NG BB 53 Process Control [Compatibility Mode]


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NG BB 53 Process Control [Compatibility Mode]

  1. 1. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO National Guard Black Belt Training Module 53 Process Control UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  2. 2. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUOCPI Roadmap – Control p 8-STEP PROCESS 6. See 1.Validate 1 Validate 2. Identify 3. Set 4. Determine 5. Develop 7. Confirm 8. Standardize Counter- the Performance Improvement Root Counter- Results Successful Measures Problem Gaps Targets Cause Measures & Process Processes Through Define Measure Analyze Improve Control TOOLS ACTIVITIES •KPIs/Metrics • Implement Mistake Proofing •Control Charts & SPC • Develop SOP’s, Training Plan, Process •Standard Operating Procedures (SOP’s) Controls •Training Plan • Implement Solution •Communication Plan • Establish Ongoing Process Measurements •Implementation Plan • Identify Project Replication Opportunities •Process Control / Response Plans • Estimate Final Financial/Operational Benefits •Visual Process Control Tools • Transition Project to Process Owner •Project Replication • Develop Audit/Response Plan •Project Commissioning • Create Final Storyboard •Storyboards • Complete Control Tollgate •Team Feedback Session 2 Note: Activities and tools vary by project. Lists provided here are not necessarily all-inclusive. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  3. 3. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Learning Objectives Apply the concepts of Control Plans to process improvement projects i t j t Apply the concepts of Standard Operating Procedures to process improvement processes 3 Process Control UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  4. 4. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Control Phase Tasks After developing and implementing a pilot: 1. Validate the measurement system for the KPOV(s) and critical KPIV(s) We discussed these tools earlier 2. Implement the improvements 3. Create a process control system to make sure that the improved process stays in control Document th appropriate procedures f monitoring th process, D t the i t d for it i the including how to react if it goes out of control Development of the process control system really gets started early in your p j y project but is implemented in the Control Phase p 4. Process Documentation and Standard Operating Procedures 5. Project closure and commissioning We will discuss this tool later 4 Process Control UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  5. 5. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Measurement System Analysis When collecting data as part of our control system, we must verify th t th t if that there i not excessive is t i measurement system variation present. This really should have been done prior to conducting h ll h ld h b d d significant analysis but now is your absolute last chance To validate the measurement system, you should use the same process that you learned in the MSA modules in Measure 5 Process Control UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  6. 6. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Determine Process Capability Process capability is the measure for how a process is performing Verify that our process is doing better, we need to re- calculate that number now Recalculate during the pilot phase to confirm the capability has improved, then calculate it again after the improvement has gone live in the workplace The second "real-world" calculation should only happen after enough time has passed to allow sufficient sampling and the process is in control For the purpose of this training, that means after you have completed the Control tasks 6 Process Control UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  7. 7. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Improvement Confirmation Confirmation in Six Sigma means statistics that will back b k up your decisions. d i i We will be using calculations that you have already learned in process capability and hypothesis testing l d bl dh h This means comparing the mean and standard deviation of the original data collected with data collected after the improvement 7 Process Control UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  8. 8. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO National Guard Black Belt Training Control Plans UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  9. 9. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Cultural Issues and Control If data has been used to develop the solution, if it fails, it is usually not due to technical issues Acceptance by the people in the process (cultural issues) often determines success or failure Force Field Analysis helps to identify and mitigate cultural risk Driving forces are things that can or will drive the organization to implement the change Restraining forces are things that can or will drive the organization to reject the change Key: Strengthen driving forces and/or weaken restraining forces 9 Process Control UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  10. 10. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Exercise: Cultural Issues For your training project, complete a Force Field analysis for the implementation and control plans __________________ Project Implementation and Control Driving Forces Restraining Forces 10 Process Control UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  11. 11. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Maintaining the Improvement There are the three approaches you can use to maintain your process improvement. i t i i t They are not sequential, however there is somewhat of a h f hierarchy: h Risk Management Mistake P Mi t k Proofing fi Both should be considered before or in tandem with a control charting strategy, because they are strategies for avoiding potential problems altogether Control Charts can only monitor for potential problems All th ee app oaches must have three approaches m st ha e Control Plans to sustain the gains 11 Process Control UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  12. 12. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Mistake Proofing The best approach to process control is Mistake Proofing. Proofing Mistake Proofing is a method for avoiding errors in a process The simplest definition of "Mistake Proofing” is that it Mistake Proofing is a technique for eliminating errors by making it impossible to make mistakes in the process Unfortunately, mistake proofing is not always possible or economically practical, therefore you must develop a plan with on-going monitoring 12 Process Control UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  13. 13. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Control Charts Control charts are essentially a feedback system Generating control charts requires on-going data collection on a process to monitor how it performed before and after the improvements b f d f h 13 Process Control UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  14. 14. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Review of Control Charts Focuses attention on measuring and tracking g g process variation over time Distinguishes between special and common g p causes of variation Used as a tool for process control ( p (can monitor inputs and outputs over time) Tracks process improvements in q p p quality, cost y, and/or throughput Establishes a normative and uniform language g g for comparing performance among processes 14 UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  15. 15. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Steps to Create Control Charts Determine where to use control charts Determine the control chart type, and then the sampling method Collect data Calculate statistics Track data, remove causes for out-of-control points, and recalculate statistics. Repeat until stable. Develop action plan for out-of-control conditions Run the process over time 15 UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  16. 16. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Creating Control Charts ATTRIBUTE type CONTINUOUS of data f type of subgroup attribute size data DEFECTS DEFECTIVES subgroup size 1 2-7 8+ sample sample size size I – MR X–R X–S Chart Chart Chart CONSTANT VARIABLE CONSTANT VARIABLE Individuals Mean & Mean & & Moving Range Std. Dev. Range NP C Chart U Chart P Chart Chart Number of Incidences Number of Proportion Choose Appropriate Incidences per Unit Defectives Defective Control Chart 16 UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  17. 17. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Input vs. Output Measures X Y 17 UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  18. 18. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Control Chart Advantages Systematic and efficient method for turning data into actionable information Lets people make decisions from FACTS p p Highlights special cause impacts to a process Provides warning o deg ada o be o e making de ec o des a g of degradation before a g defect products / services Establishes controls for continuous improvement and shows evidence of i h id f improvementst Involves everyone and builds worker knowledge of the process 18 UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  19. 19. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Show Control Chart Stages g P Chart of Bad by Stage Before After 0.6 1 0.5 0.4 Proportion 1 0.3 UCL=0.3045 0.2 _ 0.1 P=0.1069 0.0 LCL=0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 Sample Tests performed with unequal sample sizes Select stages under Options button in Minitab 19 UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  20. 20. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Watch for Patterns OUTLIERS Wrong process settings, error in measurement, subgrouping or plotting, incomplete operation, machine and tool breakdowns, power surge. SHIFTS Is the change sudden or gradual? Introduction of a new material, machine, operator, inspector or test set, new process controls, maintenance, process changes, change in proportion of materials from different sources. TRENDS Tool or fixture wear, deterioration of materials, aging, changes in maintenance or calibration, environmental factors human factors, calibration factors, factors production schedules, gradual changes in materials or process, accumulation of waste products, machine warm-up. 20 UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  21. 21. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Watch for Patterns CYCLES Does the time period of the cycle suggest a cause? Environmental factors, worn locations on tools or fixtures, human factors, gage changes, voltage fluctuations, shift changes, systematic rotation of equipment or materials, merging of subassemblies or processes. STRATIFICATION Could each subgroup be a mixture of data from more than one source? Non-random sampling, miscalculation, i N d li i l l ti incorrect chart t t h t type, non-rational ti l subgrouping, reduction in process variability, changes in inspection process. MIXTURES Could subgroups be coming from two sources alternately? Two or more different materials, operators, designs, or testers mixed in the process, over adjustments of the process, poor sampling procedures, control of two or more processes on the same chart 21 UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  22. 22. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Implementation Notes Use Control Charts where it will be of benefit Design the improvements and monitor their impact over time Train everyone on how to read control charts Create a control plan to identify “triggers” to watch triggers and “responses” to implement Beware: Graphs can be misleading 22 UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  23. 23. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO What Is a Control Plan? Control plans provide a written summary description of the systems used i minimizing process and service variation t d in i i i i d i i ti Control plans do not replace information contained in detailed instructions In a grand sense the control plan describes the actions that are required at each phase of the process including receiving, in-process, outgoing, and periodic requirements to assure that all process outputs will be in a state of control Ultimately, the control plan is a living document reflecting current methods of control and measurement systems used 23 Process Control UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  24. 24. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Control Plan Minimum Requirements 1. Identify the process that is being controlled 2. Identify measures (numbers) to be monitored 3. Identify “trigger point” values for each measure where trigger point action should be taken 4. 4 Identify action to be taken when a “trigger point” is trigger point reached 5. 5 Identify who is responsible for taking action when a “trigger point” is reached 24 Process Control UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  25. 25. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Elements of Process Control Plans Holds the performance gains made Assists in highlighting opportunities for further improvement activities Is a living document Adjusted as conditions change and further improvements made Has formal provision for periodic review Is interesting and easy to understand – use pictures and colors 25 Process Control UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  26. 26. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Why Is a Process Control Plan Necessary? Processes have a tendency to degrade over time Also, at this stage, the process is generally moving beyond the hands of the CPI team Those who are responsible for continuing the process need a clear understanding of how to implement it consistently and steps to take if it gets out of control The improved process needs to be communicated to all involved parties through documentation and p g training A data collection plan is also necessary to test the improved process and confirm that the solutions are i d d fi h h l i indeed having positive impact 26 Process Control UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  27. 27. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Existing Control Documentation Many processes already have in place what are called "quality plans" to ensure each service characteristic or sub- " lit l "t h i h t i ti b process stays in conformance with their overall process You should take into consideration any existing quality plans as part of establishing a process control system for your project The existing plan may include process procedures and tolerances, as well as items to be monitored for control and response plans in the event of a process breakdown. These p p p can inform your own control plan Your improved sub-process may have an impact on the quality plan, so you need to include changes to it as part of plan your documentation 27 Process Control UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  28. 28. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Process Control Plan Header Control Plan Number (for Doc. Control) Date revised and effective date Contact person who “owns” Control Plan owns Team personnel that created Plan Service or Product numbers/processes that Plan applies to Other identification notes 28 Process Control UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  29. 29. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Process Control Plan Body – 1 Following the layout of the new Process Map, list the process operation steps and f each: ti t d for h Number of the step Name of step ( N f t (operation or action t b d ti ti to be done)) Tools and/or guides used to assist operation Characteristics of the process step (KPIVs) Characteristics of the step outcomes (KPOVs) Any special notation for a characteristic ? (Safety or environmental issue?) 29 Process Control UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  30. 30. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Process Control Plan Body – 2 Proposed specs for each KPIV and KPOV including the tolerances t l Evaluation or measurement technique - how to monitor the variable meets the specification or tolerance For each characteristic called out Attribute or Variable How measurement will be done (tool and SOP) Sample size and frequency Control/monitoring method Reaction plan for when KPIV/KPOV goes out of spec p g p 30 Process Control UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  31. 31. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Control Plan Strategy The intent of an effective control plan strategy is to: Operate our processes consistently on target with minimum variation Minimize process tampering (over-adjustment) (over adjustment) Assure that the process improvements that have been identified and implemented become institutionalized p Provide for adequate training in all procedures Include required maintenance schedules Revise Perodically 31 Process Control UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  32. 32. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Documenting the Control Plan Process Current Cpk /Date Measurement %R&R Sample Sample Process Process Step Input Output Specification (LSL, Control Reaction Plan (Sample Size) System %P/T Size Frequency USL, Target) Method For Key Process Input and Key Process Output variables, the measurement system and measurement system capability should be identified y y p y Targets and specification limits for Key Process Input Variables and Key Process Output variables are recorded For inputs and outputs, the process capability should be calculated The specifics of the sampling plan with associated reaction plan for out-of-spec conditions should be listed This document is an extension of the Current Controls column of the FMEA 32 Process Control UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  33. 33. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO FMEA In Control Planning The FMEA should be a primary source for the identification of key variables to control and for an initial evaluation of current control plans S O Key Process Process Step Potential Failure Mode Potential Failure Effects E Potential Causes C Current Controls Input V C Process Current Cpk /Date Measurement %R&R Sample Sample Process Process Step Input Output Specification (LSL, Control Reaction Plan (Sample Size) System %P/T Size Frequency USL, Target) Method 33 Process Control UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  34. 34. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Control Plan Development Continuous variables: determine optimal operating window (specifications) Discrete/attribute variables: / Process Cpk /D Process Process Step Input Output Specification (LSL, (Sample USL, Target) US T ) determine optimal setting, procedure, material, etc. Uncontrollable noise U t ll bl i variables: determine acceptable operating windows for f compensating variables i i bl 34 Process Control UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  35. 35. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Control Plan Development Control Methods For Controllable Variables: Statistical Process C t l St ti ti l P Control Inspection and Test Methods Choice of control chart(s) and sampling plan Standard Operating Procedures (“SOPs”), Checklists Procedures for identifying P o ed e fo identif ing and responding to out-of- Mistake-proofing systems and control points and devices undesirable trends Color tags Procedures for preventing Single use devices recurrence of special causes Automated process control p on Cpk /Da te Me a sure m e nt %R&R Curre nt Control Sa m L, (Sa m ple Size ) Te chnique P/T Me thod S 35 Process Control UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  36. 36. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Control Plan Development Control Methods For Noise (Uncontrollable Input) Variables: Compensate with changes to KPIVs (based on known relationships, relationships not tweaking or opinion!) Define shutdown conditions on Cpk /Date Measurement %R&R Current Control Sam Use alternative quality control L, (Sample Size) Technique P/T Method S procedures (inspection, sorting, rework, etc.) 36 Process Control UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  37. 37. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Control Methods Takeaways Changes in the process require changes to the control method th d Control methods identify person responsible for control of each critical variable and details about how l f h l bl dd l b h to react to out-of-control conditions (see next slide) Control methods include a training plan and process auditing system Complicated methods can be referenced by document number and location 37 Process Control UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  38. 38. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Reaction Plans Holding the Gain Monitor and respond to problems Manage the process day-to-day day to day Practice continuous improvement When you improve a process and h d hold the gain, it ensures your efforts have not been in vain 38 Process Control UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  39. 39. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Reaction Plan and Procedures Actions should be the responsibility of people closest to the process The reaction plan can simply refer to an SOP and identify the person R Current Sample Sample responsible for the reaction Control Reaction Plan Size q y Frequency Method M th d procedure In all cases, suspect or nonconforming service must be clearly identified and quarantined Can be built from the FMEA 39 Process Control UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  40. 40. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Building a Reaction Plan 1.Examine Each Key Step in the Process Entire SIPOC 2.Apply Preventive Planning What could go wrong? How would we respond – contingency? Who would be responsible? 3.Set “Trigger” Measures What Wh would warrant response? ld ? 4.Document the Plan Key ingredient for Process Management 40 Process Control UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  41. 41. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Examples of Reaction Plans Adjust the machine and recheck Separate service and quarantine Return to supplier / previous process step Notify supervisor Resource shift NOTE: Area personnel will typically have a list of items to check when a characteristic wanders out of control 41 Process Control UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  42. 42. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Reaction Types Compensate This type of control involves making a process adjustment to bring the variable back into control without identifying or correcting the factor aches which caused the situation oved Correct Approa Impro In this type of control action, the cause of the variation is identified and corrected temporarily. The problem may reappear soon. Prevent A In this type of action, the cause of the variation is identified and permanently corrected. The cause will not happen again or at least will not occur as often. Typically, unsuccessful control programs utilize only compensating actions. Focus control plan response on preventative action. Examples include i l d root cause analysis, personnel training, preventative t l i lt i i t ti maintenance, controller tuning and replacing defective equipment. 42 Process Control UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  43. 43. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO How to Take Preventative Action When an undocumented out-of-control condition occurs, a cross- functional team consisting mainly of area personnel process personnel, engineers, and supervisors identify the variable to be controlled and follow these steps: 1. Prepare or update a process flow diagram of the system 2. A cause/effect (fishbone) diagram is prepared illustrating possible causes of variation in the process Four basic areas to center on are: manpower, materials, methods, and machinery 3. 3 The team selects the most likely causes from the list 4. Starting with the most likely causes, root causes of the variation are identified. Ask “WHY?” five times! Find root causes, not likely causes! 43 Process Control UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  44. 44. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO How to Take Preventative Action (Cont.) 5. Prepare a Reaction Plan for each out-of-control condition Causes are placed in the order that they should be checked, the most likely C l d i th d th t th h ld b h k d th t lik l or easiest to check first The team determines compensating actions to take should no cause be identified 6. The Reaction Plan is reviewed by the team and the process experts for modifications. The team determines how the plan will be documented and how to train the work force 7. Corrective action (permanent ones!) assignments are made and followed up to prevent recurrence! 8. Define a plan to collect data on how often the reaction plan is used and how well it works. Review results quarterly q y 44 Process Control UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  45. 45. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Trouble Shooting A control plan is a logical, systematic approach for finding d fi di and correcting root causes of out-of-control ti t f t f t l conditions, and will be a valuable tool for process improvement A key advantage of the reaction plan form is its use as a troubleshooting guide for area personnel A systematic guide of what to look for during upset conditions is valuable on its own 45 Process Control UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  46. 46. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO R&R Leave Program ExamplePROJECT NAME DIVISION DIVISION CHIEF DATEUSCENTCOM R&R Leave Program Human Relations Readiness Division, HRPD COL Donna Alberto 3/31/2007BRANCH CHIEF PROCESS OWNERS RESPONSIBLE CONTROL MANAGERLTC Frazlier Pope Army G-1, USCENTCOM, CFLCC, TRANSCOM Stewart Goesch MONTHLY REPORT Applicable Control Charts and MetricsControl Responsible Upper LowerAction Control Action Target Individual Freq. Process Step Control Control Current Reaction PlanNumber Value Limit Limit LTC Rivera; LTC Project PAX 90, 100% If pax projection accuracy drops below 85%, CFLCC will 1 PAX Projections Coperhaven; LTC Daily/Monthly 60, 30, 6 days and Accurate 100% 85% 88% automatically reduce PAX estimates by 5-10% 5 10% Knott K 48 h out hrs Mike Phillips If pax seat fill accuracy drops below 85% (e.g. over (with Dave Order 100% 15% excess seats continuously ordered), G-1 will 2 Aircraft/Seat Orders Hamilton & LTC Daily/Monthly Seats/Aircraft Accurate 100% 85% 92% automatically reduce PAX seat estimates forwarded to Knott) AMC by 5-10% If Fill Rate drops below 65%, recommend switch to 2-1- 3 Fill Rate Stewart Goesch Daily/Monthly Monitor Fill Rate 80% 75% 65% 64% 2-1 for 17-30 days and then monitor for improvements If Number of Unfilled Seats reaches 3811, recommend Monitor Unfilled 4 Unfilled Seats Stewart Goesch Daily/Monthly Seats 2,500/Mo 4,000/Mo 0 3,811 switch to 2-1-2-1 for 17-30 days and then monitor for improvements If Avg Cost Per PAX exceeds $2,500 and we are ordering 2 aircraft, switch to 2-1-2-1 for 17-30 days and Monitor Cost Per then monitor for improvements; if we are ordering one 5 Average Cost Per PAX Stewart Goesch Daily/Monthly PAX $1,894 $2,500 $1,515 $2,609 aircraft, and the total numbers are less than 100, attempt to sell back mission and utilize commercial air $1554/PAX If holdover count exceeds 0, first utilize extra seats on Mike Phillips (with 50 aircraft $178/PAX, then consider utilization up to 100 6 Holdovers Dave Hamilton & LTC Daily/Monthly Monitor Holdovers 0 (24-48 hrs) 0 55 seats commercial, then holdover for 24 hrs, and fly out Knott) FIFO on very next mission Mike Phillips (with Order Second If substained pax average projected over 370 PAX /day, 7 Second Aircraft Orders Dave Hamilton & LTC Daily/Monthly Aircraft 355 370 330 222 consider ordering second aircraft g Knott) Mike Phillips (with Attempt sell back-any msn with less than 50 PAX 8 Aircraft Sell Backs Dave Hamilton & LTC Daily/Monthly Sell Back Aircraft 355 50 0 75 projected Knott) 9 PAX Flown LTC Knott Daily/Monthly PAX Flown N/A N/A N/A 10,300 N/A 46 Process Control UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  47. 47. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Questions for Control Plan Evaluation Key Process Input Variables (KPIVs): How are th monitored? H they it d? How often are they verified? Are optimum target values and specifications known? How much variation is there around the target value? What causes the variation in the KPIV? How often is the KPIV out of control? Which KPIVs should have control charts? Uncontrollable (Noise) Inputs What are they? Are they impossible or impractical to control? Do we know how to compensate for changes in them? How robust i th system t N i ? H b t is the t to Noise? 47 Process Control UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  48. 48. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Questions for Control Plan Evaluation Standard Operating Procedures Do they i t? D th exist? Are they simple and understood? Are they being followed? Are they current? Is personnel training performed and documented? Is there a process audit schedule? Maintenance Procedures Have critical components been identified? Does the schedule specify who what & when? who, Where are the manufacturer’s instructions? Do we have a trouble shooting guide? What Wh t are the training requirements for maintenance? th t i i i t f i t ? 48 Process Control UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  49. 49. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Questions for Control Plan Evaluation What special equipment is needed for measurement? What is the measurement capability? Who does the measurement? How often is a measurement taken? How are routine data recorded? Who plots the control chart (if one is used) and interprets the information? What key procedures are required to maintain control? What is done with a service or product that is off spec? How is the process routinely audited? Who makes the audit? How often? How is it recorded? 49 Process Control UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  50. 50. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Control Plan Check List Process maps detail process steps, Sampling, inspection and testing information flow and important plans include how often, where and variables to who results reported Key service variables identified with Operating procedures identify importance to customer, desired actions, responsibilities, maintenance target value and specification range schedules and service segregation defined requirements Long and short term capability trend Training materials describe all charts track variation reduction aspects of process operation progress and responsibilities Key and critical input variables Mil/spec documentation identified with targets, statistically standards met, if required determined control limits & control Process improvement efforts fully strategies defined documented and available for Reaction plan in place for out-of- out of reference spec processes Control plan is reviewed and Measurement systems are capable updated quarterly and resides in the with calibration requirements operating area specified 50 Process Control UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  51. 51. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Control Plan Roadmap Review 1. Collect existing documentation for 7. Pay particular attention to process adequacy of training, maintenance, operating and reaction plans 2. Determine scope of process for current control plan 8. Assign tasks to team members to complete missing plan elements p gp 3. Form 3 Fo m teams to update pdate documentation more than one 9. Verify compliance with area quarter old documentation requirements 4. 4 Short term capability studies should 10. 10 (Re)train personnel be replaced with long term 11. Collect sign-off signatures from capability results safety & environmental, 5. 5 Fill in Control Plan Summary based maintenance, maintenance operations and on review of updated process engineering documentation 12. Verify control plan effectiveness in 6. 6 Identify missing or inadequate six months with long term components — gaps capability study 51 Process Control UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  52. 52. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Exercise: Control Plan for GGA Budget Draft a sample “Control” system, as follows: a.Select two measures to monitor the GGA budget process; note if Input, Process or Output measures b.For b For each measure define a “trigger” point measure, trigger c. Identify short-term responses to problems; note responsibility p y d.Describe response to serious, persistent problems Prepare to share ideas with the group p g p 20 Minutes 52 Process Control UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  53. 53. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Process Control Plan Template PROJECT NAME DIVISION DIVISION CHIEF DATE LD09014 Improve Tollgate Templates LSS PMO LTC Garrett Heath 12/18/2007 BRANCH CHIEF PROCESS OWNERS RESPONSIBLE CONTROL MANAGER Applicable Control Charts and Metrics Control Responsible Upper Lower Action Control Action Target Individual Freq. Process Step Control Control Current Reaction Plan Number Value Limit Limit If process cycle time for updating templates rises 1 Process Cycle Time Green Belt Quarterly Updating Tollgates 4 Min 5 Min N/A 4 Min, 40 above 8 minutes, PMO will re-examine process to Sec identify constraints. Conduct VOC Survey to 100% PMO willl adjust tollgate templates to address issues 2 address issues in FMEA Green Belt Quarterly Satisfaction 100% 85% N/A raised by VOC. (Improve Phase) Tollgate Templates Conduct VOC Survey to Access to Tools 100% PMO will adjust tools and references access to j 3 address issues in FMEA dd i i Green Belt G B lt Quarterly Q t l and References Satisfaction 100% 85% N/A issues raised by VOC. (Improve Phase) - Example - Required Deliverable 53 UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  54. 54. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO National Guard Black Belt Training SOP and Documentation UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  55. 55. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Selecting What to Document Activities critical to customer satisfaction Processes/tasks that involve many people Especially changing team players, multiple functions Complex acti ities Comple activities Areas where “history” is important Will we need to refer to what we’ve done or how we did this later? we ve (Examples: DMAIC project tracking and documentation) Legal and audit requirements Examples: Hiring process; financial procedures l f l d Where flexibility is essential 55 Process Control UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  56. 56. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Documentation Hints Language Write at a level appropriate to the user Watch for jargon or techno-ese Spell out acronyms, abbreviations and symbols the first time they are used Be aware of multi-cultural influences Be clear, concise, and specific Make sure to quantify Include process standards Key measures, customer requirements measures Provide reference sources A name and phone number, e-mail address, etc. p , , Add cross references when/where applicable 56 Process Control UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  57. 57. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Documentation Hints (Cont.) Use graphics when/where applicable Incorporate process maps or examples of f I t l f forms Test and validate documentation You may want to ask an objective party Make it accessible and flexible On line, On-line, hard copy or both Someone should “own” documentation Have an update and improvement mechanism Be B aware of audit considerations f dit id ti Use documentation to train others Say h S what you do, but do what you say! d b d h ! 57 Process Control UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  58. 58. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Documentation Exercise – What Went Wrong? Three children are told by their parents they can play after dinner outside. Their only instructions were “Be outside Be home before dark.” One returns at 7:15, one returns at 8:15 and the third returns at 9:15. Why did the second and third get punished? d d h d h d? Three new employees are hired to three “Cookie” stores, stores same company different locations One is company, locations. told to follow the instructions to mix dough based on the instructions in the drawer under the counter, one is told to follow the instructions posted on the wall, the third is instructed to follow directions on the box. O y o e batc came Only one batch ca e out co ect y What happened? correctly. at appe ed 58 Process Control UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  59. 59. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Project Documentation Package Trouble Shooting Guides Process Maps Reaction Plans FMEAs Training Measurement Systems Analysis Maintenance Schedules Project Scope SOPs Customers Capability Analysis Project Summary j y 59 Process Control UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  60. 60. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO CNX Variables of Cause and Effect Divide Cause and Effect Inputs into three groups: C (Controllable) -Is this something you can control? Examples may be a staffing, new hires, telemarketing scripts, scripts speed of delivery vehicle or delivery routes N (Noise) -Contributors to the problem that we cannot control (examples may be weather effects, time a customer calls in an order, traffic problems, X-A variable we may have experimented with already For Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs), focus on the “C” variables 60 Process Control UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  61. 61. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Do We Have SOPs? List “C” variables and prioritize Determine if a procedure is in place for each. If yes, then get a copy for the team and include with the Control Plan If none in place, the team needs to develop this 61 Process Control UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  62. 62. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO What Is an SOP??? An SOP is specific instructions that detail the task or activity that needs t t k place each ti ti it th t d to take l h time th action the ti in performed. This is to ensure the task is done the same way each time It details activities so that a person new to the position will perform the task the same way as someone whose been in the job for a longer time It ensures that task is performed the same way on an ongoing basis 62 Process Control UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  63. 63. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Steps to Write an SOP Brainstorm with team to identify all of the steps required to carry out a t k or activity. I l d i di id l that may t task ti it Include individuals th t not be on team, but are expected to carry out this task after project is completed. Remember, this helps with buy- in later Organize these activities into the proper time sequence and confirm with team and outside group f h d d Write the SOP to include additional requirements that needed to be explained to get a uniform output each time Review draft with team/group Meet with Process Owners and secure necessary approvals 63 Process Control UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  64. 64. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Documentation/SOP Exercise Objective: Understand the purpose and application of documentation b d d t ti by documenting your best helicopter ti b t h li t design “Design” and build the helicopter (done) Design Document how to build the helicopter (15 minutes) Exchange instructions with another group and build their helicopter (5 minutes) Compare the actual helicopters Be prepared to discuss your findings with the class 64 Process Control UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  65. 65. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Revision Planning Identify criteria for revision Under hat circumstances Unde what ci c mstances is revision likel to be needed? e ision likely Determine who is responsible Process o e s ou d o e see (at least) ocess owner should oversee east) Responsible person(s) should have process knowledge Plan the changes Impacts on the process, customers, team players, materials, systems (Tool: “future-focused” cause and effect analysis) Actions needed to accommodate change: New documents, measures, training, etc. Implement the changes Responsibility and timing! Validate SOP and Process Map align. 65 Process Control UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  66. 66. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Revising Documentation Establish identification and revision codes Examples: 5.0, 5.1, 5.15, 5.2 etc. Decide what to replace Whole items (all of a training manual, an entire document of procedures, etc.) Or, O one page at a time i Establish a system for distribution Who needs to know? What media will inform them? 66 Process Control UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  67. 67. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Institutionalization Cultural attitudes and beliefs Systems and structures HR policies Management Information Systems Training, etc. Fundamental changes in daily behavior, attitude and practice make the change “permanent” 67 Process Control UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  68. 68. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Standard Operating Procedures Tips Establish in conjunction with the control plan Use illustrations Use flow diagrams Use work instructions that really work Use reaction plans that really work Focus on the quality of documentation, not the quantity Use workers to help with the instruction Clearly lay out authorities, roles, and responsibilities 68 Process Control UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  69. 69. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Continuous Improvement Putting the new process in place is not a “one time” activity Achieving – and sustaining – our vision requires evaluating and improving our processes on an i i ongoing basis MOTTO: We can always do bette e ca a ays better! 69 Process Control UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  70. 70. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUOSOP and Training Plan Template SOPs Requiring Revision - Example - SOPs Requiring Revision Responsible Status FY09 SOP Update Lead: Branch Chief, Completed 1 Oct 08 – 28 Feb 09 AO: Team Lead Next SOP Update schedule Lead: TSC Chief, Complete before FY10 NSPS 1 Sep 09 – 30 Sep 10 AO: Team Lead Cycle Next SOP Update schedule Lead: TSC Chief, Complete before FY11 NSPS 1 Sep 09 – 30 Sep 10 AO: Team Lead Cycle Required Training Required Training q g Responsible p Status Office Professional Each Team Members are OPD Training Schedule plan Development encouraged to provide OPD is asked to be updated to team members. Individual Professional I di id l P f i l Branch Chi f and T B h Chief d Team Susp D t B S Date: Branch Chi f and h Chief d Development Plan members Team member discuss and finalize by 1 May 09 Required Deliverable 70 UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  71. 71. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Visual Process Control Tools Template • SOP is posted computer desktop for easy reference access. • Mistake proofing system in place - copy of DD214 w/checklist is posted on the counselor’s desk - Example - Sample DD 214 w/ checklist Recommended 71 UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  72. 72. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUOMistake Proofing (Poke Yoke) Template - Example - Solution: Make use of existing bar codes on shipping paperwork to mistake proof receiving function function. Validate with suppliers (shipping company) that all shipping containers will have barcode label ($0) Purchase RF (wireless) bar coding equipment and software ($100/gun * 20 guns) Train all longshoreman on use and care of equipment ($50/hr * 20 hrs) Install error metrics for error tracking ($100) Recommended 72 UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  73. 73. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Future State Process Map Template “As Is” Process To Be Process - Example - Required Deliverable 73 UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  74. 74. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Control Chart Exercise Did the Process Improve? 74 UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  75. 75. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUOExercise: What Does the Data Say? • Each of the following 10 examples contain presentations of data “before” and “after” an improvement project was conducted • For each example, answer the question: Did the process improve? p p • You may answer … YES, YES NO or CAN’T TELL 75 UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  76. 76. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUOExample 1 p Example 1: Monthly rejects before and after an improvement project Monthly R j t d U it M thl Rejected Units Before After 2000 1800 1600 ejected Units 1400 1200 Number of Re 1000 800 600 400 200 0 JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB Month 76 UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  77. 77. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUOExample 2 p Example 2: Adhesion strength in Newtons before and after an improvement project (Larger values are better.) 175 165.8 150 140.6 125 100 Newtons 75 50 25 0 Before After 77 UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  78. 78. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUOExample 3 p Example 3: Defects before and after an improvement project Pareto Chart Before and After Project B D C A E Other 900 Before After p Chart - Defect B 800 Before After 700 0.10 600 Frequency 0.09 500 0.08 400 0.07 oportion 300 0.06 200 0.05 0 05 Pro 100 UCL=0.04694 0.04 0 _ B D C A E Other 0.03 P=0.03028 Defect Type 0.02 LCL=0.01362 0.01 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Sample S l 78 UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  79. 79. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUOExample 4 Example 4: Labor Cost before and after an improvement project Average Salary & Fringes per Employee – Technical Group Before After A verage Salary & Fringes 6500 6000 UCL=5601 5500 _ X=5206 5000 LCL=4812 Feb-02 Apr-02 Jun-02 Aug-02 Oct-02 Dec-02 Feb-03 Apr-03 Jun-03 Aug-03 Oct-03 Dec-03 Month Before After 800 Moving Range e 600 UCL=484.7 400 200 __ MR=148.4 0 LCL=0 Feb-02 Apr-02 Jun-02 Aug-02 Oct-02 Dec-02 Feb-03 Apr-03 Jun-03 Aug-03 Oct-03 Dec-03 Month 79 UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO