DEVELOPING THE CARIBBEAN EDUCATORSNETWORK (CEN) E-MEDIATING FRAMEWORK LeRoy Hill, PhD Director, Humanities & Education Anguilla Community College AECT CONVENTION 2012 Louisville, Kentucky
CONTEXT“…everystory has adeepermeaning thatdrives thenarrative.” CPD: The design challenge The CEN: the research environment NING: The technological environment
CPD CHALLENGE – THE PROBLEM• Little attention is given to teacher education/continuing development in the Caribbean (Carrington, 1993) • Miles (1995) also states that the efforts that are made are: under- resourced, unsustained, designed for a “one size fits all”, imposed rather than owned • Robinson and Latchem (2003) suggests the use of open, distance and information and communication technologies (ICT)s
WHAT IS CEN? Social Network comprising of Synchronous and asynchronous technologies (i.e. forums, discussion groups, webinars, etc...) Used to encourage critical and reflective dialogue between its members The network is built on the NING social networking platform that has a number of asynchronous and synchronous social network technologies (i.e. forums, discussion groups, webinars, etc…) to encourage critical and reflective dialogue between its members.
Research Plane Cycle Design Plane What is the nature of the CPD interests of How do I go about designing an online Cycle 1 CPD framework for the CEN? members of the CEN? How might Activity-Oriented Design What is the nature of CEN? Methods be used to support an Cycle 2 a. What is its membership, activities, and interpretation of the CEN activity interests? system?Cycle What is the nature of the CAG? What is the nature of the participatory Cycle 3 design approach in the CAG? 2 What processes and presences mediate How is a participatory design approach the collaborative knowledge-building in applied in making sense collaboratively the Diversity of Learning group? Cycle 4 of a framework to mediate collaborative knowledge-building in the CEN? RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Planning Acting, Observing, Outcome (Methodology) Reflecting Methods: Mixed: Cycle Descriptive Statistics from 1 Online questionnaire, membership database Phase - New Research questions 1Framework: AODM - Themes for literatureMethods: Mixed: CycleDescriptive analysis of - AODM applicationMembership database, observation: composition of 2CEN groups, Web traffic data: Google analyticsContent analysis of asynchronous communication:field notes, discussion forum transcripts, RSS activityfeed transcripts; field notes; synchronouscommunication: Elluminate Live session transcripts,Instant Messaging Chat log Cycle 3 - CEN Advisory Group (CAG) for participatory designFramework: AODM:ESMMethods: Qualitative - Coded collaborative knowledge-Descriptive analysis; Analysis of asynchronous Phase building processes & presences.& synchronous dialogue 2 - Developed framework for mediatingObservation: field journal, responses from collaborative knowledge-building.network members Cycle 4Framework: COI, group cognition, activity theoryMethods: Qualitative:Analysis of asynchronous; member page profiles,review of literature
Learning Design Activity System – BResearch Question Cycle 1What is the nature the CPD interests of - Ningmembers of the CEN? Tools -CPD online questionnaire -Literature on learning designHow do I go about designing an onlineCPD framework for the CEN? Actual Outcome Subject Object - Designing CPD activities -List of CPD interests of 13 -Designer (me) members (Approach not sustainable) -Questions become part of network process -New research questions Rules & Regulations Roles Community -Constructivist design approach -Designer -Ning environment constraints - CEN – Caribbean Educators -Administrator - -Researcher CYCLE 1: AN INITIAL LOOK AT THE CEN
CEN Activity System - A CEN Activity System – B Learning Design Activity System - B Cycle 2Research Question Outcome Knowledge building & Outcome sharing - Ning QuestionnaireWhat is the nature of CEN? Tools -Embedded questionnaire items. items -Elluminate Live, Media sharing - Group Forums, Dialogic -What are its exchanges, participationmembership, activities, andinterests? Subject Object OutcomeHow might Activity-Oriented -CEN member Collaborative -Sustainable CKB framework Knowledge building predominantly & sharingDesign Methods be used to English speaking and female.)support an interpretation ofthe CEN activity system? Rules & Regulations Roles -Ning environment constraints Community - socio-cultural setting -Member - technological skills Caribbean Educators -Administrator -Explicit rules -Greeters -Sign up process (closed membership) -Ethical declaration CYCLE 2: DEVELOPING A DEEPER UNDERSTANDING OF THE CEN – THE UTILITY OF THE AODM APPROACH
AODM: 6 STAGES, 4 TOOLSStage 1. Interpreting the situation being examined in terms of Activitytheory. - Eight-Step-Model (ESM) forms part of this stage.Stage 2. Model the situation being examined -information collected from the ESM is used in this stage to create a representation of the activity system.Stage 3. Decompose the activity system -Decomposition of the results ESM is achieved through the Activity Notation tool which further simplifies process into smaller units for analysis.Stage 4. Generate research questionsStage 5. Conduct a detailed investigationStage 6. Interpret and communicate findings - A technique for Mapping Operational processes is used as part of this.
THE AODM… The Eight-Step-Model The Activity Notation Identify the: - Question to Ask Actors ~ Mediator ~ Object-ive Step 1 Activity of interest What sort of activity am I interested in? (Doers) (Purpose) Step 2 Object-ive Why is the activity taking place? Subjects ~ Tools ~ Object Step 3 Subjects Who is involved in carrying out this activity? Step 4 Tools By what means are the subjects performing this activity? Subjects ~ Rules ~ Object Step 5 Rules & Regulations Are there any cultural norms, rules or regulations governing the performance of this activity? Subjects ~ Division of ~ Object Step 6 Division of labour Who is responsible for what, when carrying out this activity Labour and how are the roles organised? Community ~ Tools ~ Object Step 7 Community What is the environment in which this activity is carried out? Step 8 Outcome What is the desired Outcome from carrying out this activity? Community ~ Rules ~ Object Community ~ Division of ~ Object Labour AODM’s Activity Notation (Mwanza 2002, p.152) AODM’s Eight-Step-Model (Mwanza 2002, p.128) The Technique of Generating General Research Questions 1) What Tools do the Subjects use to achieve their Objective and how? 2) What Rules affect the way the Subjects achieve the Objective and how? 3) How does the Division of Labour influence the way the Subjects satisfy their Objective? 4) How do the Tools in use affect the way the Community achieves the Objective? 5) What Rules affect the way the Community satisfies their Objective and how? 6) How does the Division of Labour affect the way the Community achieves the Objective?AODM‟s Technique of Generating General Research Questions (Mwanza2002, p.155) AODM‟s Technique of Mapping AODM Operational Processes (Mwanza 2002, p.162)
• As a planning tool, AODM tends to be largely iterative and aims to help designers “generate insights for further study and refinement” (Greenhow & Belbas 2007, p.369)• The AODM provides a comprehensive and empirically tested set of tools in operationalising Activity Theory in design analysis and development process by making explicit the “process of gathering, analysis and communicating design requirements” (Mwanza 2002, p.214).• Clearly outlined in 6 stages and methodological tools: (1) A Eight-Step- Model (2) An activity Notation (3) A technique for generating Sub- Activity-Oriented Research questions (4) A technique for Mapping Operational processes.• Application of AODM in CEN Context provides a different setting to test… WHY AODM?
Learning Design Activity System - C (Cycle 3) CAG Activity System – AResearch Questions Tools Cycle 3 ObjectWhat is the nature of the - Dialogic exchanges, Tools - Elluminate Live - LiteratureCAG?What is the nature of theparticipatory design Object Desiredapproach in the CAG? Subject Outcome Participatory design: Design framework for -CAG member Co-construction of collaborative knowledge knowledge through building & sharing dialogue Rules & Regulations Roles Community -Wider network regulations -Advisor -Group established protocols - CAG -Designer -Researcher -Group initiator CYCLE 3: THE CEN ADVISORY GROUP: EXPLORING THE NATURE OF THE CAG - THE PARTICIPATORY DESIGN WORKING GROUP
Themes Description Theoretical MappingTools The appropriation of tools in collaborative Activity Theory knowledge-building; in establishing, managing interactions and connections as a process of „Artefactization‟.Moderating Moderating the collaborative knowledge-building Activity Theory activity; establishing roles and rules for moderating activityReflective self and group evaluative dialogue; metacognitive Group Cognition, CoI statements .Community a sense of identity and purpose, group formation Group Cognition, CoISocial facilitating social interaction through open and Group Cognition, CoI welcoming dialogue.Cognitive Co-construction of knowledge, negotiating group Group Cognition, CoI knowledge, perspective sharing, knowledge negotiation. INITIAL CATEGORIES
Instrumentization Presence ‘Artefactizations’ OUTCOME OBJECT PROCESS Refedfd PROCESS OBJECT OUTCOME Moderating PresenceINITIAL DESIGN REPRESENTATIONOF FRAMEWORK
Learning Design Activity System – DResearch Questions Cycle 4What processes and presences -Word processor commenting featuremediate the collaborative knowledge- Tools -Transcribed content of asynchronous communication, -Coded unit of analysis -Literature reviewbuilding in the Diversity of Learning -COI framework, group cognition, activity theorygroup?How is a participatory design Desired Objectapproach applied in making sense Subject Outcome -Participatory design: collaborative knowledge- - Coders Co-construction of building frameworkcollaboratively of a framework to (Mille, LeRoy, knowledge Jean, Deem)mediate collaborative knowledge-building in the CEN? Rules & Regulations Roles Community - Coding specifications -Designer - Creswel (2009) - CAG, CEN -Researcher -Coder CYCLE 4: EXPLORING THE CEN COLLABORATIVE KNOWLEDGE- BUILDING E-MEDIATING FRAMEWORK
Category Operational definition IndicatorsCognitive presence The extent to which a group co-construct meaning Cognition through collaborative dialogue that demonstrates Asking questions, making inferences, formulating hypothesis, makingKey Processes: Reflection, meta-cognition, knowledge and skills, self-awareness, self-control, decisions, defining terms, requesting knowledge-sharing, sharingvaluing, cognition and self-regulation. knowledge, sharing opinions. Reflection Evaluations, criticism, appreciation, making value statements, making reference to knowledge, experience, expertise, acknowledging understanding. Eg. I understand, I think, I wonder. (adapted from Henri‟s 1992 Analytical model p129)Community presence This is the social function of the group and is Affective evaluated by the extent to which a group fosters a Use of Humour, expressing emotions, expressing value, self-disclosure,Key Processes: legitimate peripheral sense of belongingness, and cohesion through open use of emoticons.participation, social interaction dialogue. Open communication continuing a thread, referring to a previous comment, asking questions, complementing, expressing appreciation, expressing agreement, expressing disagreement, personal advice, agreeing to discuss further Group cohesion & belongingness Addressing or referring to member by name, using encouraging language and tone, inclusive pronouns, showing interest in group cohesion, interest in group activity, greetings, salutations, „small talk‟. (Adapted from Garrison et al. 2000) LINKING CODES TO PROCESSES AND PRESENCES
Moderating presence The extent to which whole group presences Design (Social, Cognitive and „Artefactization‟) Sharing and assigning roles and ascribing duties, defining andKey processes: Designing and and processes are designed and facilitated clarifying parameters of dialogue, initiating themes forsupporting collaborative knowledge- through continuous negotiation and discussions.building setting; designing of roles and responsibilities.Roles Facilitating Encouraging collaboration and participation, guiding dialogue, facilitating meaning-making, seeking to negotiate consensus, reinforcing or acknowledging contributions.„Artefactization‟ presence The extent to which a group harnesses Technological setting, technology, skills and knowledge to actively Configuring tool for group use, introducing new tool or link,Key processes: Selecting appropriate satisfy shared object. embedding external object in group space.context, tools. Tool appropriation Recommending tool, displaying tool use, sharing links, sharing resources, encouraging use of tool, showing evidence of tool use. For example, Let me share; I know how to.
Messag Community Moderating Artefactization Cognitive e Unit 1 X X X 2 X X 3 X 4 X 5 X X 6 X X 7 X X 8 X X 9 X X 10 X X X 11 X X X 12 X 13 X X 14 X X 15 X X 16 X X 17 X 18 X X X 19 X X X 20 X 21 X X Recoding Result Summary
Multiple planeCycle 1 Initial perspective activity systems analysis AODM provided research Deeper Confirmed shared focus for exploringCycle 2 understanding of object in network collaborative knowledge- network building framework Established 6 Design suggestion Linked design Cycle 3 themes for from group suggestions to themes framework Theoretical frames The CEN e- used as mediating Verified link Inter-subjective mediatingCycle 4 artefacts for between codes and group coding presence conceptualising themes framework framework RESEARCH OUTCOMES
REFERENCESCarrington, E. W. (1993). The future of education in the Caribbean: Report of the Caricom Advisory Task Force on education. Evaluative Report, ERIC database.Conole, G. & Oliver, M., 2006. Contemporary Perspectives in E-learning Research (Open & Flexible Learning) 1st ed., Routledge.Greenhow, C. & Belbas, B., 2007. Using activity-oriented design methods to study collaborative knowledge-building in e-learning courses within higher education. International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, 2(4), 363-391.Hill, L. (2011). A learning design approach for exploring a framework for mediating collaborative knowledge-building in the Caribbean Educators Network. Retrieved October 24, 2012, from http://etheses.nottingham.ac.uk/2356/Miles, M. B. (1995). Forward. In T. Guskey & M. Huberman (Eds.), Professional development in education: New paradigms and practices (pp. vii–ix). New York, NY: Teachers College Press.Mwanza, D. (2002) “Towards an Activity-Oriented Design Method for HCI Research and Practice.” PhD Thesis - The Open University, United Kingdom.Mwanza-Simwami, D. (2009). Using Activity-Oriented Design Methods (AODM) to investigate mobile learning. In: Vavoula, Giasemi, Pachler, Norbert and Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes eds. Researching Mobile Learning Frameworks, tools and research designs. Oxford, UK: Peter Lang Verlag, 97– 122.