D09 Recognize and Overcome Resistance


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D09 Recognize and Overcome Resistance

  1. 1. Recognize and Overcome Resistance Deliverable 4D
  2. 2. Define Module Roadmap Define 1D – Define VOC, VOB, and CTQ’s 2D – Define Project Boundaries 3D – Quantify Project Value 4D – Develop Project Mgmt. Plan Measure 5M – Document Process 6M – Prioritize List of X’s 7M – Create Data Collection Plan 8M – Validate Measurement System 9M – Establish Baseline Process Cap. Analyze 10A – Determine Critical X’s Improve 12I – Prioritized List of Solutions 13I – Pilot Best Solution Control 14C – Create Control System 15C – Finalize Project Documentation Green 11G – Identify Root Cause Relationships
  3. 3. Deliverables – Define # Deliverable Deliverable Concept & Tasks Primary Tool(s) Secondary Tool(s) 1D Define VOC, VOB and CTQs A project is started because a customer (internal or external) needs some problem to be solved. Deliverable 1D obtains customer input to understand the problem(s) that the customer is experiencing so that a project can be started. In addition to defining the problem, we also need to understand how the customer defines product acceptability (specifications). <ul><ul><li>VOC Worksheet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affinity Diagram </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stratification tools (Pareto and other basic graphs) </li></ul></ul>2D Define Project Boundaries Once we understand the defect that needs to be improved (project Y), define the project boundaries and components of the project. This includes a well written problem statement, identifying what process produces the defective item, how much improvement we will make, when it will be done, etc. This information is summarized in the project charter. Portions of deliverables 3D and 4D will also be on the charter. <ul><ul><li>Project charter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SIPOC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Included / Excluded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elevator Speech </li></ul></ul>3D Quantify Project Value Determine the benefit to the customer and to JEA for improving the process. Internal customer benefits are typically hard or soft $ savings, productivity improvements, and employee satisfaction. External customer benefits are typically customer retention, customer satisfaction, and price and/or share increase. Deliverable 3D documents these benefits. <ul><ul><li>Project Benefit Document </li></ul></ul>4D Develop Project Management Plan To effectively manage a project, the GB/BB needs to identify team members, effectively interface with the project stakeholders, plus develop and manage to a project plan (milestones and timelines). This plan should be developed and shared with all stakeholders. <ul><ul><li>ARMI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faces of resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stakeholder analysis </li></ul></ul>V1.2
  4. 4. 4D – Develop Project Management Plan 4 # Deliverable Deliverable Concept & Tasks Primary Tool(s) Secondary Tool(s) 4D Develop Project Management Plan To effectively manage a project, the GB/BB needs to identify team members, effectively interface with the project stakeholders, plus develop and manage to a project plan (milestones and timelines). This plan should be developed and shared with all stakeholders. <ul><ul><li>ARMI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faces of resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stakeholder analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Steps to Complete Deliverable: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine a communication plan and pre-schedule champion and team meetings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create a meeting agenda. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine the necessary project milestones and resources needed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create an Excel (or MS Project) timeline. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish team consensus and buy-in. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Objectives – Recognize & Overcome Resistance <ul><li>Upon completing this module, students should be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Construct an ARMI diagram </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construct a Stakeholders Analysis document </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construct an Influence Strategy document </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Assessing Project Support
  7. 7. Effectiveness of Improvements <ul><ul><li>A DMAGIC project will require a fundamental change in the process to be improved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The effectiveness of the improvement is often represented by an equation: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E = Q x C </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Where E = effectiveness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Q = quality of the improvement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>C = commitment to the improvement by the stakeholders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>While you are at the very beginning of your project, it is none too early to be thinking about stakeholders and acceptance </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Project Success Factors <ul><ul><li>The success of a project depends on several factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Process familiarity, technical capability, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ One on one” people skills, project management skills, meeting leadership skills, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many Six Sigma deployments focus primarily on the technical aspects – these deployments struggle or totally fail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on tools, hand statistics calculations, “exotic” tool overkill </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R. Hill’s observation: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ I can’t recall any DMAIC project I have worked, been a MBB for, or had another MBB tell be about which failed because the BB/GB wasn’t a master at statistics.” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Project Success Factors (cont’d.) <ul><ul><li>Technical capability is needed to be a successful Black Belt, but support is available (other BB’s, MBB, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Black Belt training will not cover project management skills in detail. If you need to build skills in this area, attend JEA’s recommended project management class. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, we will review a few basic tools for assessing project support </li></ul></ul>A successful project depends far more on effective people and project management skills than technical skills!!
  10. 10. Project Support Assessment <ul><ul><li>How is project support assessed and managed? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>List the project stakeholders - ARMI </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the role of each stakeholder - ARMI </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the stakeholder support level – Stakeholder Analysis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the desired stakeholder support level – Stakeholder Analysis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Develop a strategy to address situations when stakeholder support is less than required – Influence Strategy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use various techniques to execute the influence strategy </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. A.R.M.I. Diagram
  12. 12. Selecting the Project Team <ul><ul><li>For a project to be successful, it needs the appropriate team members and organizational structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Roles for project members are outlined in the following pages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The BB/GB needs to identify the specific individuals and expertise required to fill the roles for each project </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the A.R.M.I. worksheet to document the project resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicate the roles and expectations to the project personnel </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Identifying the Key Players <ul><ul><li>There are several major roles that need to be filled for a successful project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Project Champion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Black Belt </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Team Members </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Master Black Belt </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Process Owner </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Team Resource </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clueless Person </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Project Roles & Responsibilities Before Project During Project After Project Project Champion Participate in Black Belt/Green Belt Selection process Participate in Drafting Project Charter Black Belt or Green Belt Participate in Drafting Project Charter Select team members Provide direction and guidance Regularly review team progress Run interference Make resources available Drive Six Sigma Process Manage Project team Lead meetings Serve as liaison with MBB, champion(s), and stakeholders Keep records Provide ongoing support for implementation Ensure solution is trans- ferred to Process Owner Ensure monitoring Preserve lessons learned Oversee replication See that documentation is completed and lessons captured Monitor implementation if appropriate Use improved methods
  15. 15. Project Roles & Responsibilities, (Cont.) Before Project During Project After Project Team Members Master Black Belt Participate in meetings Carry out assignments Help with team tasks and logistics Contribute knowledge and expertise Learn necessary skills and methods Provide expert guidance and coaching to team leader and members on skills and methods Help the team gather and interpret the data Help Champion & Black Belt prepare for reviews Assist Black Belt Help draft charter Use improved methods Provide guidance as needed
  16. 16. Project Roles & Responsibilities, (Cont.) Process Owner Provide direction and guidance Review team progress Might be a team member Own ongoing maintenance of solution Own execution of Process Control Plan Identify further improvement opportunities Before Project During Project After Project Assist in identifying potential projects and team members Team Resource Attend occasional team meetings as warranted Own/maintain portion of ongoing solution as warranted Does not attend all team meetings N/A
  17. 17. Project Roles & Responsibilities, (Cont.) Implementation Coordinator Be aware of team progress and participate in team meetings as warranted As project reaches Control Phase, provide heavy assistance to Implement improvements in Process Area Own/maintain portion of ongoing solution as warranted Before Project During Project After Project Through all phases, assist Belt leading team with gathering and validating process data Participate in team meetings as warranted Data Coordinator Own/maintain portion of ongoing solution as warranted Gather baseline data as applicable. N/A
  18. 18. Organizational Context for DMAGIC Projects Finance Executive Leadership Black Belt or Green Belt Team Members Process Owner Director – Org. Services Master Black Belt Champion (Project Sponsor ) Implementation Coordinator, Data Coordinator, & Resources
  19. 19. Deliverable 4: Define ; A.R.M.I. Key Stakeholders Define Measure Analyze Improve Control John M M M M M Paul A A A A A George R M M R R Ringo I R I I I A - Approval of team decisions outside their charter/authorities, i.e., sponsor, business leader. R - Resource to the team, one whose expertise, skills, “clout” may be needed on an ad-hoc basis. M - Member of team, with the authorities and boundaries of the charter. I - Interested party, one who will need to be kept informed on direction, findings, if later support is to be forthcoming. Project Phase 15 Deliv template.ppt
  20. 20. Faces of Resistance
  21. 21. Exercise - Appearance Change <ul><ul><li>How do people accept change? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assemble into groups of 2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Face your partner and observe each others appearance for 15 seconds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Face away from your partner and alter 3 things about your appearance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Face your partner and find/discuss/list what was altered </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Repeat steps 3 and 4 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Repeat steps 3 and 4 again </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What where your observations and feelings about this exercise? </li></ul></ul>5 Min
  22. 22. What are the “Faces of Resistance?” <ul><ul><li>Black Belts / Green Belts are change agents! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Think about your role in light of the previous exercise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Black Belts / Green Belts need to recognize that they are asking others to fundamentally change the way they work – often taking away some personal choices in how they will complete tasks. Common resistance points: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What caused the problem to be the focus of a project </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interpretation of the baseline data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spending time in a meeting vs. fixing “the fire of the day” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How the team should proceed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agreeing on conclusions from the data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Presence of “hidden agendas” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. A Belt’s Role in Change <ul><ul><li>Black Belts / Green Belts are change agents! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is important for the Black Belt / Green Belt to recognize that they are leading a team which is asking others to change the way they work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Definition of a Team: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A group of people working or acting together, with a common goal. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teamwork: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Joint action by a number of people to make the work of the group successful and effective. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Everyone may not embrace a team philosophy from the start </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many have to deal with the past history and attitudes which make it difficult to believe that teams will work </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Typical Faces of Resistance <ul><li>Typical problem behaviors in your team meetings. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meeting dominator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uninvolved / disinterested </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Side conversations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not prepared with assignments (action items) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistently late </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Undermining team outside of meetings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fence sitters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blockers </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Typical Team Behaviors <ul><li>Not all behaviors are problem behaviors, but the most frequent behaviors may fall into three basic categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blockers: the individual focuses on the past and defending the way things used to be. People in denial will not allow themselves to see the positive aspects of change. They are so strong in their denial of change that they refuse to be part of it and are viewed as inhibiting, or blocking the process. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fence Sitters: Individuals realize that change is going to happen and move from defending the past to questioning what is going to happen to them in the future. They have a concern for how the job is going to be affected and a “wait and see” attitude towards teams. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporters: Individuals recognize and support the benefits of the new culture and have made the transition from follower and/or doubter to active support and change agents, truly involved in the process. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. How to Deal With… <ul><li>Supporters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognize their efforts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotate on special assignments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give advice and emotional support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask what you can do to help </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure equal opportunity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blockers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not argue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on fact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give time Limits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fence Sitters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not argue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask for opinion before you give yours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognize recommendations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give assignments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bench tours/ workshops </li></ul></ul>Focus on the Fence Sitters and Supporters , NOT on the Blockers
  27. 27. Stakeholder Analysis
  28. 28. What is a “Stakeholder Analysis?” <ul><ul><li>A Stakeholder Analysis is an assessment of the level of resistance/support that each project stakeholder demonstrates toward the project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Stakeholder Analysis is developed by & for the Black Belt/Green Belt. It is typically not shared with the other team members. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use your “Faces of Resistance” observations as a basis for completing the Stakeholder Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Update the Stakeholder Analysis as the project proceeds. Individuals will often change positions as the project develops </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Stakeholder Analysis Stakeholder Analysis.xls
  30. 30. Stakeholder Analysis Definitions <ul><ul><li>Strongly Supportive - These are the individuals who strongly support the project. They complete all their assigned tasks and actively promote the project and Six Sigma to others. They go out of their way to help. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderately Supportive - These are individuals who dutifully complete all the tasks assigned to them, but don't go out of their way to support the project to their co-workers. They personally want the project to succeed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutral - These are individuals who neither go out of their way to help the project succeed, nor do they do anything to make it fail. They are somewhat passive in team meetings, providing valuable input when needed, but don't add anything beyond what is necessary. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderately Against - These are individuals who do not want the project to succeed, but don't recruit others to their position. They are often late in completing their assigned tasks or do not complete them at all. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strongly Against - These are individuals that do not want the project to succeed. They actively tell others (in and outside) the team meetings that the project should not succeed and seek to recruit them to their position. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Instructions – Stakeholder Analysis <ul><ul><li>Identify the key stakeholders. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plot where individuals currently are with regard to desired change (O = current). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plot where individuals need to be (X = desired) in order to successfully accomplish desired change identify gaps between current and desired. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan action steps for closing gaps. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Example Stakeholder Analysis Stakeholder Analysis.xls
  33. 33. Influence Strategy
  34. 34. Influence Strategy Influence Strategy.xls Try to identify and address any real or perceived “sense of loss” due to the project.
  35. 35. Tools to Address Resistance
  36. 36. Develop a Communication Plan Including Operational Definitions <ul><ul><li>Define Your Influence Objective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Determine exactly what you need from this stakeholder in order to complete your project successfully. This is your Influence Objective for this stakeholder. State it clearly. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Define the “WIIFM” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase Benefits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>List what you are prepared to do to make the change more beneficial to the stakeholder. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce Cost or Inconvenience </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>List what you are prepared to do to make the change less costly or inconvenient. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan Your Influence Attempt </li></ul></ul>36 ©2006, JEA™; All Rights Reserved
  37. 37. Identify Personality Type <ul><ul><li>Leadership competency series 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When communicating with (and particularly when soliciting a change in support level from) a team member, it is helpful to assess their personality style – and yours!! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Analyst (Analytic, Cognitive) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commander (Driver, Behavioral) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Performer (Expressive, Affective) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adapter (Amiable, Interpersonal) </li></ul></ul></ul>Personality Style Indicator.xls
  38. 38. Personality Style Quadrants Analyst (Analytic Cognitive) Commander (Driver, Behavioral) Performer (Expressive, Affective) Adapter (Amiable, Interpersonal) Open (High Reveal) Controlled (Low Reveal) Tell/Do (High Action) Think/Act (Low Action)
  39. 39. Style Flexing - Analysts <ul><ul><li>General orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To tasks: wants quality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To people: seeks security </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To problems: analyzes data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To stress: withdraws </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To time: past and future </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typical strengths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acts cautiously to avoid errors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Engages in critical analysis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seeks to create a low stress climate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wants to ensure quality control </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can follow directives and standards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common difficulties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can bog down in details and lose time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be too critical or finicky </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be overly sensitive to feedback </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can seem to be lacking in courage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be too self-sufficient, alone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To work with Commanders: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speak more rapidly than normal, respond promptly to messages, complete projects on time, make statements that are definite rather than tentative, allow freedom of thinking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To work with Adapters: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The more casual and informal than usual, look at the person, show your feelings, give clear directions and goals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To work with Performers: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Be more casual and informal than usual, notice body language, be prepared to decide quickly, show appreciation, allow Performers to put their stamp on what you do, voice disagreement, increase eye contact </li></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Style Flexing - Commanders <ul><ul><li>General orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To tasks: wants results now </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To people: seeks authority </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To problems: tactical, strategic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To stress: doubles efforts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To time: future and present </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typical strengths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acts rapidly to get results </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is inventive and productive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shows endurance under stress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is driven to achieve goals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can take authority boldly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common difficulties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be too forceful or impatient </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can often think their way is best </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be insensitive to others </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be manipulative or coercive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be lonely or fatigued </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To work with Analysts: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Talk more slowly, take time to be thorough, talk less – listen more, be prepared to go into detail, give sound rationale </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To work with Performers: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Be more casual and informal, disclose something about yourself, give highlights, show appreciation, share the spotlight </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To work with Adapters: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Be more casual and informal, don’t rush unnecessarily, talk more slowly, decrease intensity of your eye contact, phrase thoughts more provisionally </li></ul></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Style Flexing - Performers <ul><ul><li>General orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To tasks: people come first </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To people: seeks to influence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To problems: tentative and creative </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To stress: escapes from it </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To time: present and future </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typical strengths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acts creatively on intuition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is sensitive to others’ feelings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is resilient in times of stress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Develops a network of contacts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is often willing to help others </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common difficulties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can lose track of time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can “overburn” and overindulge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be too talkative </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be self oriented, self-assured </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To work with Commanders: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Be on time, get to business, limit details – focus on results of the actions being discussed, deliver as promised, offer two options when making recommendations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To work with Adapters: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Talk less, listen more, talk more slowly, reflect back what you think you heard, be open to negotiation, decrease vocal intensity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To work with Analysts: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Talk less, listen more, don’t interrupt, reflect back to analysts what you think you heard, don’t finish the other persons sentence, have a well-organized presentation, plan your work </li></ul></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Style Flexing - Adapters <ul><ul><li>General orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To tasks: reliable performance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To people: seeks to help others </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To problems: practical solutions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To stress: adjusts to it </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To time: present </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typical strengths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Promotes harmony and balance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is reliable and consistent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tries to adapt to stress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>See the obvious that others miss </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is often easy-going and warm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common difficulties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be to easy-going and accepting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can allow others to take advantage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can become bitter if unappreciated </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be low in self-worth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be too dependent on others </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To work with Analysts: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Be on time, get right to business, talk about what you “think” rather than what you “feel”, be prepared, follow-up </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To work with Performers: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Be prepared to decide quickly, when writing – keep it short, show enthusiasm, make recommendations, be open to bending the rules </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To work with Commanders: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pick up the pace, when writing – keep it short, increase eye contact, avoid “touchy–feely” subjects or expressions, when in doubt – leave it out, when making recommendations, offer two options for the commander to choose from, don’t rely on sentiment </li></ul></ul></ul>
  43. 43. 3D’s <ul><ul><li>Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use data to show the need for change </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Graphical data is often more convincing than tabular data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physically/visually demonstrate the defect occurring and the resulting negative impact </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Let them see the problem with their own eyes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Direct - Manager uses authority to direct work activity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indirect - Manager/stakeholders show support through their own actions (“walk the talk”) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Overcoming Resistance Exercise <ul><li>Instructions : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At your tables, complete/define: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ARMI </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stakeholder Analysis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Influence Strategy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Influence Method (3D’s) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be prepared to discuss your conclusions with the class. </li></ul></ul>45 Min
  45. 45. Learning Check – Recognize & Overcome Resistance <ul><li>Upon completing this module, students should be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Construct an ARMI diagram </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construct a Stakeholders Analysis document </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construct an Influence Strategy document </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Write the 3D’s </li></ul></ul>