning Forum in Menlo Park, Hewlett-Packard’s Rob Harris spoke about the difficulty of gaining internal agreement on a common definition of eLearning. This got the Forum wondering whether the “e” was causing more problems that it was worth. Jay mentioned that perhaps the Board of Directors should consider dropping the “e,” making us the “Learning Forum.” From the row behind him, Cisco’s Peg Maddocks agreed, without skipping a beat saying, “Second the motion.” We kept the “e,” for it’s a great marketing gimmick, but we knew in our hearts that it’s the learning that’s important. Or is it? Management thinker Stan Davis says that no company should aim to become a “learning organization.” A company should be a business organization. On the other hand, Peter Drucker, the noted management guru, says that all companies are learning organizations; if they weren’t – and there are many examples – they’d be out of business. Regardless of your perspective, learning plays a supporting role. Learning is a means to an end, not an end in itself. So, what is the end? Douglas Smith, a well-known expert in learning and performance, said in a recent article in the online newsletter LineZine, “I don’t believe learning is the primary objective for most people in any organization. The primary objective is performance … Most people in organizations are motivated to learn when it makes a difference in their performance and the performance of their organization.” It’s not the “e” that’s important. It’s not the learning that’s important. What’s important is the doing. If learning isn’t producing measurable performance and advancing execution of the corporate strategy, it should be redirected or abolished. “If you build it….” In the movie Field of Dreams , a voice in a cornfield tells the Kevin Costner character, “If you build it, he will come.” He takes this to mean that if he creates a baseball field on his farm, the ghosts of Shoeless Joe Jackson and seven other Chicago White Sox players banned from the game for throwing the 1919 World Series will show up to play. As Roger Ebert noted in his review, “Sometimes you can get too much sun, out there in a hot Iowa cornfield in the middle of the season,” and, “The ghost of Shoeless Joe does not come back to save the world. He simply wants to answer that wounded cry that has become a baseball legend: ‘Say it ain't so, Joe!’ And the answer is, it ain't.” 72 Learnscaping
  • 73. Two Sets of Tools One of us, Lance, is a noted authority and consultant in change management and corporate learning. He is the founder of an industry-leading company that developed custom learning solutions and implemented large-scale organizational change initiatives. His co-author, Jay, is an expert in marketing and design who has helped millions of knowledge workers take responsibility for their own learning. Both of us have successfully implemented extensive learning systems in corporations in the United States and internationally. Real-world experience has taught us to differentiate what really works from the pie-in-the-sky nostrums of consultants whose only experience is giving advice. By our standard, eLearning that does not change employee performance on the job in support of corporate objectives is simply not working. We each have the generalist problem-solving framework that comes from managing companies of our own. Nonetheless, we each focus on the processes we know best in our consulting practices. Lance looks at issues from an organizational perspective. Where is the company trying to go? Who are the stakeholders and what are their concerns? What are the barriers to change and how can we remove them? Jay starts at the other end of the spectrum, looking at things through the eyes of the individuals who make up the organization. How can we make each learner a partner in the progress of the company? What can we do to promote effective learning? How can we convert our learners into enthusiastic fans? Lance sees the world through the lens of change management; his customer is senior management. Jay regards the world as a consumer marketing problem waiting to be solved; his customer is the learner. Top-down and bottom-up “The customer is always right,” and eLearning has lots of customers. Executives market to their organizations. Functional managers market to field managers and supervisors. Supervisors market to their direct reports. Training departments market to learners. If we wanted to, we could talk about executive-customers, manager-customers, supervisor-customers, and learner- customers. We won’t. It would be too confusing. Rather, when we say “customer” or “consumer,” we mean the learner. We will call executives, managers, supervisors, and other participants in the process “stakeholders.” When we’re looking at preparing for eLearning, launching eLearning, and sustaining eLearning, we will talk about how to apply change management from the top and how to apply consumer marketing from the bottom. 73 Learnscaping
  • 74. Marketing Design You won’t find Marketing Design in marketing textbooks or hear it in lecture halls at business schools. That’s because I made it up. I have never been comfortable with the somewhat mechanical approach suggested by the Four P’s and their lockstep approach. You’ve just gathered and summarized what you need to do and the context in which you’ll do it. Now it’s time to think out of the box. It’s time to be creative. We’re going to put our right brains to work. Marketing Design is like brainstorming. Gather a small group of colleagues. Appoint someone the recorder, who will capture ideas on a whiteboard or flipchart. Announce the general rules: Outrageous ideas are welcome. Piggybacking on other people’s ideas is encourages. Negatives are not allowed. Say what comes to mind. Dive in. Get as many ideals out of your heads and onto the whiteboard as possible. Be enthusiastic. Be unrestrained. Go for it. After fifteen or twenty minutes, stop the process. Reflect on what you’ve got. Select the great ideas. You might have people put checkmarks beside their five favorites. Have someone write up your notes for review later on. I often take a digital picture and post it to a website to contemplate later on. You can’t rush creativity. For example, I find that I do some of my best work while I’m asleep. I will plant the seed by thinking about the subject at hand after dinner, telling myself that I intend to wake up with fresh insight. When I awake in the morning, I sit at the keyboard of my computer and the words seem to pop out automatically. After you’ve slept on it, draw a mind map (if you’re visually oriented) or jot down an outline (if words are your thing), no more than a page, to highlight things that feel important to the design of your marketing campaigns. 74 Learnscaping
  • 75. The Discipline of Design For the moment, forget Instructional Design. Forget Graphic Design. Forget Human-Computer Interface Design. We’re talking about Design with a capital D. We focus on Design because is makes us aware that we’re working to create a marketing approach that works well while balancing many factors. It takes creative effort to get there. There’s no one best approach, any more than there’s one best style of coffee pot. You can’t evaluate design out of context. A good design combines the best representative values of the enterprise. For example, design at Braun reflects its commitment to products that are innovative, distinctive, desirable, functional, clear, honest, and aesthetically pleasing. Here is how Braun applies its values to the design of, well, a coffee pot. Braun seeks a solution that is a symbiosis of its values innovative Braun Design strives for true innovation; i.e. innovative design is used in order to express technical and functional innovation in visual form. distinctive Braun Design is guided by enduring values, high standards, and the know-how of talented designers - essential factors for design with a personality and style of its own. desirable The form of a product arises through an intensive study of the real issues surrounding its use and the lives, needs, feelings and wishes of the people who will use it. The product has a friendly, likeable, and natural presence. functional The design sets out to achieve the highest possible degree of usability and to optimize both the features of the product and the process of using them. This approach results in products which are appropriate to their purpose and meet the needs of the user. clear Braun avoids visual complexity and makes the structure of the product visible. The result is a product which is largely self-explanatory and which convinces through its clarity and directness. honest Braun Design is open and honest; it is comprehensible and self-confident. As such, it reflects the fundamental ethos of the entire company. aesthetic Braun Design concentrates on essentials. The logical organization of elements within the context of a structured design concept ensures that the overall impression created by the products is one of harmony and restraint. Using the metaphor of design in marketing reminds us that it is a creative endeavor and gives us time-tested maxims to guide our work: • The most outstanding design is that which is perfectly appropriate to what is trying to be accomplished • Less is more • Form follows function 75 Learnscaping • Everything should be made as simple as possible, but no simpler.
  • 76. Brand, segmentation, position Shaker furniture is renowned for its beauty, balance, and functionality. Shaker design holds true to these guidelines: • Industry: Do all your work as if you had a thousand years to live and as if you were to die tomorrow. • Honesty: Be what we seem to be; and seem to be what we really are; don't carry two faces. • Functionalism: That which in itself has the highest use possesses the greatest beauty. We’re going to take them to heart by focusing on three aspects of marketing design: • Brand– creating a reputation that keeps customers coming back for more and attracts new customers to buy in • Segmentation – optimizing results by treating various parts of markets differently from the whole • Positioning – placing your products in relation to alternatives in the mind’s eye of your customer 76 Learnscaping
  • 77. Challenges What is your gut instinct about the challenges you will face? Take a look at factors within your organization that may help or hinder your implementation. How many good signs do you see and what are they? What are the bad signs you need to watch out for or plan to address? Caution These questions pre-date the web as we know it today. I’ll update them if you guys tell me it would be worthwhile. 77 Learnscaping
  • 78. Business Issues The primary business issues that will impact our eLearning are: Who are the major stakeholders? Owners? Managers? Workers? Partners? Outside customers? How does your proposal support the vision of management? How does this eLearning create value for your stakeholders What trade-offs are you making? Describe the risk in your proposal and compare it to the rewards. How do you think your customers will feel? How are you applying the 80/20 rule? What high-leverage groups or activities have you chosen? What your coalition? How will you anchor eLearning in your culture? How do you plan to recruit innovators and early adopters? Who are our primary cus 78 Learnscaping
  • 79. Organizational Culture and Change We must keep in mind that our organizational culture is: What artifacts typify your organization's culture? What are the distinct features of your corporate culture? Where do you see your culture on Hofstede's scales? And how might this encourage or block eLearning? We are preparing to support our eLearning implementation through leadership. Which organizational leaders are backing our efforts and why? Who are our change agents and why? What will we do to support them? Are the learners prepared for this change? Is our organization prepared for change? Is our technology up to the task? How will the initiative be governed? Do the skills, knowledge, and abilities exist in our organization to ensure the success of our implementation? What is our vision? [A vision statement is a picture of what you want the future to look like- what you aspire to become, to achieve, to create.] What is our mission? [Your mission examines the project's purpose and expresses its sense of value. Perhaps most important, a mission inspires people to stand out, and it guides leaders.] What are audiences do we need to reach with our communication plan? What are the messages these audiences need to hear, and when? What are the communication vehicles and activities we'll use? What will we do increase awareness? What will we do to increase involvement? What will we do to increase commitment? 79 Learnscaping
  • 80. Market Research 1. We undertook the following research to learn about: • our consumers, the learners • consumer behavior • competitors for consumers' attention • sponsors • our brand image • organizational goals • our industry's environment • the macroeconomic environment • trends in eLearning technology 2. Our consumers: We've identified and described the target customers for our eLearning. The consumers, your customers, are the most important topic of all. Use the 80/20 rule to select the groups with the most likely impact. Then describe each group using a target consumer description form. Two forms are provided below. Identity: Identity: Number: Number: Location: Location: Tenure: Tenure: Turnover: Turnover: New hires: New hires: Learning needs: Learning needs: Line sponsor: Line sponsor: Bottom-line impact expected: Bottom-line impact expected: 80 Learnscaping
  • 81. Market Research, continued 3. Competitors: We’ve identified the major competitors for the time and interest of our employees. What or who are your major competitors? What other corporate priorities will you be competing against? What objections do you expect from your customers? 4. Sponsors: We've coordinated our plans with many people in the organization. Who are our executive sponsors? What's in it for them? Who are our line management sponsors? What's in it for them? Who are our technical sponsors? What's in it for them? Whom must we rely on for success? What's in it for them? How do we plan to get their backing and support? 5. Organizational goals: We know and support what our company is trying to accomplish What are our organization's overall goals? What is the current mandate from executive management? How does our eLearning initiative relate to its achievement? 81 Learnscaping
  • 82. Market Research, continued 6. Our industry's environment in light of the direction in our industry, we've identified trends that will influence our eLearning initiatives. • What are the major trends in our industry? • Is solution selling replacing point sales? • Are customers going for self-service? • Is automation changing the flow of work? • Is the enterprise becoming more international? • Are processes being outsourced or moving overseas? • Are competitors introducing new generations of products? 7. Macroeconomic environment. We expect that global events will affect our industry and its need for learning. • What political, economic, and social changes in the world at large may affect our business? • What impact do you expect from increasing workforce diversity? Aging of the workforce? Economic volatility? Declining half-life of knowledge? Faster pace of business? Increased regulation? Globalization? International terrorism? Declining public education standards? Other factors? • How do we plan to adapt to the changes deemed relevant to our industry? 82 Learnscaping
  • 83. Market Research, continued 8. Learning technology: In all likelihood, the next three years will see shifts in eLearning technology, and we need to lay the groundwork for adaptation now as… learning and knowledge management converge eLearning becomes a Web service simulation replaces linear subject orientation eLearning and other enterprise-wide systems converge content becomes more industry-specific extent of high-quality generic content increases in core areas individualized learning prescriptions are based on competency assessments competency management replaces needs analysis. Wrap up market research section If you've shared your findings with others, perhaps via your intranet, describe the confirmation or suggestions you've received from them. Your market research could fill an extensive report. Don’t let it. Less is more. Go back through your findings and eliminate anything that doesn't matter. After all, not every industry trend or competitor is going to make even a ripple in your eLearning pond. Less is more. Pick the two or three most striking findings in each category, and use them to write a terse market research summary. 83 Learnscaping
  • 84. Marketing Design Effective consumer marketing strategies rest on a foundation of • a brand that creates a reputation that keeps customers coming back and attracts new customers • market segmentation that optimizes results by leveraging the most appropriate groups of customers • a position that places your product in the sweet spot in the mind of the customer. We have used these concepts to develop our eLearning implementation plan: [Please restate your elevator pitch here.] 1. What do we want our organization and services to be known for? What do we promise our customers? 2. What is our functional value proposition to our consumers? 3. What is our emotional value proposition to our consumers? 4. How will our brand identity give meaning to the lives of our customers? 5. Just as a brand identity may reflect a person (personality), it may reflect an organization and its culture. What attributes of your organization might your incorporate into your brand identity? With these factors in mind, the brand identity of our eLearning consists of the following elements: 1. Brand name: 2. Brand symbol or logo: 3. A few core values: 4, What are our target markets and why did we choose them? 5. Which market segments will we focus on? 84 Learnscaping
  • 85. Launch Include the materials you developed in chapters 7 and 8. For example: a three-paragraph email announcing the eLearning initiative, a draft brochure for the program, an email invitation to an open house and demonstration, and a publicity poster. 1. List five ways you intend to create buzz. 2. List five common obstacles to eLearning, and for each explain how you propose to overcome it. [If you are receiving help from your marketing communications department, you’re naturally going to describe what they are doing for support and show any samples they have developed for you.] Sustaining eLearning It’s a shame when people work hard to create a program and 1. How will we provide feedback to learners and their bosses? then blow it by under-investing in 2. How will we handle complaints? packaging. We’ve presented the 3. How will we assess customer satisfaction? development of your eLearning 4. How will we keep our focus on the customer? plan as a fill-in-the-blank 5. How will we show our customers that we respect them? exercise. Filling in the blanks is 6. Do we plan to use mystery learners? not all you need to do. 7. How will learners be able to co-create future learning events? Have some old hands and people 8. Are we setting up a learner council? unfamiliar with your project read 9. Are experienced employees to mentor new employees? through your plan. Pay attention 10. How will we support the development of communities of practice? to their feedback. Tighten up your 11. How frequently will we provide progress reports to stakeholders? logic and your writing. A couple of 12. What will be in stakeholder reports? months’ work justifies a few 13. How will we identify or solicit new challenges? days’ polishing to sell your ideas. 14. How will we monitor satisfaction? 15. How will stakeholders request improvements or additions? 16. Are we setting up a board of advisors or a steering committee? 17. Is professional development of one's direct reports in managers' job descriptions? 18. Have supervisors themselves learned to support and reinforce their subordinates' learning? 19. What systems need to be changed? 20. What performance management systems need to be changed? 21. What formal and informal rewards and recognition systems will you leverage? 22. Hitch a ride! What organizational initiatives will you seek to become part of? 85 Learnscaping
  • 86. Action Steps BACK- GROUND Jot down your thoughts wherever there’s white space. 86 Learnscaping
  • 87. Organizations The Future of Talent Traditionally, HR has two major functions: administration and developing people. The administrative part is the busywork benefits, personnel policies, retirement plans, reporting and other routine activities. Outsourcing this clutter is generally a good idea. What remains is talent. Some people call this Talent Management but management is the wrong term. We want to inspire people to do great work; telling them to do great work is a non-starter. People are not assets; all assets depreciate in value over time. Think of your people as investors. High performance is in an investor’s self interest. In-house investor relations is more a matter of stewardship. When I use the term talent, talent stewardship is what I mean. Talent has everything to do with relationships: recruiting the right people, developing people, keeping them on board, and seeing that they are fulfilled. Successful relationships are flexible and personalized. In lieu of control, organizations must provide opportunities for people to grow, to excel, to find meaning in work, and to find a higher purpose in what they do. Once we point to the desired destination, we must trust our people/investors to head there. Power to the people! Giving people freedom is a trade-off with trying to control them. Micro-managing adherence to rules instead of helping our people focus on outcomes gets in the way of getting the job done. People resent the intrusion. It is high time to replace rules-based management with principles- based leadership. Traditionalists worry about the time unmanaged people will waste going down blind alleys. This sort of thinking misses the bigger picture. Giving people more freedom enriches the role of the manager. Gone is the tar pit of looking for exceptions and whipping people back into line. You can inspire many times as many people as you can try to control. Eliminating needless minor adjustments frees up manager time to work on the big stuff. The annual retreats on the Future of Talent conducted by Global Learning Resources keep me up to speed on these topics. 87 Learnscaping
  • 88. Harness Collective Intelligence Frameworks for Learning & Development Organizations Learning is not what organizations should focus on these days, at least not learning as we have known it. Once empowering, our traditional concept of learning has grown obsolete. And development? Development is a shared Live instructors are analogous to bank tellers. Thirty years ago, few responsibility, not something we do for others. people could imagine making their own deposits and withdrawals. Now they can’t imagine being required to work with a teller face to face. The In the mid-twentieth century, learning sought to bridge the gap between people’s only place to get cash was inside a bank building or perhaps at a grocery current skills & knowledge and what we thought they would need to get the job store. done in the future. Here’s the rub: treating learning like this assumes that conditions never change. Yet today’s jobs change blazingly fast. Shorter and Networks, both personal and electronic, provide the means to populate shorter product development cycles leave no time to develop training programs the workplace with the knowledge equivalent of Automatic Teller even if people wanted it. Machines, online banking, electronic bill-paying, debit cards, and electronic funds transfer, everywhere and any time. Building the Consider the textbook process for designing learning, ADDIE: analyze, design, connections for a networked knowledge system seems so appealing that develop, implement, and evaluate. Analysis is crippled when the vision of the you wouldn’t expect resistance, as least among professionals who value future is murky. Program design presumes we can peer into the heads of self- the outsize convenience and benefits. You would be wrong. service learners. Development is a farce when the lessons are co-created with the learner. Implementation implies an event, something that ends, and that’s when Everyone I talk with can get behind no-brainers like making it easier to we evaluate it. Learning today is ongoing; it advances incrementally. It has to get answers to questions or cutting down on email. This is but the tip of a keep current with its subject matter. Development never stops. very, very deep iceberg. In this case, incrementalism is the enemy of innovation. Trusting employees to do the right thing, encouraging people Think back to why organizations wanted learning in the first place: to share information, expecting innovation from everyone, not keeping an eagle-eye on employee behavior, living in real time, and making people for people to know how do their jobs responsible for their own development and growth: these are cultural to improve service to customers, internal and external issues. Imagine replacing a tightly structured one-way corporate meeting to stay current with new developments with a loosely-structured un-meeting, trusting things will self-organize. to prepare for the challenges of the future The internet and, more important, the values that accompany the internet Workers still need to know how to do their jobs and increasingly, those jobs are create a radical transformation of our most basic assumptions. I don’t something they have never done before. What better teacher than someone who mean using Google to look things up or Skype to make free phone calls has been there? Let me have the email address or phone number of someone anywhere in the world. No, I’m thinking of a business world that is who can answer my questions without wasting time to tell me what I already transparent, authentic, open, collaborative, customer-facing, loosely- know. Or give me the number of an internal customer service hot-line. Or let me coupled, and amorphous. I mean a world where time is relative, distance look up the instructions or FAQ. Let me find things out at the moment I need is dead, observation changes what the observer see, value resides in know, not so far in advance that I will have forgotten it by the time I need it. intangibles, and inflexibility spells extinction. Knowledge workers demand to know what they’re expected to do, but they resent Hyperbole is me. Sometimes the future appears clear to me, and I don’t being told how to do it. This is where co-creation comes in. Instead of force- shy from sharing what I see, even though the first things to appear are its feeding my brain, make it easy for me to find the answers for myself. extremes. So no, I don’t expect everyone to try leaping over to this side of the great divide. I do believe, however, that you can’t reap the benefits of the new way of seeing the world without letting go of what you’ve become accustomed to. Perception is reality but we perceive only what we expect. Therefore, the entrance to the new landscape for intellectual adaptation, continuous improvement, and learning without end is UNLEARNING. 88 Learnscaping
  • 89. A view from IT Organizations The collaboration section of a magazine geared to IT professionals recently contained an article titled Cat-Herding Nightmare. The first paragraph echoes the Web 2.0-is-good-for-you party line: Web 2.0 collaboration tools are irresistible to end users: They’re easy to set up and use and can be accessed from anywhere. Employees can upload or create documents, spreadsheets, wikis, and blogs, then invite co-workers and partners to access, edit, and download content. These apps often include productivity enhancers such as search and tagging. And not surprisingly, vendors are encouraging the trend–Microsoft and IBM have added wikis and blogging capabilities to enterprise apps including SharePoint and Lotus, while Google and upstarts like Socialtext, PBwiki, and Jive Software are luring corporate users with freebie accounts and dead-simple deployment. provision users in minutes, pay with discretionary funds–and never make a single call to IT. Warning to IT folks: Mayday! Mayday! Turf is being threatened. Put up the shields. Ready the cannon. Mayday! Mayday1 All these wonderful benefits. Too bad there’s a dark side. Sadly, all IT gets out of the deal is a big fur ball as it struggles to organize corporate content run amok. The potential for exposure of sensitive information or theft of intellectual property runs high, as do concerns about noncompliance with corporate or third-party requirements as end users scatter sensitive information around the Internet. If the company gets tangled in litigation, data relevant to discovery requests may be lurking unknown on third-party servers, exposing the organization to financial or legal sanctions. Implication: IT can’t trust those pesky users. Possible solution: Get the knock-off versions of web tools provided by IBM, EMC, BEA, and Microsoft. That lets IT continue its battle to maintain control, even if it means dumping all those great benefits. The article notes that the products from the big boys… …also come with the downsides of enterprise software–longer and more costly deployment than software as a service, and longer lag between upgrades. Enterprises are unlikely to dip their toes into collaboration through a six-figure software deployment. It’s not uncommon to find companies using SharePoint and third-party SaaS products. The article concludes that IT needs to keep ahead of technologies and provide services before users demand them. That would be great but I am skeptical. Since IT has rarely come down from its me-first perch, why stop now? Isn’t it easier to focus on the damage workers might do rather than the benefits an open business gives its stakeholders. Should we really let IT make the tradeoff between the hair-ball messiness of web 2.0 and staying in business? Nah, we won’t get fooled again. I’ve looked at this from both sides now, it’s up and down and still somehow, I don’t think we should be picking sides at all. IT should support the business, not the other way around. 89 Learnscaping
  • 90. Organizations Making the Decision to Decentralize 3/29/2004 Is your business better off with a central command structure or decentralized? Your future depends on the right answer. An excerpt from the new book, The Future of Work. by Thomas W. Malone Author Thomas Malone, a professor at MIT Sloan School of Management, says that the cheap cost of communication—e-mail, instant messaging, the Internet—is making possible a new type of organizational structure. This organization of the future will be decentralized, the term defined as participation of people in making the decisions that matter to them. Decentralization brings with it increased productivity and quality of life. But decentralization isn't right in every situation. In this chapter from Malone's new book, he asks: When should you decentralize?—Ed. Soon after Lou Gerstner became CEO of IBM in 1993, he made what he calls probably the biggest decision of his entire career. At the time, many people in IBM and the business press were convinced that the best course for the lumbering dinosaur was to break itself up into smaller companies. By decentralizing in this way, they said, IBM would obtain the benefits of smallness that it sorely needed—things like flexibility, speed, and entrepreneurial motivation. And the market would be able to coordinate the interactions of the resulting companies better than IBM's corporate executives could. But Gerstner became convinced that the best choice was to do exactly the opposite: keep IBM as a single large company and use its unique size and capabilities to help customers integrate the diverse components of their information technology (IT) systems. In other words, he wanted to use the hierarchical decision-making structures of an integrated IBM to help coordinate all the IT decisions that customers would otherwise have to make on their own (or hire someone else to make for them). Continues online at See for more than a thousand free articles. 90 Learnscaping
  • 91. Organization s At home, at work Workers have more sophisticated web 2.0 tools and techniques at home than at work. It’s as if they write with a word processor at home but have only a manual typewriter to use at the office. Individuals get the latest stuff when they want to while the enterprise feels compelled to filter things through entrenched departments, stodgy procedures, drawn-out planning, and multiple layers of approval. People can often get up to speed quickly on enterprise apps because they are At home: already familiar with web technology. The low cost and easy installation of many web tools makes it easy for workers to prototype new applications without approval from the IT department. Removing the IT middle man between business need and business solution makes things happen without waiting in line. Furthermore, putting control in the hands of end users lowers the risk of creating unworkable “solutions.” Workers to whom technologies such as instant messenger, Facebook, and unrestricted search have no patience with organizations that limit their use at work. The success of some organizations in granting workers more freedom demonstrates that loosening control does not automatically result in irresponsible behavior or At work: chaos. Web technologies change organizational culture. Web 2.0 is a force for decentralization. Give people the tools to share ideas, to collaborate with one another, to escape organizational boundaries, to communicate directly with customers, and to take initiative, and that’s just what they will do. Information is power, and widely-shared information empowers workers. Networks subvert hierarchy. Web connections enable workers to walk through the walls of silos and to get on the same side of the fence as customers and partners. Doing things in the open for all to see works against information hoarding, hidden agendas, political maneuvering, officiousness, and bureaucracy. 91 Learnscaping
  • 92. Organization “If you think you can do a The wheel of change moves on, s and those who were down go up thing, or think you canʼt do a and those who were up go down. thing, youʼre right.” Henry Ford “Never, Never, Never, Jawaharlal Nehru Never give up.” Winston Churchill “It is best to learn as we go, Without accepting the fact that not go as we have learned.” everything changes, we cannot find perfect composure. But Leslie Jeanne Sahler unfortunately, although it is true, it is difficult for us to accept it. Because we cannot accept the A scholar who loves “Expecting the world to treat you truth of transience, we suffer. comfort is not fit to be fairly because you are a good called a scholar. person is like expecting the bull not Shunryu Suzuki to charge you because you are a Confucius, Analects vegetarian.” Harold Kushner There are three kinds of people: those who can count and those who canʼt. “If I had six hours to chop down a tree, Iʼd spend the first four sharpening the axe.” Abraham Lincoln The Law of Two Feet Changing culture is hard If youʼre getting antsy, skip to another section. You may find something more Changing the nature of how people relate to one another at work is not worthy of your time up ahead. You can read easy. People, organizations, and corporate cultures have different views (or skip) things in an order you feel like. We on being open, taking risks, trying new things, realigning responsibilities, have no linear hang-ups here. learning new technologies, and trusting one another. What works in one organization may fail in the next. The safe approach is to begin with a few small- scale experiments, score “In my life Iʼve some successes, and replicate them in other areas of the company. As experienced many the technology takes hold, policies are drawn to enforce common terrible things, a few standards and safe behavior. of which actually happened.” Mark Twain 92 Learnscaping
  • 93. Organizations Is your organization ready for change? Probably so Easy for people to share knowledge Willing to share ideas in progress Want to enable many voices Can deal with messiness Probably not Management is obsessively controlling Unlikely to accept changes in how you work Workers not online Everything must be vetted by central authority Professionals learn more from one another than they will ever learn from outsiders. 93 Learnscaping
  • 94. What’s in it for my organization? Organizations Speed up the flow of information through the organization Improve customer service Streamline workflow and slash bureaucracy Unleash the power of collective intelligence Harvardʼs Andy McAfee says Create a nerve center for corporate news and market intelligence “Enterprise 2.0 is the use of emergent social software Make all corporate know-how accessible 24/7 platforms within companies, Recruit best candidates for new positions and make them productive quickly or between companies and their partners or customers.” Replace training classes with informal, hands-on learning Open the process of innovation to all employees Help workers build strong, supportive relationships Enable managers to assess the status and direction of projects Empower all employees to contribute ideas and feel part of the team Better relationships with customers, prospects, recruits, partners, suppliers ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ Who’s the audience? “I shall pass through this world but once; any good things, therefore, that I can do, or any kindness that I can show to any human being, or dumb animal, let me do it now. Let me not deter it or neglect it, for I shall not pass this way again.” –John Galsworthy 94 Learnscaping
  • 95. Committed team members Organizations Itʼs great to begin a long-term collaboration with a face-to-face meeting. Either in person or virtual, social bonding comes before business, for thatʼs the platform on which the work will be built. Begin with games and getting-to-know-you exercises. Give people time to talk and become familiar with one another. Social connections remain vital throughout the collaboration. People work best with people they know. Encourage people to share information about themselves. Post photographs of participants. Pinpoint their locations on a map.. Itʼs important that collaborators are working under the same set of assumptions. Discuss each of these areas and ask for individual commitment to them. Respect the team, and do what is best to accomplish the objective. Be selfless, not selfish. Members will be active. If a member spots something to improve the collaboration, she volunteers to do it. Members freely share ideas and suggestions. They do not hoard information or keep secrets. Members treat each other with respect. The team is committed to continuous improvement. Members care for one another emotionally, helping one another over rough spots and fears. Use whatever tools are appropriate to advance the project: phone calls, on- line meetings. Members trust one another. They “make this marriage work.” Be prepared for push-back. Workers who see collaboration as hindering their work rather than supporting it will be reluctant to join the effort. Organizations that are accustomed to a single viewpoint (usually top managementʼs) can become rattled as other voices begin to speak. Itʼs useful to recruit a band of early supporters to help sell the value of the project. 95 Learnscaping
  • 96. IBM and Sun employees have One company’s policy for wikis thousands of blogs and wikis. • • Assume good faith Assume that most people who work on the project are trying to help it, not hurt it. Both companies have great • • Civility Being rude, insensitive or petty makes people upset and hinders collaboration. policies in place because they’ve • • Common sense Donʼt do anything you wouldnʼt do face to face. been improved over time. • • Editing policy Improve pages wherever you can, and don't worry about leaving them imperfect. • (Itʼs all beta.) • No personal attacks Save yourself lots of time and • • Do not make personal attacks. Comment on content, not on the contributor.. Ownership of articles legal fees: take their policies. • You agreed to allow others to modify your work. So let them. They’re on the web and also in the Learnscaping Cloud. Trust Giving every worker the ability to write things into documents that can be seen by all looks like a formula for chaos. And wonʼt some bad actors muck about, spraying the files with digital graffiti. Time and time again, the answer has turned out to be “no.” When you have high Jimmy Wales, the founder of Wikipedia, has addressed the issue of vandalism expectations of people, they countless times. He draws an analogy to opening a new restaurant. This is America, so the restaurant is going to serve steak. Some steak is tough, so he generally live up to them. will provide patrons with steak knives. People can stab one another with knives, so he will seat his guests in cages. Whoa! Time out! Youʼve got to trust the people to behave in a civilized manner or give up on the restaurant idea entirely. And so it goes with open collaboration in the corporate world. Employees donʼt turn into monsters just because they are online. Everything submitted carries the name of its author. What better way to lose your job than by acting foolishly in front of all to see 96 Learnscaping
  • 97. Organizations Organizations of the Future The future world of business is evolving into plug- and-play, outsourcing functions that are not core. Internet technology provides a common language for connecting business functions and processing routine transactions. “Iʼll have my computers talk with your computers.” Old hands know that without an online collaboration framework in-house, the Speed company could be cut off from its customers and business partners. Also, itʼs unlikely many of the people being hired right out of college would buy into the old lone worker with pencil and paper routine. Structure
  • 98. Business Focus on core, outsource the rest Invest your money (or energy) where it will do the most good. CONTEXT CONTEXT At the organizational level, do what your group does best and outsource anything left over. Concentrate on your secret sauce, not on routine and administrative stuff. What you’re really good at CORE Any behavior that can raise your stock price is core — everything else is context. Context is “hygiene.” Do you bathe? Good. If you didn’t you’d lose your job. But don’t expect to receive a promotion for bathing no matter how squeaky clean you are. Your secret sauce CONTEXT Differentiating on context is the single biggest waste of resources in Fortune 500 operations. Without very careful management, CONTEXT context always gets in the way of core because it absorbs time, Hand this stuff off talent and management attention. CONTEXT Shareholder value (AKA market cap) is a function of competitive advantage, and organizations achieve it by focusing on core. Companies are using social software to: Everything else is context, and context is a needless distraction. You don’t profit by maintaining trucks, cutting paychecks, or Speed up the flow of information through the taking out the garbage. Hand those things off to organizations for organization whom those activities are core, e.g. Ryder Truck, ADP, or Waste Improve customer service Management. Streamline workflow and slash bureaucracy Unleash the power of collective intelligence This applies to how you invest your personal time, too. To the Create nerve centers for corporate news and extent that you can pass off busy-work, you gain more time to be market intelligence productive. For example, consider someone who makes $150/ Make all corporate know-how accessible 24/7 hour doing her own taxes to “save” paying a tax preparer $500. Recruit the best candidates for new positions Since the tax work requires getting back up to speed, and make them productive quickly assembling the right collection of forms, and not inconsiderable Replace training classes with informal, hands-on arithmetic, preparing the taxes takes ten hours. Time is a limited learning resource. She is trading the $1,500 she might have made to Open the process of innovation to all employees “save” $500. Help workers build strong, supportive relationships If you’re a working professional, it’s probably not sound to wash Enable managers to assess the status and your own laundry, move your yard, or paint the front fence. direction of projects Unless, of course, these activities energize your brain. Agatha Empower all employees to contribute ideas and Christie did the dishes to come up with answers, Golda Meir feel part of the team shined her tea kettle. Develop more productive relationships with customers, prospects, recruits, partners, supply chain, and other employees 98 Learnscaping
  • 99. THE ECOLOGY OF LEADERSHIP by Peter M. Senge Asking the Right Questions The best way to learn is to ask questions. Here are a few starters for diagnosing the strengths and weaknesses of your organization. • What are our unifying values? What have we stood for over time? The ability to provide context and meaning for the work people do is key. • How do you organize your time? Is it spent on what you say is important? If you want to know if youʼre really adding value, look at your calendar. • Whom do you depend on? Your real work team is those people you count on to do your job — including support staff, suppliers, customers, direct reports, even regulators. Your performance depends on the quality of those relationships. • What are you being paid for? All leaders must understand what results theyʼre accountable for. • How well do you practice teamwork, empowerment, service, or whatever values you espouse? Credibility is the No. 1 issue for leaders. By taking an honest look at your own practices — and asking others to look at them — youʼll know where you stand. • How do you convey difficult issues? Learning requires an acceptance, by definition, that one doesnʼt have all the answers. Your ability to discuss complex problems and develop solutions without making others defensive is a key to learning. 99 Learnscaping
  • 100. Eco-learning Business This is Management 2.0: we are all leaders. We must keep one another informed in real time. We trust living systems to self-organize. Ironically, these are not really some business consultant’s rules; they are Mother Nature’s. The biggest challenge businesses today face is unlearning what was successful in the industrial age and learning how to prosper in the network era. Most companies are stuck in the past. In addition to their over-reliance on control, these organizations think business a zero-sum game; I win, you lose. They tend to have a black-and-white view of the world; things are rigid; the fundamentals Bioteams, by Ken Thompson still apply. Secrecy is competitive advantage; hoarding information is the norm. On the other hand, to companies that embrace the future, reality is the unpredictable result of complex adaptive forces. Nothing is perfect; stuff happens. Cooperation is a win-win game. Relationships are all-important, and the more open you are, the easier it is to form them. Companies are not machines; they are living organisms. Yesterday’s organizational teams are giving way to organic, self-organizing bioteams. Here’s the punch line: After 3.8 billion years of research and development, failures are fossils, and what surrounds us is the secret to survival. Like the viceroy butterfly imitating the monarch, we humans are imitating the best and brightest organisms in our habitat. We are learning, for instance, how to grow food like a prairie, Nature knows best build ceramics like an abalone, create color like a peacock, self-medicate like a chimp, compute like a cell, and run a business like a hickory forest. Many managers misunderstand the dynamic and living nature of the team as an entity over and above its membership. Among the natural attributes of bioteams are: Collective Leadership. Any group member can take the lead. Instant Messaging. Instant whole-group broadcast communications. Ecosystems. Small is Beautiful … but Big is Powerful. Clustering. Engaging many through the few. Plant a seed and look to nature to do the rest. Give workers resources and challenge them to do what’s required. Rather than give them an extra push, enable them to achieve accountability through transparency, not permission. This is business Ken Thompson wants to define the team in terms of ‘network transformations’ – not outputs. Transformation is going to require transparency, trust in the team, shared glory, incremental improvement, and clear accountability. 100 Learnscaping
  • 101. Innovation, whether in the context of improving existing processes or reinventing an Business entire industry, is never a mechanical process. While each practice is distinct, it occurs in a fluid continuum. Two or more practices are often done in conjunction, certain practices may be repeated, and an element of each is always present in the others. The three stages of the process – what we refer to here as sensing, knowing, and executing – are common to all Three statisticians are out hunting creative endeavors. High-performing individuals, teams, and organizations are constantly when they see a deer. The first iterating through this cycle. guy shoots and misses, ten feet to the left. The second guy shoots and also misses, ten feet to the In summary, we found that leading in the digital economy requires sensing and recognizing right. The third statistician starts emerging patterns and positioning oneself, personally and organizationally, as part of the jumping up and down flailing his forces of change that are continually reshaping the world. Those who are successful appear arms wildly, screaming, “We got to follow practices and principles which enhance this capacity. When this capability is fully him! We got him!” developed, leaders at every level in organizations will find that through their intentions and actions they themselves can actively participate in the unfolding of new business worlds – and the rules by which they are created. Illuminating the Blind Spot of Leadership Design principles for evolving high-velocity business environments Immersion—becoming fully engaged in the contexts at issue. In the words of Brian Arthur: observe, observe, observe. All profound innovations occur in an atmosphere of immersion. In that atmosphere, or sphere, one fully observes all that is happening and is also open to ideas from outside its boundaries. Interpretation—becoming conscious of one’s own and other people’s views and moving across all of them with ease. Nonaka’s principle of multi-discipline and multi-viewpoint dialogue supports the development of new interpretations. McKinsey’s Richard Foster brings artists into corporate strategy conversations to inspire new interpretations. Imagination—a quality of observation that involves seeing and sensing: seeing objects and sensing emerging patterns that suggest future possibilities. The imagination, says Henri Bortoft, is an “organ of perception.” To imagine is to “redirect one’s attention,” as Varela puts it, from objects to sources and patterns. Inspiration and Intuition—the senses that allow one to recognize and strive for the highest possibilities. This is the level of primary knowing that Eleanor Rosch talks about, the level of presencing one’s highest possibility. And it is the level Kahane was speaking of when he talked about the turning point of stillness in his Guatemala story. Intention—the alignment of one’s will with what is trying to emerge as the larger whole.79 One of the best leverages for changing the structure of organizational fields lies in the conscious use of one’s intention. “Intention is not the most powerful force” says Brian Arthur, “it is the only force.” Instant execution—rapid experimentation and prototyping in order to capitalize on emerging opportunities. At this stage, a laser focus on instant execution and fast-cycle experimentation and learning are paramount. Execution also means terminating experiments and options that do not work. Implementation—embedding and embodying the seeds of innovation in appropriate structures. These structures facilitate the next phase of evolution, emergence, and flow. 101 Learnscaping
  • 102. The Mythical Man-Month Business Fred Brooks wrote The Mythical Man-Month about the lessons learned as the senior software engineer behind OS/360, at the time the slickest operating system ever written. What became known as Brooks’ Law states, “Assigning more programmers to a project running behind schedule will make it even later, due to the time required for the new programmers to learn about the project, as well as the increased communication overhead. When N people have to communicate among themselves (without a hierarchy), as N increases, their output M decreases and can even become negative (i.e. the total work remaining at the end of a day is greater than the total work that had been remaining at the beginning of that day, such as when many bugs are created).” He also noted: To make a user-friendly system, the system must have conceptual integrity, which can only be achieved by separating architecture from implementation. To avoid disaster, all the teams working on a project should remain in contact with each other in as many ways as possible (e-mail, phone, meetings, memos etc.) Instead of assuming something, the implementer should instead ask the architects to clarify their intent on a feature he is implementing, before proceeding with an assumption that might very well be completely incorrect. Brooks muses that “good” programmers are generally 5-10 times as productive as mediocre ones. Brooks’ Law seemed both whimsical and radical back in ‘75. It didn’t seem right that adding people to a project would slow it down. A programmer told me it was like a woman having a baby in nine months; it didn’t mean nine women could not produce baby in one month. Brooks was saying more that that. He recognized that the output of knowledge workers was not directly related to the hours they worked. Today we recognize that a great knowledge worker may produce as much value as a hundred of her less gifted peers. Schools may mix the student with off-the-charts promise with his average classmates to avoid the appearance of favoritism. In business, it pays to devote special attention to superlative performers. Knowledge workers can goof off and still be productive. Factory workers, particularly those on production lines, produce the same amount of value each hour. Most manual labor is similar: the best performer may produce 125% of the norm, but never 500%. Managers were lulled into equating hours and output. An employee who knocked off work early was presumed to be a slacker. Kibitzing in the coffee room was regarded as downtime. Knowledge work is different. Google recruiters figure a top engineer can produce two hundred times more value than the norm! Assume that top engineer sits on a beach for six months and then, in the course of a few minutes, comes up with Google’s new $5 billion innovation? 102 Learnscaping
  • 103. A page just for you How to behave Live as if this is all there is. * Look for the best in others. Other esteem. * Share my thoughts and feelings. Be authentic. Be alert. Keep an open mind. Follow your heart. Mindfulness matters. * Open the door to feedback. * Be here now. * Smile. Learn. Laugh. Pay attention. * Walk in other people's shoes. * Practice optimism. Be here now. * Get out of your comfort zone. * Live with intention. * Get a game going. * Think out of the box. * Do what you love. Do it with gusto. * Maintain balance. * Don't obsess. Mental expectations set real limits * Learned helplessness. * They are able because they think they are able. Vigil * Optimism works better than pessimism. * Logic = blinders to intuitive exploration. Your rules here. Time is a great teacher, but unfortunately it kills all its pupils. Hector Berlioz 103 Learnscaping
  • 104. Move Closer to the Edge Innovation Innovation Innovation Innovation “Out of the box” Innovation Innovation “The Box” Convention “Out of the box” Former Comfort Zone Feeling wild & crazy New Comfort Zone 104 Learnscaping
  • 105. The silent spring of American education Cognition If you enjoy a good rant and haven’t experienced John Taylor Gatto, you’re in for a treat. Gatto was an award-winning teacher before coming to believe that compulsory schooling is a sham foisted off on America for the needs of business, fear of a competent people, and a misreading of German mental science. His The Underground History of American Education is a gripping read — and it’s all available on the web. Gatto makes compelling arguments for dismantling our entire dysfunctional educational system. Socrates foresaw if teaching became a formal profession, something like this would happen. Professional interest is served by making what is easy to do seem hard; by subordinating the laity to the priesthood. School is too vital a jobs-project, contract giver and protector of the social order to allow itself to be “re-formed.” It has political allies to guard its marches, that’s why reforms come and go without changing much. Even reformers can’t imagine school much different. David learns to read at age four; Rachel, at age nine: In normal development, when both are 13, you can’t tell which one learned first —the five-year spread means nothing at all. But in school I label Rachel “learning disabled” and slow David down a bit, too. For a paycheck, I adjust David to depend on me to tell him when to go and stop. He won’t outgrow that dependency. I identify Rachel as discount merchandise, “special education” fodder. She’ll be locked in her place forever. In 30 years of teaching kids rich and poor I almost never met a learning disabled child; hardly ever met a gifted and talented one either. Like all school categories, these are sacred myths, created by human imagination. They derive from questionable values we never examine because they preserve the temple of schooling. 105 Learnscaping
  • 106. Learned helplessness Cognition They are able because they think they are able. Virgil In Learned Optimism, Marty Seligman describes how depressed people are their own worst enemy. They imagine the walls of the non-existent cell that holds them in. Put a dog in a box with a transparent cover. The dog bumps his nose on the glass every time he tries to leap out of the box. He learns the box is inescapable. Remove the cover, and the dog remains trapped. He has learned that he can’t jump out of the box. Giving it a try will only bend his nose out of shape. Organizations live within the confines of their own self-imposed limits. “We can’t…” should always be questioned. People in one area of an organization refuse to consider no approaches, using the excuse of “We don’t do that here.” Others in the same organization don’t have recognize the invisible boundaries. They grab opportunity where they can find it. They become what Jack Welsh calls a boundary-less organization. The beliefs of the boxed dog and the organization that can’t help itself rest on the assumption that things don’t change. The defining characteristic of pessimists is that they tend to believe bad events will last a long time, will undermine everything they do, and are their own fault. Learned helplessness is the giving up reaction, the quitting response that follows from the belief that whatever you do doesn’t matter. Explanatory style is the manner in which you habitually explain to yourself why events happen. Inescapable events produced giving up. Clearly, animals can learn their actions are futile, and when they do, they no longer initiate action…. People who give up easily believe the causes of the bad events that happen to them are permanent: The bad events will persist, will always be there to affect their lives. People who make universal explanations for their failures give up on everything when a failure strikes in one area. Depression is pessimism writ large. Normal depression is extremely common . .it’s the common cold of mental illness. (The belief that your actions are futile is the cause of depression.) Pessimists’ explanations for bad events are personal, permanent, and pervasive. The belief in self improvement is a prophecy just as self-fulfilling as the old belief that character could not be changed. A = Adversity B = Belief C = Consequence D = Disputation . .argue with yourself (Evidence? Alternatives?) E = Energizer Decatastrophize. Use optimism/pessimism scale in choosing sales people. 106 Learnscaping
  • 107. Cognition Mindfulness We each have a choice: to live our lives mindfully or to live them mindlessly. Most of our limits are of our own making. Mindlessness is the human tendency to operate on autopilot, whether by stereotyping; performing mechanically, by rote; or simply not paying attention. Research: In business, we are conducting research into Although exceedingly common, few people (unless they’re practicing mindful leadership, mindful contagion (i.e the effect of Buddhists, perhaps) realize the extent to which they live mindlessly. one person’s mindfulness on another), and mindful decision-making. Included in mindful decision-making is Uncertainty engages the mind. work that compares the effects of single versus multiple goals and work that considers ways to reduce the time In The Power of Mindful Learning, Ellen Langer uses her innovative it takes to become psychologically prepared to engage theory of mindfulness, introduced in her influential earlier book, to in a new task. dramatically enhance the way we learn. In business, sports, laboratories, or at home, our learning is hobbled by certain antiquated Langer defines “mindful learning” as having three and pervasive misconceptions. In this pithy, liberating, and delightful characteristics, “continuous creation of new categories, book she gives us a fresh, new view of learning in the broadest openness to new information, and an implicit sense. Such familiar notions as delayed gratification, “the basics,” or awareness of more than one perspective”. She asserts even “right answers,” are all incapacitating myths which Langer that this ability to cognitively shift contexts “increases explodes one by one. She replaces them with her concept of mindful flexibility, productivity, innovation, leadership ability, and or conditional learning which she demonstrates, with fascinating satisfaction” examples from her research, to be extraordinarily effective. Mindful learning takes place with an awareness of context and of the ever- Seven Myths about learning that encourage changing nature of information. Learning without this awareness, as mindlessness: Langer shows convincingly, has severely limited uses and often sets on up for failure. With stunning applications to skills as diverse as 1. The basics must be learned so well that they become paying attention, CPR, investment analysis, psychotherapy, or playing second nature a musical instrument, The Power of Mindful Learning is for all who are 2. Paying attention means staying focused on one thing curious and intellectually adventurous. at a time 3. Delaying gratification is important We think we should already know what only firsthand experience can 4. Rote memorization is necessary in education teach us. . . . In learning the ways that all roses are alike, we risk 5. Forgetting is a problem becoming blind to their differences. . . . If we are mindfully creative, 6. Intelligence is knowing “what’s out there” the circumstances of the moment will tell us what to do. . . . Those of 7. There are right and wrong answers. us who are less evaluatively inclined experience less guilt, less regret, less blame, and tend to like ourselves more. . . . Uncertainty gives us the freedom to discover meaning. . . . Finally, what we think we’re sure of may not even exist. Continues on next If you’re not mindful, what are you? page 107 Learnscaping
  • 108. Tuesday, April 15, 2008 Notes from Ellen Langer interview Cognition People in companies don’t get it. They continue following the rules that were invented for another time. How do we push them to the next world? See On Becoming. It starts with the individual. When mindful, less judgmental of others as well as self. Less fear translates into taking less risk. Relationships build; competition dwindles. Hierarchy is meaningless without context. A group of children, blindfolded and playing pin-the-tail-on-the-donkey will best be served by choosing the blind child to direct them. The motivation is already there. It’s invigorating. Self-help books tell you to be in the present. Well, okay, we’re already there. Better advice would be to increase awareness of the present, to notice new things. Ellen’s art See Take the personal to the universal. Take advantage of opportunities. When I was learning to drive a car, there seemed to be so many things to keep track of, it was hard to drive. Doesn’t being mindful take me back to that? Making driving second nature lets me focus on other things. No, that’s mindless. The only times mindless is appropriate is when you’ve hit upon the absolutely best way of doing something Notes from a lecture and nothing ever changes. Vigilance is hyper-focus; it leads to found on the web stress. If she’s riding a horse that stumbles, she needs sort of a soft vigilance in ply. You need to be potentially mindful. Almost everything we know is wrong This limits innovation, health and happiness We want to retain uncertainty, and learn how to exploit the power of uncertainty We learn things in a simple perspective, but then standing in a different place, it becomes something completely different We learn, and then learn to be mindless Dr. Langer has described her work on the illusion of control, aging, decision-making, and mindfulness theory in over 200 research articles and six academic books. 108 Learnscaping
  • 109. Manifesto for Agile Learnscape Development Consider which of these points from the Agile Software Manifesto you buy into: Our highest priority is to satisfy the customer through early and continuous delivery of valuable facilitators of learning. Welcome changing requirements, even late in development. Our processes harness change for the customer's competitive advantage. Deliver working prototypes frequently, from a couple of weeks to a couple of months, with a preference to the shorter timescale. Business people and developers must work together daily throughout the project. Build projects around motivated individuals. Give them the environment and support they need, and trust them to get the job done. The most efficient and effective method of conveying information to and within a development team is face-to-face conversation. Our processes promote sustainable development. The sponsors, developers, and users should be able to maintain a constant pace indefinitely. Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design enhances agility. Simplicity--the art of maximizing the amount of work not done--is essential. The best architectures, requirements, and designs emerge from self-organizing teams. At regular intervals, the team reflects on how to become more effective, then tunes and adjusts its behavior accordingly. 109 Learnscaping
  • 110. Knowledge is among us, not in our heads Cognition Many processes tug at and work the fabric of knowledge. George Siemens Learnscaping
  • 111. “I will be a good person to work with—not territorial, not be a jerk.” Robert Sutton
  • 112. Measuring the Cost Effectiveness of Learning Business An article in T+D magazine carried this line: “The fact is, as thousands of people around the world including myself and my boss learned the hard way, there are few claims as outlandish and as unsubstantiated as eLearning being a money saver.” I couldn’t resist sending this reply: 1. COSTS ARE NOT THE WHOLE STORY. Costs are only part of the eLearning equation. The primary advantage my 3. THE PAST IS A SUNK COST. clients attribute to eLearning comes from increasing the top line, i.e. enabling organizations to do things they couldn’t do with traditional When making an incremental decision, count only incremental training. costs. Most of my customers already have desktop computers, local area networks, and Internet access in place. The money For example, already spent on these resources shouldn’t be toted up as an expense of eLearning. Transforming a traditional business into an eBusiness Certifying thousands of employees in technical disciplines Accelerating revenue with simultaneous global product launches 4. THE LARGEST COST OF ALL IS FOREGONE OPPORTUNITY. Upgrading customer service by building skills during non-peak hours Merging organizations on Internet time Again and again, I’ve found the largest overall cost of any corporate Providing scalable training to channel partners learning endeavor is the cost of people’s time. I’m not talking about salaries and benefits; I refer to the value they would have created The cost of eLearning is relative. So long as the bottom line is increasing, had they not been tied up in training. Opportunity cost per hour is not organizations shouldn’t worry too much about costs. a fixed amount. A salesperson’s time during working hours in peak buying season is worth much more than the same individual’s time after closing time in non-peak season. eLearning often enables the 2. IT’S eLEARNING + ILT, NOT eLEARNING *OR* ILT. employee to shift learning to those non-peak hours. Your article suggests that eLearning is an either/or situation. This is a fallacy. Think of eLearning as supplementing traditional learning rather than replacing it. Only apply e-technologies when the benefits are obvious. Take prework as an example. Traditionally, prework might take the form of reading material on paper. In today’s fast-paced world, the material is often out-of-date before it’s read. And whether anyone reads it — and gets it — before a workshop is anybody’s guess. The eLearning alternative is to post the prework on the web, where it’s always current, Continues on next page and require a passing pretest score for admission to the workshop. 112 Learnscaping
  • 113. Payback Business Technology-enabled learning creates value by speeding things up. Business- Continued from school professors compare making big corporate changes to turning around previous page the Queen Mary. Turn the rudder and in a few miles, the ship changes course. These days, organizations that lack the agility to turn on a dime can only go about as far as the Queen Mary (which is moored in cement alongside a pier in Long Beach, California.) A Fortune 50 company used eLearning, knowledge management, and collaboration to bring new-hire sales people up to speed in six months instead of fifteen. Nine months x 1400 new hires/year x $5 million quota = $5 billion incremental revenue. To be sure, better products, sales campaigns, and a host of factors contributed to the gain but a tiny faction Opportunity Cost, of $5 billion still yields a significant ROI. (Here are the details: New-hire foregone gains, is frequently the largest expense of training and development training at Sun Microsystems.) yet it is frequently overlooked because accounting looks backward, not ahead. Ten thousand consultants at a Fortune 100 technical services company Tell a sales manager you want to take earned professional certifications via eLearning. The result? Less her people out of the field for two attrition, better esprit de corps, and $100 million revenue/year attributable weeks, and you will receive a quick lesson in how real opportunity cost can to higher billing rates. be. A software firm launches a new system into a $250 million global market with eLearning and virtual meetings. This accelerates time-to-market by two months, gives them first-mover advantage over a major competitor, builds a more confident and enthusiastic sales force, and gets the channel up to speed at the same time as the direct sales force. Gain? $80 to $100 million incremental revenue. A very large retailer of personal computers realizes that customers are frustrated with their products because they don’t understand the software that accompanies them. The company offers customers free admission to an online learning community created by SmartForce. More than 100,000 customers sign up to learn Windows, Word, and Office apps online. Value of increased customer loyalty? Conservatively, $20 million in repeat business over three years. Often an e-Learning initiative pays for itself right off the bat by eliminating travel and facility costs, but that misses the point, because in comparison, upside gains dwarf cost savings. 113 Learnscaping
  • 114. Business What do you want to improve? Continues on next page 114 Learnscaping
  • 115. Business What do you want to improve? 115 Learnscaping
  • 116. Business Sensing and Seizing Emerging Opportunities by Joseph Jaworski ad C. Otto Scharmer The New Rules in Business Imagine you are milling about in a large casino with the top figures in high tech – the Gates, Gerstners, and Groves of their industries. Over at one table, a game is starting called Multimedia. Over at another is a game called Web Services. In the corner is Electronic Banking. There are many such tables. You sit at one. “How much to play?” you ask. “Three billion,” the croupier replies. “Who’ll be playing?” you ask. Our eyes are only “We won’t know until they show up,” he replies. glass windows; we see with our imagination “What are the rules?” “Those will emerge as the game unfolds,” says the croupier. “What are my odds of winning?” you wonder. William Gilpin (1792) “We can’t say,” responds the house. “Do you still want to play?” – W. Brian Arthur What distinguishes great leaders from average ones? Brian Arthur, economist, author and professor at the Santa Fe Institute, says it is their ability to perceive the emerging nature and rules of a game as they are playing it. In today’s economy, the name of the game, who’s playing, and how they’re winning is changing at a dizzying pace – and not just for technology companies. The globalization of markets and market forces, the predominance of networking and connectedness, the increased speed of all types of communication, and the valuation of knowledge over products mean more complexity, more competition, and more change happening faster and faster. In a world of increasing returns – where early success breeds more success – a marginal lead-time can spell the difference between big gains or failure. Companies that want to thrive in this kind of flux need to develop a critical new capacity: the ability to sense and seize opportunities as they emerge. A New Core Capability People who achieve industry breakthroughs or develop revolutionary ideas follow a set of five practices that we see as the heart of this new core competence. Together, they constitute one organic process. observing: seeing reality with fresh eyes sensing: tuning into emerging patterns that inform future possibilities knowing: accessing inner sources of creativity and will crystallizing: creating vision and intention executing: acting in an instant to capitalize on new opportunities 116 Learnscaping
  • 117. Where’s the ROI? Many a corporation misses massive opportunities by demanding to know “Whereʼs the ROI?” in cases where ROI is an inappropriate and misleading indicator. Permit me to explain why. Return on Investment means different things to different people To some, Intangibles rule ROI is a hurdle a project must achieve to warrant investment. To others, Business enterprises exist to create value for their ROI is a way to coax people to make the business case for a proposal. stakeholders. Once upon a time, value as profit was a Some treat ROI as a formula, others as a philosophy. good proxy for the value earned by investors. Profit, the proverbial bottom line, is the difference between Typically, the higher you go in an organization, the more expansive the revenue and expenses, and these relate back directly definition of ROI and the less reliance on it in decision-making. A $10,000 to changes in accounts on the balance sheet. Balance decision is likely to require ultraconservative estimates, solid arithmetic, sheets record tangible assets: factories, land, trucks, and measurements in accordance with Generally Accepted Accounting and paperclips, things you can see and touch. Principles. For a $5,000,000 decision, corporate politics, intangible benefits, and gut feel may overrule the numbers. And at the $50,000,000 In 1982, intangibles accounted for less than a quarter level, the numbers are at best a footnote to the real way executives make of the value the U.S. stock market. By 1999, decisions. intangibles, the no-see-ums, made up more than 80% of the value of the market. Balance sheets do not Picture this: A CFO has calculated an ROI of 154% for Project A and record intangibles, things like know-how, customer 155% for Project B. His CEO must decide which project to back to the relationships, and reputation. On the balance sheet, tune of $100 million. Can you really imagine the CEO will make the highly-skilled people have the same value as new decision based on ROI? hires: zero. “You canʼt manage what you donʼt measure” is nonsense. The vast Imagine Google. Googleʼs book value, e.g. the stuff majority of what senior executives manage is immeasurable. They make you can see and touch, is roughly $5 billion. Investors judgment calls; they play hunches. How else do you select the right value Google stock at more than $13bmillion. The people for key jobs? How else do you choose your partners? How else do $125 billion bump is what investors are willing to bet you divine the future? Organizations pay senior executives handsomely to that Google will get better and bigger. This is entirely buy their ability to make wise choices in the absence of simple intangible, i.e. not on the books and not on the bottom measurements. line. If you were making decisions at Google, what would you pay attention? Would you do ROI calculations on what might impact the $5 billion? Or would you make decisions to impact the $130 billion? 117 Learnscaping
  • 118. Where’s the ROI from implementing interactive technology? Letʼs take ROI back to its roots. Instead of using the conventions of 19th century accounting, Iʼll define return as an increase in shareholder value. When interactive technology (blogs, wikis, social software) is applied to an area for the first time, the results can be staggering. Consider these three examples where costs were negligible, and returns are counted in eight figures. • Three years ago, a staffer at Intel set up a wiki for sharing information among individuals throughout the company. It grew organically and has become a vital source of information throughout the company. Usage has surpassed a million page-views. The wiki is doing what knowledge management systems and intranets were supposed to do. The software was free. The wiki is self- maintaining. Benefits include time saved looking for things, less likelihood of using dated or inaccurate information, and accelerated ramp-up of new hires. If the system saves 30 minutes a week for its 20,000 active users, thatʼs more than 200 person-years, i.e. $30,000,000 or more in annual savings. The software was a free download. (Hereʼs a four-minute video on Intelpedia.) • Four thousand professionals at CGI receive news and updates in their specialties by subscription instead of foraging for research findings on their own. Thereʼs less likelihood of important developments slipping through the cracks, and the consultants can bill at least one incremental half-hour a week per person with the time saved. The value of two thousand billable hours per week? Astronomical. Costs were minimal. • Tax preparer T. Rowe Price encouraged seasonal tax-preparation staff to contribute Frequently Asked Questions to a central repository. The central source of questions and answers enabled the 1,500 support staff to shave two minutes off the duration of the average customer phone call. The result? Better customer service and $15,000,000 in annual savings. This is the tip of the iceberg. 118 Learnscaping
  • 119. Business 119 Learnscaping
  • 120. Taking advantage of Web 2.0 to get things done requires at least a passing understanding the Web 2.0 tools things listed here. Clicking the name in the left column will often take you to a three-minute Tools Common Craft video explanation. Thatʼs a starter, but to get a gut-feel for these tools, you must try them. Write a blog post. Watch a YouTube video. The URLs in the right column are a good place to start. Warning: Donʼt get overconfident. Just knowing the technology will assure your understanding of web 2.0 than studying quill pens will improve your appreciation of Shakespeare. Learnscaping
  • 121. Tools Tools for Changing Organizations You need to go online to experience these tools. Learnscaping
  • 122. 122
  • 123. Enterprise 2.0
  • 124. Andrew McAfee’s take on web 2.0 tools Strength of Potential Web 2.0 What is relationship benefit example emergent? Strong Collaboration, Wiki Document productivity, agility Weak Innovation, non- Social Information redundant, networking information software Potential Efficient search, Blogosphere Team forming links, network bridging None Collective Prediction Answer intelligence market Andy teaches at Harvard Business School. He coined the term “Enterprise 2.0.” Learnscaping 126
  • 125. Personal Knowledge Management Cognition These are the thoughts of Canadian learning consultant Harold Jarche Learning Bookmarking Learning has always been a personal thing, even when it happens in formal training. It’s also social, in that our learning is affected by our social An easy web tool to start using is an online bookmarking system. I no longer context, whether it be in conversation or observation. What’s relatively new have to search through Favorites or Bookmarks on my browser because I is that the Web lets us manage certain aspects of our learning in a much use a social bookmarks. The most popular of these is This social easier way. We can connect, reflect, dispute and research with the click of bookmarking application lets me mark a web page with any number of topic a mouse. headings (also known as tags), make that bookmark public or private, and then have all of my bookmarks in an online searchable database. There’s My experience in helping trainers and educators teach about learning on much less clutter now. I am constantly retrieving something from my archive the Web is to first start with yourself. Those who use the Web for their own of hundreds of bookmarks for one reason or another. An online database like learning have an easier transition in using it in training and education. this is handy when you’re away from your desk and want to share. Imagine asking people to become trainers in the pre-Web era. Could they be good trainers if they lacked presentation, speaking, writing, or With social bookmarks I almost never put anything into my browser-based organizational skills? Today, you need web-learning skills. Bookmarks, except for the login page of some password protected sites. If you did nothing else, just adopting a social bookmarking tool would save a In our day-to-day learning, one often repeated task is making the link from lot of time in retrieving information. You can also use social bookmarks to “this is an interesting idea” to “this is what I know”. The Web now provides share with members of a project team. After you’ve used them for a while, us with an array of cheap and free tools to collect and collate information. you might see the value in sharing and searching other people’s topics or Some people call this Personal Knowledge Management or PKM, which tags, but the bottom line is that these tools work for the individual. I’ve found to be a good working term. PKM is a set of processes, individually constructed, to help the flow of implicit to tacit knowledge. PKM is more about attitude than any given tools. It’s taking our innately curious nature and tapping into it so that we can continue to expand our horizons. PKM - putting it together Blogging & Aggregators One of the important aspects of PKM is triage, or sorting. It’s the ability to separate the important from the useless. Unfortunately, what you may view as useless today Blogs are more than online diaries. They allow others to join in the could be quite important tomorrow. Developing good triage techniques takes time conversation by linking from their own blog or adding comments to your and practice. Here is an overview of my PKM process. posts. Over time, blogs create a network of connections, observations, disagreements and hopefully some learning for their writers. If you’re A PKM process takes a few free web tools and enables you to start tapping your uncertain how to start one, first read some blogs of interest and then information streams. You can file the good stuff somewhere you can easily find it. make a few comments to join in the conversation. My system works for me because I’m curious and because I have developed a habit of writing down my thoughts in a public forum. This has started some interesting My own blog is the main platform by which I try to make some conversations about things that matter to me. Having a defined field of interest unstructured implicit knowledge more explicit, through the process of helps stop my blog from spreading too far and wide and keeps my PKM writing out my thoughts and observations of what I have come across in manageable. my work. A lot of these observations come from the web sites that I visit regularly. Previous attempts at knowledge management using information technology focused on organizations and corporate knowledge. In many cases, workers did not use Keeping track of these conversations is much easier with a feed reader, or these vast archives of information. The key to successful PKM is that it is must be aggregator. This can save you a lot of time, and is the only way that I can allowed to be personal. Small pieces, loosely joined in an informal and unstructured track hundreds of blogs. I use a free web-based aggregator called way, is a workable model for personal learning online, especially since anyone can Bloglines, where you can see who has made a new post without actually add new tools as they are developed. visiting that site. There are various options available, either web-based or for the desktop. There are also some aggregator plug-ins available for MS The Internet is the most powerful communication environment that humans have Outlook. ever built. Learning online is about communicating and connecting. Sharing through blogs and social bookmarks is also good for the learning field, because it A more recent suite of tools lets you keep track of your comments on encourages peer discussions. Perhaps the easiest sales pitch though, is that it other blogs. Bloglines includes this feature on its latest Beta version and there are direct benefits to the individual. PKM is actually a time-saver and a other applications such as Commentful and CoComment are free. learning accelerator in the long run. 127 Learnscaping
  • 126. Organizations Pattern: in-house wikis Intelpedia is Web 2.0 in action. Three years ago, one of Intelʼs senior product managers blogged that he was concerned that when engineers retired from Intel, they walked out with an irretrievable part of our culture, the stories that document the “good old days.” A Web 2.0 evangelist on our staff read the managerʼs post that found him wondering aloud, “Wouldnʼt it be cool if we had an in-house version of Wikipedia?” A couple of weeks later, when the manager came back to try to make the project happen, he was surprised to find that the evangelist had already mounted a free copy of MediaWiki on a server behind our firewall. Everything was ready to go. Dubbed Intelpedia, it soon became the go-to place for finding things out. Volunteers populated the system with handy information from all corners. “Intelpedia” has become the place to look up what an acronym means or what a particular project looked like. It contains 28,000 pages of information, all placed there voluntarily. The site is one of the first stops for new recruits, for exploring Intelpedia puts everything in the context of the companyʼs procedures and values. Today, 20,000 active users have generated more than a hundred million page views. Itʼs become the de facto information sharing resource at Intel -- without any official mandate from IT or even a formal plan. Knowledge workers traditionally spend a third of their time looking things up. If Intelpedia saved them 30 minutes/week, thatʼs saving Intel 200 person-years annually. Self-service learning is not only satisfying, itʼs great for the bottom-line. . 128 Learnscaping
  • 127. Pattern: User-generated FAQ Seasonal tax assistants record frequently-asked questions on blogs that feed into a wiki. Result is 10% reduction in call time, greater professionalism, and more prompt customer service. 129 Learnscaping
  • 128. Pattern: Blogs The U.S. Department of Defense spends the most money on training of any organization in the world, yet a simple web application started by two company commanders on their own a has become the most important source of collaboration and knowledge sharing among officers in Iraq. The officers had been classmates at West Point shared quarters in Iraq. In the evening, they would talk over the dayʼs events and reflect on what they had learned. Sensing that other officers might want to join the conversation, they started a blog. Rather than go through channels, they didnʼt ask for permission. (Anyone can set up a blog for free in less than five minutes.) The blog spread virally among company commanders, becoming more valuable as more voices chimed in. Soon the blog, Company Command, was a must-read. Unlike material coming from the Pentagon, the conversations in the blog told what had happened only hours before; they were in everyday, conversational English, not bureaucratese; they focused on need-to-know information for survival, not something one might use next year. 130 Learnscaping
  • 129. Pattern: Social Networks Organizations Self-service customer support at SAP. When SAP rolled out a new generation of enterprise software, its 39,000 customers Vying for prestige, non-employee soon knew more about implementing the software than SAP itself. The firm established the SAP Developer Network to enable volunteers field nine out of ten users to help solve one anotherʼs problems. Within three technical questions at SAP. months, the community had more than 30,000 members. A year later SDN had grown to 100,000 members. Now SDN is 650,000 members strong. Customers answer nine out of ten questions asked, and they do it faster than SAP did in the past. SDN is a community of practice; members are paid in prestige, not money, for their contributions. SDNʼs developer says, “Web 2.0 is not about technologies – it's about users treated as people, communication, self expression…” Independent SAP programmers compete to provide the best customer service. 131 Learnscaping
  • 130. Site of the first World Cafe Pattern: Unconferences Living Room of Juanita Brown and David Isaacs Business meetings used to come in one flavor: dull. New approaches create meetings that people enjoy, often organized in scant time, at minimal cost. The un-meetings are characterized by: * No keynote speaker or designated expert * Breakthrough thinking born of diversity * Having fun dealing with serious subjects * Emergent self-organization * Genuine community, intimacy and respect Open source, open space, grapevines and gossip, conversations and stories, learning Reviewing results of World Cafe with His spaces and learnscapes, unconferences and The World Cafe, podcasts and wikis, Excellency Sheikh Nahayan Mabarak Al Nahayan graphics and concept maps, complexity and community…these are part and parcel of free-range learning. Conventional meetings are events; unmeetings are on-going processes. Unconferences work because they spur relevant conversations, which I think of as the stem-cells of innovation. Meaningful conversation is more important than ever because conversations are essential not only for imparting knowledge, but for creating it. Knowledge flows. Imagine the power of conversation with other free range learners conducted outside one’s specialty! See the web site for lots of information on orchestrating un-events. The first Bar Camp, August 2005 Our World Cafe in Abu Dhabi 132 Learnscaping
  • 131. Pattern: Professional subscriptions River of professional research updates Situation: Professional staff need to stay current with gushers of industry developments and research findings. The volume of information is too great for any individual to keep up with. Solution: Select one or two respected individuals per discipline to do front-end research for everyone. Provide them time to scan the news and write up summaries and pointers. Encourage everyone in the community to provide these spotters with tips on new developments. Set high standards for accuracy and brevity of the reports to encourage on-going readership. Do not overwhelm the readers: three or four items/week is the upper limit. The simpler a learning intervention fits into a person’s existing routines, the more likely it will take hold. In many organizations, this means sending news summaries to people’s email addresses. Technology: Using blogs to record the information creates an easily searchable archive as a by-product. Also, blogs automatically create RSS feeds that enable people to subscribe to the research that interests them. See Tools for Learning. Savings: Replace three hours per week with thirty minutes of reading and digging deeper into topics. For a staff of 100 professionals, that’s a savings of $600,000 per year. It’s also less likely important discoveries will be overlooked. Example: CGI Most of the patterns will appear in our cloud, for they contain online links to examples and definitions. 133 Learnscaping
  • 132. Pattern: podcasts for learning Tools What would you do if you had to keep 150 sales people around the world up to date on healthcare and IT? Intel Digital Health had been posting cell phone recordings to a traditional website. Busy sales people couldn’t be counted on to check them out and the medium lacked pizzazz. A general manager/VP knew that Cisco, IHOP, and others were distributing information via podcasts. He listened to a sample podcast put together by his staff and gave the project a green light. Intel instructional designer Marc Porter took on the project. He purchased a video iPod for every member of the sales force. The iPods remain the property of Intel. When someone leaves the company, they return the iPod, just as they do with their cell phone and laptop. On the content front, Marc began by converting the firm’s library into 20 QuickTime videos that were distributed with the machines. Employees were permitted to keep music on the iPods as well as the Intel videos. Intel next produced an “The Expert Series” of customer interviews that highlight best practices. These were professionally produced, and the sales force loved them, especially the anecdotal information. 84% were satisfied. To develop a podcast, Marc would meet with a subject matter expert to identify a topic, offer a method for producing it, and select the level of presentation. Early on, Intel discovered that PowerPoint was the wrong medium for the iPod. They also determined that the iPod is not appropriate for restricted information: iPods have no passive security on board; a lost iPod causes no collateral damage. Marc Porter won Intel’s 2007 innovation award for setting up and running the iPod program for Intel Digital Health’s community of practice. 134 Learnscaping
  • 133. Pattern: Conversation Tools Jonathan’s Blog clues people in at Sun as to what the CEO is thinking, what’s behind strategic shifts, and the company’s take on competitors. Imagine the value of direct communications instead of dribble-down. It’s immediate. And is eliminates the bureaucracy of corporate communications “interpreters” and message-garblers. Peter Morville, Ambient Findability Conversation is the most vital aspect of learning and collaboration. Learnscaping
  • 134. Pattern: Serious Games Tools Clark Quinn has developed instructional games for decades. Here’s his take on the situation today. Serious Games (or, to be Politically Correct™, Immersive Learning Simulations) have hit the corporate learning mainstream, so you should be asking yourself: “why are people excited?” Quite simply, because games (I’m not PC™) are probably the most pragmatically effective learning practice you can get. Sure, mentored real performance is the ideal, but there are two potential hiccups: scaling individual mentors has proven to be unrealistically expensive, and mistakes in live practice often are expensive, dangerous, or both. Why do you think we have flight simulators? For principled reasons, the best learning practice is contextualized, motivating, and challenging. Interestingly, so are the most engaging experiences. It turns out that the elements that cause effective educational practice line up perfectly with those that create engaging experiences. Thus, we can safely say that learning should be ‘hard fun’. Then the issue becomes if we can do this reliably, repeatably, and on a cost- effective basis. It turns out that the answer to this question is also in the affirmative. While you can’t just shove gamers and educators in a room and expect the result to work (all the bad examples that led to ‘edutainment’ becoming a bad word are evidence), if they understand the alignment above, systematically follow a creative process (no, systematic creativity is not an oxymoron; why do we have brainstorming processes?), and are willing to take time to ‘tune’ the result, we can do this reliably. The question is really: when to use games. The answer for engine-driven (read: programmed, variable) games is when we have a need for deep practice: when there are complex relationships to explore, or making the change will be really hard. Branching scenarios are useful when we want to experience some contextualized practice but we don’t need a lot of it. And the principles suggest that at minimum, we should write better multiple-choice questions that put learners into contexts where they must make decisions where they’re applying the knowledge, not just reciting it. And, yes, we can spend millions of dollars (I can help), but for many needs we may not need to. While there isn’t any one tool that lets us do this, there are a number of cost-effective ways to develop and deliver on the resulting design. As I say “if you get the design right, there are lots of ways to implement it; if you don’t get the design right, it doesn’t matter how you implement it”. 136 Learnscaping
  • 135. Mobile learning Tools You no longer need to be tethered computer to link to the web; a phone will Let’s get that straight right from the beginning: mobile learning is not about courses on do. It’s all the same cloud. Learning has broken loose from the classroom. a phone. mLearning is where we really bring home the message: “It’s not about Now it’s breaking loose from physical moorings altogether. learning…it’s about doing”, because while there are learning implications for mobile devices, it’s really about performance support. Yes, one of the applications of mobile That’s about all I know about mobile learning, so I asked my friend Clark devices is learning augmentation, extending the learning experience over time through Quinn to grab the reins. distributed presentations, examples, and practice, but the real opportunities are providing context-sensitive support for the mobile workforce. Increasingly, the workforce is mobile, whether directly for work or indirectly, e.g. commuting, and they have the devices (“Have you already purchased a mobile learning device?” “Let me rephrase the question: do you have a cell phone?” “Hello…”). Not taking advantage of it is just leaving money on the table. The variety of mobile devices is vast, spanning media players, handheld gaming platforms, PDAs, cell phones (though that name is no longer apt; cellular technology is long gone), and, increasingly, smartphones. There are convergences, however, where many mobile devices are now phones, media players, PIM (Personal Information Management, read: contacts, calendars, memos, and ToDos), GPS, and more. If you’re having trouble with any of these TLAs (Three Letter Acronyms) BTW, you can do a search on them to get them defined. The issues are in how to develop content and resources for these devices, and the answers stack up like a pyramid. The bottom is the proverbial “low hanging fruit”, the content you already have that can be made available “as is” or converting the files to mobile formats. So, your PDFs, your audio recordings of presentations, any videos, and of course your web pages/HTML. The next level is taking all the content you will continue to produce, and proactively capture it (if you’re not) and ensure that it’s an automatic feature of your process to produce mobile ready versions. The top is to develop specific mobile resources, and that’s where we’re reaching the tipping point: instead of custom tools, we’re seeing the major tool providers now providing mobile output options. The mobile web is another increasing option, as more and more mobile devices include browsers. As I say, “480 x 320 is the new 1024 x 768”. Mobile is hitting the mainstream. And, it is hitting it in many ways. There have been instances of successful courses on mobile devices, but that’s not the sweet spot. One of the more useful options is in augmenting online or face-to-face courses. We know learning retention fades fast unless reactivated, and mobile gives us a great way to do that. We can send out different ways of thinking about it, more examples, and even new forms of practice. In fact, we should start rethinking the course, moving to blending including mobile as part of the extended experience! The second major big win is in making accessible support for the mobile workforce. We can provide manuals, trouble-shooting, even remote part ordering, to the field engineer. We can bring customer refreshers and updates, cross- selling recommendations, and purchasing capabilities to our mobile field force. And more. Organizationally, the workforce is more distributed, more mobile, and needing to be more opportunistic and contextually optimal. Mobile is an enabler of increased individual and organizational performance. You need to treat it like any other initiative, managing the change process, but it also leverages other changes that might be happening. Knowledge or content management, mobile device deployment, webinars, many are the initiatives that, with a marginal extra effort, make mobile an additional delivery channel and opportunity. Take advantage of this new direction 137 Learnscaping
  • 136. Pattern: Internet Inside Three years ago, Knowledge Management at Canada’s CGI Tools was the proverbial black hole that sucked in information and energy but never let it out. The staff who fed the beast were well-meaning but weren’t equipped to provide CGI’s 25,000 employees the up-to-the-moment technical savvy they needed. This is not sustainable in a firm that relies on its wits to CGI is 25,000+ professionals working from 100 offices in 16 outperform its competitors in a fast-moving global field. countries who provide systems Executive management made raising staff satisfaction with KM integration and consulting a top priority. services in financial services, Ross Button government, telecom, Ross Button was tapped to head a project to raise collective manufacturing and retail. intelligence. Ross and his staff of two, with in-sourced VP Technology Leadership assistance from specialist groups within the firm, assembled what Ross and I have dubbed Internet Inside. Imagine having CGI Systems your own, custom version of the internet running behind your firewall. Most important of all, the web software provides a social layer Internet Inside is more complicated than that, but not much. that connects people with one another and with information. Most of the software is open source: Drupal, Sourceforge, CGI is geographically structured but its collective intelligence Mediawiki, WordPress, some crawling utilities, browsers and system connects the dots within the company. While we were RSS coupled with a typical intranet infrastructure and the talking, Ross monitored the flow of information in the system in Microsoft Office/Exchange Suite. real time with his Blackberry. Because few people will willingly change the basic way they Internet software travels with an invisible companion, the send and receive information, participants send and receive memes and processes I call internet culture. The net is an information via their Microsoft Outlook accounts. Ross says environment for sharing, not a propriety package we complain people don’t go to portals; they just don’t sign up. about. The net is optimistic: its opportunities dazzle us; traditional software is negative: its flaw irritate us. The net Participants already use the net and email, so there’s no values pragmatism and immediacy. We use email to learning curve . Yet the package of interoperable web software communicate, not to swap polished essays. We value performs at the enterprise level. The software is free or cheap, messages from the net if they do they job; it would be not a trivial matter. A typical proprietary app that goes for $50 a superfluous to hold things up while we fix split infinitives, seat is a million-dollar expense for a company the size of CGI. sentence fragments, and English-teacher conventions. On the Also, the open source community continuously improves the net, people speak conversationally, absent the officiousness of software’s design, making incremental improvements instead the traditional business memo. of disruptive installations of new versions. Continues on next page 138 Learnscaping
  • 137. Pattern: Internet Inside Ross is tenacious. He says he will never cease putting tools into CGI’s “agile infrastructure.” as there will always be new requirements and better ways to support the business. New experiments are never dubbed beta; they are pilots. Interactions inside CGI feel fundamentally different from the open internet such as Facebook. Community members act as they would face-to-face. Thereʼs no spam, flame wars, and offensive behavior. Behavior is casual but professional. People at CGI have joint ownership of their community. The community designs and implements collective intelligence by how they participate. Itʼs in everyoneʼs interest to make contributions and improvements. And it would be unthinkable for participants to foul their nest. For the foreseeable future, web 2.0 and rich internet application techniques will influence not only CGI, but its customers and the business world at large. By living web 2.0 inside, CGI incubates lessons it will later share with outsiders. The journey from initially downloading application code to nurturing a thriving collective intelligence environment is much more a cultural challenge than a technical one. Ross was a disk jockey in high school at his local radio station. Some evenings, heʼd be all alone in the studio, broadcasting to an audience of thousands he could not see. He had to have faith in the network, to believe the listeners were out there. Itʼs similar at CGI. 139 Learnscaping
  • 138. Pattern: Internet Inside Less is more. Putting hundreds of messages in memberʼs email accounts is worse than sending none. When overwhelmed by a gusher of content, people donʼt become selective; instead, they shut down entirely. Ross has found that people at CGI will pay attention to ten items in a message, sent once a week; they will not read thirty, nor are daily messages effective. CGI recently installed the Google appliance to open the door to previously trapped information, some of it resident in legacy groupware applications. A Google search on the open internet inevitably returns spurious results. A search for Paris points to Paris Hilton, plaster of Paris, Paris, Texas, bateaux mouches, and the revolution of 1789. To leave the chaff behind, CGIʼs Google only crawls sources vetted for members of the communities using a crawling layer assembled with custom code, open source and proprietary utilities and a human collection manager. CGI has begun tagging all dialogs, not just by topic, but also by roles of the participants. A few years hence, CGI will have sufficient information to identify in-house experts based on past discussion. Beyond that, collective filtering may be able to point to people who are the best bets for pioneering future technologies. Innovation is often the top concern of CEOs. Imagine the value of assembling innovation teams for new and prospective services from their prior activities and demonstrated knowledge. I suspect that CGIʼs collective intelligence project would not exist were Ross not its tireless cheerleader and champion. Ross is vice president, technology leadership. “We’re not advocating what we’ve done for ourselves as the ideal solution for everybody,” he says. “What it’s done is really explore the use of open source in the enterprise.” Internet Inside at CGI is proof positive that simplicity is the ultimate sophistication. 140 Learnscaping
  • 139. Centre for Learning & Performance Technologies An encyclopedia of tools for learning professionals Tools 25 TOOLS PROGRAMME Available: For individual, on demand use Cost: FREE. This programme is intended for learning professionals who want to broaden their horizons in terms of the range of tools available for learning - in a very practical way - by getting to grips with 25 key free tools (or categories of tools). The tools are a mix of personal productivity tools for managing your own personal learning as well as authoring tools for creating all kinds of learning and performance solutions. Many of them are Web 2.0 tools that promote a social, collaborative, sharing approach to learning. (Note: we will be enlarging and developing this toolset further.) Behind each of the Tools is a Mini-Tutorial that comprises a number of short tasks to help you find out how to use it as well as reflect on its application for Jane Hart teaching, learning and for productivity and performance support. There is also a Community to share thoughts, experiences and resources as well as get help and advice from other members.1. Web browser - Firefox 2. Email tool - gMail/Google Mail Want to experiment with all of 3. Instant messenger - Skype the major web learning 4. Social bookmarking tool - Delicious technologies? Visit Jane 5. RSS reader - Google Reader Hart’s Center for Learning & 6. Real-time messaging tool - Twitter Performance Technologies. 7. Online Calendar - Google Calendar 8. Office suite - Google Docs 9. Mind mapping tool - FreeMind 10. Start page tool - iGoogle 11. Blogging tool - Wordpres 12. Web authoring tool - Nvu 13. Wiki tool - PBwiki. 14. Photo hosting and sharing tool 15. Presentation hosting and sharing tool - Slideshare 16. Video hosting and sharing tool - YouTube 17. Collaborative presentation tool - Voicethread 18. Podcasting tool - Audacity 19. Screen capture/ casting tool - Jing - 20. Polling and survey tool - PollDaddy 21. Web meeting tool - Yugma 22. Live broadcasting tool - Ustream 23. Social networking tool - Ning 24. Course authoring tool - eXe 25. Course management tool - Moodle 141 Learnscaping
  • 140. Public Service Leadership in a Web 2.0 World Networks in practice Evolution of networks Acceleration of time Holistic, volatile, intangible Uncertainty, loose coupling Connections, weak and strong Active citizenship Leadership Innovation Nature of knowledge work Inspire, don’t instruct Groups not individuals Foster collaboration Creative friction, edges Opportunity analysis Internet Culture It’s not about the technology Mindfulness in public service Self-service, spontaneous learning Open, transparent, pull, flat Subverting hierarchy for good Demand-side for education Perpetual apprenticeship 142 Learnscaping
  • 141. Just do it Setting up a web-software prototype is easy and cheap. Often the way to see if something will work is to just do it. Don’t plant one seed and hope it comes up. Improve your odds. Plant fifty. Learnscape planning 143 Learnscaping
  • 142. is celebrating its tenth birthday. Ten years ago I fell so deliriously in love that I neglected my work, lost my job, and flew to a Caribbean island to sort out my priorities. My mistress was the web, I love her still, and she’s been very, very good to me. Computers When I graduated from college with a degree in sociology and no technical background whatsoever, I took a job programming and selling mainframes. Computers are commonplace today but in the mid-sixties the popular press was full of articles about giant mechanical brains that might rise to take over human civilization. The initials IBM conjured up images of mile- high IQs, theoretical physics, The Outer Limits, and Albert NCR 315 Einstein. Computers were mysterious and cool. I learned COBOL and Assembler, and devoured Datamation magazine. My freshly minted computer background enabled me to avoid the Viet Nam War by getting a direct commission into the Army, where for two years I oversaw mobile computer centers in Germany. I’ve skirted the edge of the software business off and on ever since. Generally my computer lust was like this thing I had for Catherine Deneuve: beautiful but distant. The Web Learning The Well (Whole Earth ‘Lectronic Link) was a doorway to thousands of online conversations among digerati, deadheads, In the late seventies, a group of academics hired me to do-gooders, dabblers, degenerates, and co-conspirators. I research the market potential of an adults-only off-campus became learned about online community degree program in business. Firms up and down Silicon Valley from Howard Rheingold, Cliff Figallo, Tom Mandel, Robert were enthusiastic. I spent the next two years developing Rossney, and dozens of others. I surfed the web when the only interactive workshops in management, marketing, finance, on-ramp was Tim Berners-Lee’s NeXT machine at CERN. I accounting, business law, and so forth for what morphed into coded a web site when few people had heard of the web. the University of Phoenix. When the gang moved from San Jose to Phoenix, I quit to join a start-up in California to train I became a web fanatic. Just imagine what could come of bankers how to make sound loan decisions. A majority of the coupling learning to boundaryless computer networks! top 100 banks in the U.S. bought the idea, and for a dozen Colleagues grew weary of my rants. Our company was focused years I worked with senior loan officers, training directors, and 100% on CD-ROM interactive multimedia. I left the firm and instructional designers at big banks. xt flew to a Caribbean island to figure out what to do next. 144 Learnscaping
  • 143. Web + Learning = Internet Time Group The concept of Internet Time Group came to me whilst sitting amid the Mayan ruins of Cozumel. My calling would to help people improve their performance on the job and satisfaction in life. My experience with the University of Phoenix and the Well led me to challenge conventional wisdom about how adults learn. Often networking was at the heart of it. Back in the States, I talked with Silicon Valley companies about harnessing the power of the web to teach technical skills that were in short supply. I posted my thoughts on the web. When the CEO of the largest CD-ROM training company decided his firm needed to switch to hosted distance learning, the firm scoured the web for someone who knew the topic. My name came up 1, 2, 3, and 4, and for several years, I read the tea leaves and wrote the white papers at SmartForce, the eLearning Company. Beyond the road less traveled Oddball stuff is often regular stuff making a premature appearance. When I began blogging (in the last century!), my friends didn’t “get it.” When I started writing about eLearning, Brandon Hall emailed me that he didn’t like the term; it wouldn’t stick. Others debated that eLearning would never be as good as what takes place in the classroom. Traditionalists were not pleased with my observation that “Courses are dead.” People put down informal learning, saying it lacked rigor and was uncontrollable. To the naysayers I have sparred with since 1998, I have but one thing to say: Ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha. I believe we are at the gates of a new wave of human consciousness. Everything is becoming connected. The global 145 Learnscaping brain is kicking in. The global heart won’t be far behind.
  • 144. Re-thinking the advice business This started with an idea rolling around in my head about using new models for collaboration among business people and their outside advisors. Tools My admittedly jaundiced view of how major strategic consultancies operate is this. A consultancy partner, perhaps a fellow Harvard MBA, describes an elegant solution to a common but humongous business problem to an executive who may also have a fancy MBA. The proposed solution will take months of work but will bestow competitive advantage so the deal is on. Three dozen recent grads come to the organization and work their fannies off measuring anything that seems measurable. They generate a report of findings, carefully cutting and pasting the client’s name and data from a previous client’s report. They cull it down to 95 PowerPoint slides and a 475- page printout of spreadsheets. The partner returns to give recommendations and treat executive management to a bottle of vintage champagne. Generally, the results are no different from what the consultant would have said before the study except that this time there’s a fee of $850,000 for affirming the obvious. It’s less extreme when a solo consultant or small firm is contacted for advice. They must come on location, verify that they understand what’s being asked for, ask a bevy of questions, and think things through. After six interviews, two weeks of work, and two months elapsed time, the consultant returns. Again, a thick report of cut-and-paste findings. Again, essentially the same advice the consultant could have given over the first cup of coffee. The fee? A reasonable $23,000 and a proposal to do more work on the problem. What’s wrong with this picture? It’s not just the money. It’s wasted time. And it fosters weak-kneed decision-making. “Don’t blame me; Accenture said it was the way to go.” Here’s an alternative for executives who want to tap a outside viewpoint to lower the risk of making a bad decision but want an answer in less than 24 hours and don’t want to spend an arm and a leg to get it. The executive calls a consortium of wise counselors who will ponder her question and return with recommendations within 24 hours. The consulting team uses a private conferencing network to host a dialog about the executive’s issue. Total time expended by the consultants: four or five hours. Fee: around $5,000. The consultants have backgrounds comparable to top-tier multinational consulting firms but enlist no newbies in their projects. We went live with the concept in April 2008 and are still experimenting with the best ways to do this. 146 Learnscaping
  • 145. “The key to the 21st Century will be in learning how to leverage informal learning for us all. Jay provides us an evocative roadmap to how we can do this.” John Seely Brown “Jay talks about unblended learning, emergence, grokking, envisioning, unconferencing, connecting, conversation, community, web2.0 and JDI (just do it). He makes the point that classes are dead, that every learner needs to cultivate an ecology, share via voicing, communicate using stories and build common text by collaborative editing (wikis).” Denham Gray “Jay provides an important challenge for us all—to move our focus from the classroom to the workplace, and, in doing so, reframe what we do in ways that much more closely reflect how people actually learn and perform on the job.” Jay Cross is a champion of informal learning, web 2.0, and systems thinking. His calling is to help business people improve their performance on the job and Marc Rosenberg satisfaction in life. He has challenged conventional wisdom about how adults learn “Jay is one of the most courageous personalities I've ever encountered, since designing the first business degree program offered by the University of especially in a field where self-interested cowardice is pretty much the rule. Phoenix three decades ago. His clarity of vision on all things relating to learning in the corporate world is only matched by his commitment to helping others make it work. He cuts Internet Time Group LLC has provided advice and guidance to Cisco, Eaton, through nonsense with incredible speed and precision.” Diageo, IBM, Sun, Genentech, Merck, Novartis, HP, the CIA, the World Bank, and numerous others. We are currently refining informal/web 2.0 learning management “Is Jay a revolutionary? Only in his long-term vision. For the rest his focus is on the nuts and bolts of human relations, which is what transfer and approaches that accelerate performance. Jay frequently leads Adrenalin Shot development of knowledge is all about.” Workshops for corporate teams. Peter Isackson Jay served as CEO of eLearning Forum for its first five years, was the first to use the term eLearning on the web, and has keynoted such conferences as Online “Jay is an evangelist of the intelligent application of new learning methods Educa (Berlin), I-KNOW (Austria), Research Innovations in Learning (U.S.), LearnX and tools, and he helps organizations improve the performance of their people by speeding up their learning. Jay is also an absolutely great (Melbourne), Emerging eLearning (Abu Dhabi), Training (U.S.),Quality in eLearning presenter, a good writer, and a sharp mind to work with.” (Bogotá), and Learning Technology (London). Robin Good He is the author of Informal Learning: Rediscovering the Natural Pathways that Inspire Innovation and Performance, coauthor of Implementing eLearning, “Take a mega-high IQ, some Berkeley attitude, a dose of e-learning contributor to The Blended Learning Handbook, and author of many magazine curiosity and you get Jay Cross. For opinion and analysis, nothing is as interesting or fun as Jayʼs blog.” articles. Every day, thousands of people read his two blogs, Internet Time and Informal Learning Blog. Kevin Kruse Jay is a graduate of Princeton University and Harvard Business School. He and his wife Uta live with two miniature longhaired dachshunds in the hills of Berkeley, California.
  • 146. Acknowledgements and Version History These words began to take shape in early 2008 as The Informal Learning 2.0 Fieldbook. Then I realized my content was changing too fast to be Meta captured in a conventional book. It was also expanding beyond learning. I changed the name to Eating the Dog Food: Getting Things Done in Organizations. Dog food? Years ago, a pitchman on television had said Alpo dog food was so healthy, he fed it to his own dogs. Among software developers, using oneʼs own programs became known as eating the dog food. To help an organization prosper, I suggested they do more than just talk about what they read here. They needed to eat the dog food. My friend Gunnar Bruckner, a Berliner with significant intercultural exposure, warned me that the dog food metaphor did not travel well. Europeans couldnʼt stomach it. A week before initial publication, the name changed to Learnscape Architecture. I edited Version 1.23 from the remote hamlet of Soglio, a charming village in the Bregaglia Valley in Italian-speaking Switzerland. My printed proof copy arrived in Soglio three working days after I had ordered it from back in the States. I am amazed when things like this actually work. Ignatia de Waard provided a page-by-page critique, the first, which I have Learnscape Architecture took to heart, and the un-book is better for it. Version 1.28 is provided via Lulu. I’ve shrunk the page size down to 7” x 9”. I spent a few days in August 2008 at Intel. Architecture wasn’t what they needed. They needed to do stuff, no dream it up. With Version 1.30, the name of this un-book is becoming simply Learnscaping. More is more. Version 1.32 includes bits and pieces of recent presentations. I’ve adopted a chapter structure. The hardcopy version is now perfect-bound instead of spiral. Page size has dropped to 5” x 9”. 148
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