In 2004, Federal law mandated The Individuals with Disabilities EducationAct (IDEA). This law governs how state and public entities giveeducational assistance to students with disabilities.Many students with disabilities require assistive technology toparticipate in and benefit from their educational programs.In this presentation, I will present information on the range ofassistive technology solutions that are available to support access to theschool curriculum and student achievement for students with disabilities.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Individuals_with_Disabilities_Education _ActOVERVIEW
Assistive Technology includes a wide range oftechnology devices designed to increase the learningability and independence of students with mild tosevere learning disabilities by enabling them tocompensate for deficits and build self-confidence.
Step 1Collect child and family information. What is the child’sstrengths, abilities, and needs?Step 2Identify activities for participation. What activities is thechild involved in?Step 3Make observations that indicate the intervention’s success.What is his/her current level of participation and whatobservable behaviors will reflect an increase in independentinteractions?Step 4Brainstorm solutions. Do the child’s need include supportsfor movement, communication, and/or use of materials?Step 5Try it out. When will the intervention begin?Step 6Identify what worked. What should be done differently?ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGYSOLUTIONS STEPS
Students with developmental delays otherdisabilities may qualify for special services thatprovide individualized education programs inpublic schools, at no charge to the family. Parents and educators work together toformulate a plan that will enable the student toreach his or her educational goals. Students who have difficulties learning orintegrating socially into the mainstreamclassroom may also qualify for an individualizededucation plan.INDIVIDUALIZED EDUCATION PLAN(IEP)
A range of technology solutions are available to support studentperformance, achievement, and independence in the following areas: Academics & learning aids Aids to daily living Assistive listening and environmental aids for hearing impaired & deaf Augmentative communication Computer access Leisure & recreation Seating Positioning Mobility VisionASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGYSOLUTIONS
Assistive Technology Devices Include assistive, adaptive, and rehabilitativedevices for people with disabilities and also includethe process used in selecting, locating, and usingthem. These devices promote greater independence byenabling people to perform tasks that they wereformerly unable to accomplish, or had greatdifficulty in accomplishing, by providingenhancements to, or changing methods ofinteracting with, the technology needed toaccomplish such tasks.ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGYDEVICES
“Special Needs” can mean a mirror of such things as: children with mild learning disabilities orthose who are mentally challenged; developmentally delayed, or having psychiatric issues. Beingdiagnosed as a child with can be helpful in getting the needed attention and services in order toobtain designated goals.Students with disabilities typically need special accommodations in order to succeed in the generalclassroom. In order to ensure that these students’ needs are being met, general educationteachers must collaborate with special education teachers and parents to create support strategiesto benefit these students.SPECIAL EDUCATION STUDENTS
Students who are hard of hearing ordeaf often need assistive technologyto access information that is typicallypresented verbally and accessedthrough the auditory modality.A variety of technology solutions areavailable that amplify speech andother auditory signals or that providean alternative to the auditorymodality.AUDITORY DISABILITIES
Assistive Listening Devices are amplifiersthat bring sound directly into the ear. Theseparate the sounds, particularly speech,that a person wants to hear frombackground noise. They improve what isknown as the “speech to noise ratio.”Assistive Listening Devices that amplifysound and speech both in the classroom andhome environment can include: texttelephone (TTY), closed captioning devices,real time captioning, and environmental aidsthat support independent living skills.ASSISTIVELISTENING DEVICES
MILD LEARNING DISABILITIES Mild Learning Disabilities (MLD)Have significant limitations both in intellectualfunctioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed inconceptual, social and practical adaptive skills. Specificcognitive deficits often exist in such areas as memory,attention or language. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity DisorderA Mild Learning Disability that is considered a psychiatric,neurobehavioral disorder characterized by significantdifficulties either of inattention or hyperactivity andimpulsiveness or a combination of the two. CharacteristicsHave trouble paying attention, controlling impulsivebehaviors (may act without thinking about what the resultwill be), or be overly active. Acts without thinking,hyperactivity, trouble focusing, trouble payingattention, following directions, functioning socially &academically.
EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENTSLEAST RESTRICTIVE The spirit of thisrequirement is to ensurethat children are notunnecessarily removedfrom the regularclassroom or isolated fromother non-disabledchildren of their age. Least RestrictiveEducational decisions aremade based on childrenslearning needs and varyfrom child to child.INCLUSION Inclusion is an educationalapproach to educatingstudents with specialeducational needs. Under the inclusion model,students with special needsspend most or all of their timewith non-disabled students.Inclusion offers notions ofintegrating andmainstreaming.
Provide an ordered, safe, predictable classroom environment. Make time to speak to student individually. Be respectful and express interest in his or her success in school by asking questions. Use a point system, tokens, stars, or other methods to reinforce appropriate behaviors. Notice and provide feedback on any improvement in the areas of behavior and academics and avoid criticizing thechild in front of others. Give directions in simple, concrete terms. Simplify instructions, tasks and assignments. Divide lessons into relatively short segments and use a variety of teaching aids such as films, tapes, computerprograms and small group work to reinforce the childs learning. Have all of the students stand and stretch, run in place, or do an exercise or movement activity when deemednecessary. Color code paper for each subject. If available use off white, tan or light blue colored paper for written assignments. Create schedules, outlines, lists, and/or a homework assignment book to help the student keep organized as well asto increase home/school communication. Tape a copy of the class schedule to the childs desk.INSTRUCTIONAL IDEASFor Students With ADHD
Teachers can help students with ADHD be successful with academicinstruction, behavioral modifications, organization, memory, timemanagement, and focusing on tasks by using these classroomaccommodations:HighlightersIndex CardsColor-CodingBeepers/BuzzersDigital Clocks, WatchesHeadphones or earplugs to shut out distractions
KINDLEAssistive Technology #1 Ideal for students who have difficultyholding or working with large, heavytextbooks. Provides students with disabilitiesthe option of viewing textbook andnovels in an electric format. Touch screen feature for accessingbooks and turning pages. Text-to-Speech capability forstudents who have visualimpairments or disabilities relating tospeech.https://kindle.amazon.com/
PROLOQUO2GOAssistive Technology #2 Communication software that providestext-to-speech services for students withspeaking disabilities. Proloquo2Go is appropriate for studentswith disabilities whose IEP may state thatthe given student has a speaking disabilityand is able to use such text-to-speechsoftware. Software displays buttons in the form ofwords and pictures on the screen that canbe pressed by students. When pressed,software emits a voice that says a word orwords. Can be used with interactive devices suchas the Apple iPad.http://www.proloque2go.com
BOOST PERSONAL MAGNIFIERAssistive Technology #3 Perfect reading support tool for childrenand adults with limited vision. Studentswill see benefits in the classroom andadults will more easily read at home orin the community. This personal videomagnifier features a durable design anduser-friendly interface. May be well-suited for a student whoseaccommodation for preferential seating,in terms of visual or behavioralpurposes, does not entirely fulfill thebenefits outlined in his or her IEP.http://www.ablenetinc.com/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=E3NsM8%2B%2BUWc%3D&tabid=628
Assistive Technology (AT) – Technology that promotes independence through the use of assistive, adaptive, and rehabilitationdevices. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) – One of the most common neurobehavioral disorders of childhood that causesinattentiveness, over-activity, impulsivity, or a combination of the three. Inclusion – An approach in which students with special needs spend the majority of their time in the general educationclassroom with students without special needs. Individualized Education Programs (IEP) – A program that provides special services for children with difficulty learning andfunctioning. Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA) - Law that governs how state and public entities give educational assistance to studentswith disabilities. Least Restrictive Environment – Provides students with disabilities with the opportunity to be educated with non-disabled peers,to the greatest extent appropriate. Mild Learning Disabilities (MLD) - Have significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior asexpressed in conceptual, social and practical adaptive skills. Specific cognitive deficits often exist in such areas as memory,attention or language. Special Education – Specifically designed instruction provided by the school system that meets the unique needs of studentsidentified disabled according to federal and state eligibility criteria.KEY TERMS
Assistive Technology for Students with Mild Disabilities: Update 2002. ERIC Digest. (2002).Retrieved June 10, 2013, from http://www.ericdigest.org/2003-1/assistive.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Individuals_with_Disabilities_Education _Act https://kindle.amazon.com/ http://www.proloque2go.com http://www.ablenetinc.com/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=E3NsM8%2B%2BUWc%3D&tabid=628 Individualized Education Programs (IEP’s). (2011). Retrieved June 12, 2013, fromhttp://kidshealth.org/parent/positive/learning/iep.html# Georgia Project for Assistive Technology. (2008). Retrieved June 12, 2013 fromhttp://wwwgpat.org/devices.aspxREFERENCES