Unit 1 world hist

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Unit 1 world hist

  1. 1. Chapter 1<br />The First Humans<br />
  2. 2. Early Humans<br />Historians rely on documents and written records to create pictures of the past<br />Prehistory<br />The period before writing developed<br />Archeology and science help provide answers to how prehistoric humans lived<br />Archeology<br />Study of past societies through an analysis of what people have left behind<br />Archeologists examine artifacts, which can consist of tools, pottery, paintings, weapons, buildings, etc.<br />Anthropology <br />Study of human life and culture<br />Anthropologists use artifacts and human fossils to determine how people lived<br />Archeologists and anthropologists have developed scientific ways to see how humans lived<br />Radiocarbon dating<br />Scientists measure the amount of radioactive carbon on an object<br />Only good for measuring objects no older than 50,000 years old<br />Microscopic and biological analysis<br />Blood, hair, and plant tissues left on rocks, tools, and weapons is analyzed<br />
  3. 3. Early Stages of Developments<br />Australopithecines<br />Earliest humanlike creatures lived in eastern and southern Africa around 3 to 4 million years ago<br />They were the first hominids<br />Creatures that walk upright<br />Homo erectus<br />Second stage in human development, around 1.5 million years ago<br />Made use of larger and more varied tools<br />These were the first to leave Africa and move into Asia and Europe and learnt how to use fire <br />Homo sapiens<br />Means “wise human beings”<br />Third stage of human development<br />Neanderthals<br />First found in Neander Valley in Germany, dated between 100,000 and 30,000 BC<br />Burial of death might indicate that they believed in an afterlife<br />Homo sapiens sapiens<br />Means “wise, wise human beings”<br />
  4. 4. Spread of Homo Sapiens Sapiens<br />By 30,000 BC, Homo sapiens sapiens replaced Neanderthals, who possibly died out as a result of conflict between the two groups<br />The spread of these modern humans was a slow process<br />Around 2 to 3 miles beyond their old hunting grounds per generation<br />Difference between humans and other species is the ability to make tools<br />Paleolithic Age<br />Period of early human history (approx. 2,500,000 to 10,000 BC) in which humans used simple stone tools<br />
  5. 5. The Hunter-Gatherers of the Old Stone Age<br />Humans used to rely on hunting and gathering for daily food<br />The people in this era were nomads<br />People who move from place to place<br />Paleolithic people learnt what animals to hunt and what plants to eat<br />Over time, tool technology evolved and smaller stone points and blades were made<br />First tools served a variety of purposes<br />Roles of men and women<br />It’s probable that both were responsible for finding food<br />Women probably stayed close to their camps<br />They probably played a role acquiring food by gathering berries, nuts, and grains<br />Men did most of the hunting of large animals, which might be far from camp<br />By passing their skills and trade, future generations learnt how to survive<br />Adapting to survive<br />Paleolithic people found shelter in caves and eventually created tent-like shelter using animal hides, wood, and animal bones<br />
  6. 6. The Hunter-Gatherers of the Old Stone Age<br />The Use of Fire<br />As humans moved into colder regions, they learnt how to use fire to protect them from harsh conditions<br />Fire gave a sense of community for the people who gathered around the fire<br />This allows humans to scare away wild animals away and flush animals out of caves to hunt them<br />Paleolithic people eventually made drill-like wooden devices to start fire, and soon learnt that certain stones give off sparks when struck against a hard rock<br />The Ice Ages<br />Most recent ice age began around 100,000 BC<br />Sheets of ice covered large parts of Europe, Asia, and North America<br />These conditions posed a serious threat to human life<br />Use of fire allowed humans to adapt to harsh environments<br />Creating Art<br />Art existed even in prehistoric times<br />Paintings usually contained wildlife images<br />These paintings were found in caves<br />
  7. 7. Neolithic Revolution and the Rise of Civilization<br />Neolithic revolution<br />Greek for “New Stone”<br />This period lasted from 8,000 BC – 4,000 BC<br />Occurred after the end of the last Ice Age (8,000 BC)<br />Systematic agriculture became a popular practice<br />The keeping of animals and growing of food on a regular basis<br />Animals would be domesticated (adapted for human use)<br />Grains and plants would be planted<br />This gave humans control of the environment<br />Cultivation of wheat and barley spread from southwestern Asia into the Nile Valley of Egypt<br />
  8. 8. Neolithic Revolution and the Rise of Civilization<br />Neolithic farming villages<br />Growing of crops on a permanent basis gave rise to permanent settlements<br />Appeared in Europe, India, China, Egypt, Mesoamerica<br />Jericho (in Palestine near the Dead Sea) was one of the oldest and largest in existence (8000 BC)<br />CatalHuyuk (CHAH tuhlhoo YOOK) was an even larger village found in present-day Turkey<br />Walls enclosed 32 acres<br />Shrines containing figures of gods and godesses<br />People grew fruits, nuts, and varieties of wheat<br />People usually had a surplus of food<br />This allowed people to do things other than farming<br />This led to the rise of artisans<br />Skilled workers who created weapons, jewelry, ships, and other things<br />
  9. 9. Neolithic Revolution and the Rise of Civilization<br />Consequences of the Neolithic Revolution<br />Because people moved to permanent villages, people felt the need to create permanent shelter (houses)<br />Communities stored good, which led to trade<br />People started specializing in crafts<br />Men became more active in farming and herding animals, usually taking them far from the settlement<br />Women remained behind, caring for children and taking responsibility for weaving cloth, turning milk into cheese<br />Men started acquiring more of a dominant role<br />End of the Neolithic Age<br />Use of metals marked a new level of human control over the environment and its resources<br />Craftspeople discovered that by heating metal-bearing rocks, they could turn metal into liquid, which can be cast into molds to make weapons<br />Copper was the first of these metals<br />Asia found that a combination of copper and tin created bronze, which is harder and more durable<br />This led to the Bronze Age<br />
  10. 10. The Emergence of Civilization<br />Culture is the way of life that people follow<br />Simple culture was developed <br />Civilization is a complex culture in which large numbers of human beings share a number of common elements<br />Rise of cities<br />Cities are a chief feature of civilizations<br />Cities were established along river valleys, where people could farm on a large scale<br />A significant number of people lived in cities<br />Growth of Governments<br />Growing numbers of people and the need to maintain the food supply and the need to defend led to need for rule<br />This need for rule led to need for government<br />Monarchies were the main form of government<br />Religion<br />Religion was developed to explain the workings of the forces of nature and existence itself<br />Priests supervised rituals aimed at pleasing gods and goddesses<br />This gave priests special powers and important people<br />Rulers claimed their power based on divine approval, and some rulers claimed to be divine<br />
  11. 11. The Emergence of Civilization<br />New social structure<br />Rulers, upper class of priests, government officials, and warriors dominated society<br />Below this upper class was a group of free people, consisting of farmers, artisans, and craftspeople<br />Slaves were at the bottom<br />Use of writing<br />Rulers, priests, merchants, and artisans used writing to keep records<br />Not all civilizations depended on writing to keep records<br />The Inca relied on well-trained memory experts to keep track of their important matters<br />Artistic activity<br />Temples and pyramids were built as places of worship, sacrifice, or burial<br />Paintings and sculptures portrayed gods and goddesses or the natural forces<br />
  12. 12. Chapter 2<br />Western Asia and Egypt<br />
  13. 13. Impact of Geography<br />Greeks talked about the land “between the rivers”<br />Tigris and Euphrates in Mesopotamia<br />This place was known as the Fertile Crescent<br />Area from the Mediterranean sea to the Persian Gulf<br />Rich soil and abundant crops<br />Mesopotamia<br />Sumerians were the first Mesopotamian civilization<br />Received little rain<br />Rivers would leave layers of silt, and when they overflowed, they would enrich the soil with the silt<br />Farming was done when people could control the rivers<br />Irrigation and drainage systems made it possible to grow crops on a regular basis<br />Irrigation = the bringing of water to fields through man-made canals<br />Abundance of food made it possible for people to live together in cities and specialize in different trades<br />
  14. 14. City-States of Ancient Mesopotamia<br />City-States = political unit made up of a city and its surrounding land<br />By 3,000 BC, Sumerians established a number of independent cities in southern Mesopotamia, including URUK<br />City-states were formed as cities expanded and acquired political and economic control over the region<br />Sumerian cities<br />Surrounded by walls<br />Mud bricks were easily shaped by hand and left to dry in the hot sun for buildings<br />They created the arch and the dome, and built some of the largest brick buildings in thworld<br />
  15. 15. City-States of Ancient Mesopotamia<br />Most prominent building in a Sumerian city was the temple dedicated to the chief god or goddess<br />Temples were usually built atop ziggurats, which are massive stepped towers<br />People devoted much wealth to build temples<br />Temples and related buildings served as the center of the city (physically, economically, and politically)<br />Priests and priestesses had a lot of power<br />Played an important part in ruling<br />Sumerians believed that the gods and goddesses ruled the city<br />Theocracy (rule by religion)<br />Kingship was regarded as divine in origin<br />Kings, wives, and children lived in large palaces<br />Economy and Society<br />Sumerians imported copper, tin, and timber in EXCHANGE for dried fish, wool, barley, wheat, and metal goods<br />The invention of the wheel in 3,000 BC led to wheeled carts, making transportation of good easier<br />3 major groups were Nobles, Commoners, Slaves<br />Commoners worked for the temples, estates, farmers, merchants, fishers, and craftsmen<br />90 percent or more were commoners<br />Slaves belonged to the palace officials who were used for building projects<br />
  16. 16. Mesopotamia<br />Conflict grew with the expansion of city states<br />City-states fought for control of land and water<br />Flat land in this area left city-states open to invasion<br />To the north of the Sumerian city-states, were the Akkadians<br />Sargon, leader of Akkadians, overran the Sumerian city-states and established the first empire ever<br />Empire = large political unit or state, usually under a single leader that controls many peoples or territories<br />They are easy to create but difficult to maintain<br />Attacks from neighboring people caused this empire to fall around 2100 BC<br />In 1792 BC, a new empire came to control much of Mesopotamia<br />Hammurabi from Babylon gained control of Sumer and Akkad (regions)<br />After his death, weak kings were unable to keep the empire united<br />
  17. 17. The Code of Hammurabi<br />Made a collection of 282 laws, similar to the later Israelite codes<br />This code provides insight into social conditions in Mesopotamia<br />Based on system of strict justice<br />Penalties for criminal offenses were severe<br />“an eye for an eye, tooth for a tooth” system was employed<br />Largest category focused on marriage and family<br />Parents arranged marriage and had to sign contract<br />House builders held responsible for houses<br />Patriarchal society<br />Male-dominated<br />Women had fewer rights and privileges than men<br />Women would stay home<br />If she failed to complete her duties, husband could divorce her<br />Complete obedience was expected<br />
  18. 18. Importance of Religion<br />Extreme natural forces (floods, heavy winds, etc.) made Mesopotamians believe that supernatural forces controlled the world<br />These forces were not kind or reliable<br />Gods and goddesses permeated all aspects of the universe<br />Polytheistic religion<br />Belief in many gods<br />Human beings were created to do manual labor for the gods<br />
  19. 19. Creativity of Sumerians<br />Invented the oldest writing system (Cuneiform), dating to about 3,000 BC<br />Wedge-shaped impressions would be made on clay tablets, which were then baked on the sun<br />This was used for record-keeping and passing down knowledge<br />Becoming a Scribe was a successful career<br />(scribes were the writers)<br />Only the wealthy people could become scribes<br />Boys went to school where discipline was harsh (sunrise to sunset)<br />Misconduct was treated with canes or stick-beatings<br />The Epic of Gilgamesh<br />Mesopotamian epic poem about Gilgamesh, a wise king with a perfect body<br />He is part god and part human, and befriends a beast named Enkidu, with whom they do many good deeds<br />When Enkidu dies, Gilgamesh searches for immortality and fails <br />Lesson: only the gods are immortal<br />Technology<br />Developed wagon wheel, potter’s wheel (to shape containers), sundial, and arch<br />Heavenly constellations were charted, devised a number system based on 60 (that’s why we have 60 seconds in a minute, and 60 minutes in an hour)<br />
  20. 20. Egyptian Civilization: Gift of the Nile<br />Nile<br />Begins at the heart of Africa and courses northward for more than 4,000 miles<br />Longest river in the world<br />Nile Delta is called Lower Egypt<br />Important cities developed here<br />The land upstream (to the south) is called Upper Egypt<br />The yearly flooding of the Nile was a major event and was viewed as a miracle known as the “Gift of the Nile”<br />This left a deposit of rich soil/mud, making fertile land and called “The Black Land”<br />Surpluses in food made Egypt prosperous<br />River served as a unifying factor<br />Trade , travel, and communication<br />Egypt has natural barriers (unlike Mesopotamia, which is flat)<br />Desert, Red Sea, Mediterranean Sea<br />Egyptian life faced much stability due to lack of constant invasion<br />
  21. 21. Egypt<br />Religion<br />Provided a sense of security and timelessness<br />Polytheistic<br />2 main groups were Sun gods and Land gods<br />Sun was the source of life<br />Sun god took on different names and forms<br />Atum (human body with head of a falcon), Re (human form)<br />Land gods included Osiris and Isis<br />Osiris was said to have brought civilization to Egypt<br />Seth, his evil brother, killed him and chopped him into pieces<br />Isis, Osiris’ wife, resurrected him<br />Osiris is regarded as the symbol of resurrection<br />The dead were placed in tombs<br />Kings in pyramid tombs<br />
  22. 22. Egyptian History<br />3 Major periods: Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, New Kingdom<br />Old Kingdom<br />Lasted from around 2700 BC to 2200 BC<br />Age of prosperity and splendor<br />Had a government bureaucracy<br />Administrative organization with officials and regular procedures<br />The Vizier (steward of the land) became very important<br />The title of Pharaoh (meaning great house or palace)became common<br />Breakdown in royal power meant that citizens were offending the gods and weakening that order<br />Pharaohs possessed absolute power <br />Complete, unlimited power<br />Pyramids<br />Dedicated to the dead<br />Egyptians believed that humans had two bodies (physical and spiritual)<br />The spiritual body could return and continue life in comfort<br />Egyptians practiced mummification to preserve bodies<br />Largest pyramid was built under King Khufu<br />Famous pyramid of Giza<br />Great Sphinx guards the pyramid<br />Body of a lion and head of a human<br />Symbol of royal power<br />
  23. 23. The Middle Kingdom<br />After the Old Kingdom collapsed, there was chaos<br />A new royal family came to power<br />Lasted about 2050 BC to 1652 BC<br />Soon portrayed as the Golden Age because it was the age of stability<br />Egypt began a period of expansion<br />They conquered Nubia, south of Egypt<br />Fortresses were built to protect the new frontier <br />Government sent armies to Palestine and Syria<br />During this period, pharaohs were regarded as shepherd of the people, as opposed to god0like<br />They were expected to provide for the public welfare<br />They dug a canal to connect the Nile to the Red Sea<br />Increased trade and transportation<br />
  24. 24. The New Kingdom<br />Middle kingdom ended around 1652 <br />Hyksos (people from western Asia) conquered Egypt<br />Used horse-drawn chariots and overwhelmed Egyptian soldiers who fought using donkey carts<br />They ruled much of Egypt for almost 100 years<br />This led to Egyptians learning much, such as the use of bronze for weapons and tools<br />Egyptians also mastered much of the military skills<br />New dynasty of pharaohs used new weapons to drive out the Hyksos and reunite Egypt<br />Egypt became the most powerful state in Southwest Asia<br />Hatshepsut <br />First woman to become pharaoh<br />Built Great Temple at Deir el Bahri, near Thebes<br />Thutmose III soon took power <br />Led military campaigns and occupied Syria and Palestine<br />Magnificent new buildings were then created<br />Amenhotep IV, soon named Akhenaton, angered the Egyptians by closing temples of other gods, only allowing the worship of the Sun God<br />King Tutankhamen restored the old gods after Akhenaton’s death<br />Ramses II eventually came to power and made Egypt an offensive force<br />They conquered Palestine, however, were unable to reestablish boundaries as before<br />Invasions from the “Sea Peoples” drove Egypt back to their land, and the Empire fell<br />For thousands of years, Egypt was dominated by Libyans, Nubians, Persians, and Macedonians <br />Cleopatra VII tried to reestablish Egypt’s independence, but her involvement with Rome led to her suicide and defeat. Egypt became a province in Rome’s mighty empire<br />
  25. 25. Egypt<br />Society<br />Simple structure, organized like a pyramid<br />God-King on top, Pharaoh surrounded by an upper class of nobles and priests<br />Members of ruling class managed their own estates, government, and provided much of wealth<br />Merchants carried active trade up and down the Nile<br />Largest number of people worked on land<br />Daily Life<br />Young girls and boys were married <br />Husband was master of the house<br />Wives were well respected<br />Women’s property stayed in THEIR hands<br />Purpose of marriage was to produce children<br />Only sons could carry out the family name, but daughters were not ignored<br />Writing and education<br />Hieroglyphics<br />Meaning, “Priest Carvings” or “sacred writings”<br />Used box pictures and abstract forms<br />First carved into stones<br />Art and Science<br />Architectural and artistic achievements<br />Made advances in math (geometry to survey volume of flooded areas)<br />365 day Calendar based on movements of the moon and Sirius, the bright star<br />Embalming (mummification) <br />
  26. 26. Mesopotamia and Egypt<br />Mesopotamia Egypt .<br />Geography Fertile Crescent Africa<br />Rivers Tigris Euphrates Nile<br />Nat. Barriers Flat plains Deserts, seas<br />Religion Polytheistic Polytheistic<br />Government City-states Rural villages <br /> Theocracy Dynasties<br /> Kings ruled Divine kings<br />Social Structure Nobles, commoners Upper classes<br /> slaves merchants, artisans<br /> peasants<br />Economy Farming, Trade Farming, Trade<br />Written Language Cuneiform Hieroglyphics<br />.<br />
  27. 27. New Centers of Civilization<br />Role of Nomadic Peoples<br />People living in the present-day area of Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan<br />Built mud-brick buildings<br />Raised sheep and goats<br />Utilized bronze tools<br />System of irrigation to grow wheat and barley<br />People depended on hunting, gathering, herding, farming<br />Pastoral nomads<br />Domesticated animals for food and clothing<br />Aided in long distance trade<br />Passed on new technologies and <br />Provided strength to new civilizations (innovation/technological advancement)<br />Animals traded for grains and vegetables they were unable to grow<br />People who lived in SETTLED communities viewed nomads as barbaric/hostile/uncivilized<br />Indo-Europeans were one of the most important nomadic peoples<br />Indo-European refers to a group of people who used a language derived from a single parent tongue (Latin, Greek, Persian, Sanskrit)<br />
  28. 28. The Phoenicians<br />Lived near Palestine (along the Mediterranean)<br />The fall of the Hittites and Egyptians gave the Phoenicians new-found political independence<br />Trade had been the basis of Phoenician prosperity<br />This group produced purple dye, glass, and lumber<br />Great international sea traders<br />Charted new routes in the Mediterranean and Atlantic Ocean<br />Best known for their alphabet<br />Passed on to the Greeks<br />This is the alphabet we use today<br />
  29. 29. The “Children of Israel”<br />Israelites<br />Organized into tribes<br />Known for Judaism<br />Later influenced Christianity and Islam<br />History and beliefs written in Jewish Bible (Torah)<br />Old testament<br />Migrated from Mesopotamia to Palestine (aka Canaan by the Hebrews)<br />They grazed flocks and herds<br />Drought caused them to migrate to Egypt<br />They were enslaved up until Moses led them out of Egypt<br />Moses also gave the commandments to the Jewish<br />They eventually returned to Palestine<br />The United Kingdom<br />During King Solomon’s reign, Israelites had control over all of Palestine<br />Jerusalem was made the capital of Israel<br />King Solomon expanded government, army, and encouraged trade<br />He was viewed as a wise ruler who can administer justice<br />
  30. 30. The “Children of Israel”<br />The Divided Kingdom<br />Tension between northern and southern tribes led to the creation of 2 separate kingdoms<br />Kingdom of Israel<br />Composed of the ten northern tribes, capital = Samaria<br />In 722 BC, Assyrians overran the Kingdom of Israel<br />The 10 tribes scattered and merged with neighboring peoples, gradually losing their identity<br />Kingdom of Judah<br />Composed of 2 tribes, capital = Jerusalem<br />The Chaldeans defeated Assyria, conquered the Kingdom of Judah, and destroyed Jerusalem in 586 BC<br />Babylonian captivity changed Judaism<br />Became a stateless religion whereby God was the creator of the whole world<br />Eventually, the Persians destroyed the Chaldean kingdom, allowing the people of Judah to return to Jerusalem and rebuild their city and temple<br />Remained under Persian control until the conquest of Alexander the Great<br />
  31. 31. Spiritual Dimensions of Israel<br />There is only one God, known as Yaweh<br />Monotheism (belief in only ONE god)<br />God rules the world<br />All people are servants<br />God created nature, but was not nature<br />The moon, rivers, etc. are not gods<br />God is just and good<br />God expects goodness from people<br />Covenant between God and the Hebrew people<br />God will grant protection in exchange for keeping God’s commandments<br />Jewish believe that religious teachers (prophets) were sent by God to serve as His voice to His people<br />Prophets would cry out against social injustice<br />Rich were condemned for causing poor to suffer<br />Jews would not accept the gods of their conquerors or neighbors<br />
  32. 32. Rise of New Empires<br />Assyrian Empire (700 BC – 612 BC)<br />Semitic-speaking people<br />Exploited use of iron weapons<br />Established empire by 700 BC<br />Included Mesopotamia, parts of the Iranian Plateau, sections of Asia Minor, Syria, and Palestine<br />Internal strife/conflict led to the empire weakening<br />At its height, king’s power was seen as absolute<br />They were good at conquering others<br />Army was large and well organized<br />Core of infantrymen, joined by cavalry and horse-drawn chariots who shot arrows<br />First large armies equipped with iron<br />They used terror as a form of warfare<br />Set crops on fire, cut down trees, smashed dams, destroyed towns<br />Committed atrocities to captives<br />“Many I took alive, from others I cut off their noses, ears and fingers, I put out the eyes of many soldiers”<br />
  33. 33. Persian Empire (559 BC – 330s BC)<br />Nebuchadnezzar II (Chaldean) made Babylonia the leading state in western Asia after the collapse of the Assyrian Empire<br />This civilization fell to the Persians<br />The Persians were organized into groups until one family unified them<br />Indo-European people<br />Persians were primarily nomadic <br />Cyrus created a powerful Persian state<br />Demonstrated much wisdom, compassion for the captured, organization, and a reputation of mercy<br />In 539 BC, he entered Mesopotamia, capturing Babylon<br />He issued an edict permitting the Jews to return to Jerusalem<br />He made use of Assyrian, Babylonian, and Egyptian designs and building methods<br />His son Cambyses successfully invaded Egypt<br />Darius added a province in western India that extended to the Indus River<br />Darius’ moved into Europe, creating the largest empire the world has seen<br />
  34. 34. Structure of Persian empire<br />Darius divided the empire into 20 satrapies (provinces)<br />A Governor (satrap) collected taxes, provided justice and security, and recruited soldiers <br />They established roads for easier travel<br />King held power of life and death<br />Soldiers were called the Immortals<br />Struggles over throne weakened the monarchy (rule by king or queen)<br />Artaxerxes II had 115 sons<br />Sons had little power, so they would plot ways as to how to gain the throne<br />Alexander the Great (Greece) soon conquered the Persians<br />Religion<br />Zoroastrianism<br />Monotheistic<br />Ahuramazda was the supreme god who brought all things into being<br />Humans played a role in the struggle between good and evil<br />Good person chooses the right way of Ahuramazda<br />At the last judgment of the end of the world, Ahuramazda would triumph and good and evil will be separated<br />
  35. 35. Chapter 3<br />India and China<br />
  36. 36. Early civilization in India<br />India experiences the monsoon<br />Seasonal wind pattern <br />Monsoon blows warm, moist air from the south-west during the summer and another blows cold, dry air from the northeast during the winter<br />Major areas include<br />Himalaya<br />Highest mountains in the world, north of India<br />Ganges River<br />South of Himalaya<br />Indus River valley<br />West of Ganges River<br />Deccan<br />Plateau extending from the Ganges Valley to the southern tip of India<br />Dry and hilly<br />Western and eastern coasts have lush plains, usually densely populated<br />
  37. 37. First civilization (3000 BC to 1500 BC)<br />Indus River Valley supported a flourishing civilization<br />Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro<br />At its height, Harappa had 35,000 inhabitants, Mohenjo-Daro had about 35,000-40,000 inhabitants<br />Broad north-south streets with smaller east-west streets<br />Buildings constructed of mud bricks baked in ovens<br />Public wells provided supply of water<br />Bathrooms had an advanced drainage system<br />Wastewater flowed out to drains located under streets then to sewage pits beyond city walls<br />Religion<br />Rulers based their power on “Divine Assistance”<br />Religion and political power were closely linked<br />Economy was based on farming (like in Mesopotamia and the Nile region)<br />Indus River flooded every year (like the other rivers) bringing rich soil<br />They carried extensive trade with city-states in Mesopotamia<br />Textiles and food were imported from the Sumerian city-states in exchange for copper, lumber, precious stones, cotton<br />Much trade was carried by ships via the Persian Gulf<br />
  38. 38. India<br />Arrival of the Aryans<br />Floods, earthquakes, and changes in climate weakened the Indus-River civilizations<br />Aryans brought the final end<br />Aryans moved across the Hindu Kush mountain range into the planes of northern India<br />Aryans excelled in the art of war, gradually advancing east-ward across the fertile plain of the Ganges<br />They eventually extended their control throughout India<br />A new society based on Aryan culture and institutions was created<br />Aryans gave up pastoral way for farming<br />Irrigation and iron tools allowed the people to turn dense jungles into farmland <br />Aryans developed Sanskrit by 1000 BC<br />This allowed legends and religious rituals and chants to be written down<br />During 1500 and 400 BC, India was a world of warring kingdoms and shifting alliances<br />Rajas (princes) fought other chieftains seizing women, cattle, and treasure<br />
  39. 39. Society in ancient india<br />Caste system<br />Rigid social categories determining not only a person’s occupation and economic potential, but his or her position in society (based on skin color)<br />5 castes <br />Brahmans (priestly class, top of social scale)<br />Kshatriyas (warriors)<br />Vaisyas (commoners, usually merchants or farmers)<br />Sudras (made up bulk of Indian population, peasants)<br />Untouchables (given menial, degrading tasks such as collecting trash and handling dead bodies, were not considered human)<br />Family<br />Ideal family was an extended family (grandparents, parents, children)<br />Patriarchal family, oldest male held legal authority over entire family<br />Only males were educated and inherited property<br />Young, high-class men began their education with a guru (teacher) <br />Children were important and expected to care for parents as they aged<br />Women were held in disgrace if they did not perform the ritual of suttee<br />Jumping on the husband’s flaming body when he has died<br />
  40. 40. Hinduism<br />Hinduism has origins with Aryan beliefs<br />Early Hindus believed in the existence of a single force in the universe<br />This ultimate God was named Brahman<br />It was the duty of the individual self to seek to know this reality<br />By knowing Brahman, one merges with Brahman after death<br />Reincarnation (soul is reborn in a different form after death) appeared by the 6th century BC<br />Karma, the force generated by a person’s actions that determines how the person will be reborn, is important to reincarnation<br />Dharma (divine law) rules the concept of karma<br />Karma justified the caste system<br />Yoga became important<br />Method of training designed to lead to one’s union with god<br />Vishnu (the preserver) and Shiva (the destroyer) are other important gods<br />Hinduism is still the most prominent religion in India <br />
  41. 41. Buddhism<br />Siddhartha Gautama, aka the Buddha or the “Enlightened one” is the founder<br />Siddhartha was the son of a ruling family in the foothills of Himalaya<br />He became aware of the pain of illness/sorry of death and the effects of old age<br />He spent his life seeking the cure for human suffering<br />He gave up his royal clothes, family, and shaved his head in search for this cure<br />He said that achieving wisdom brings one a step closer to achieving nirvana (ultimate reality– the end of the self and a reunion with the Great World Soul)<br />Buddhism is seen as a philosophy rather than a religion<br />Siddhartha preached reincarnation but rejected the caste system<br />There are 4 noble truths and a Middle Path known as the Eightfold Path, consisting of 8 steps<br />
  42. 42. Mauryan Dynasty<br />Hinduism and Buddhism developed out of the Aryan culture in India<br />Aryans brought little political unity to India<br />Chandragupta Maurya ruled from 324 to 301 BC in northern India<br />This first Indian Empire was highly centralized<br />Empire was divided into provinces ruled by governors appointed by the king<br />This empire had a large army and secret police<br />This empire flourished under Asoka (grandson of Chandragupta)<br />Considered one of the greatest rulers in Indian history<br />He had trees and shelters placed along the roads for weary travelers<br />The empire began to decline after Asoka’s death<br />After the last Mauryan ruler was killed, India fell to disunity<br />
  43. 43. Kushan kingdom and the silk road<br />In 1st century AD, nomadic warriors seized power and established the new Kushan kingdom in Bactria (Afghanistan)<br />This civilization prospered from the trade passing through this region<br />Trade between the Roman empire and China passed between the Silk Road<br />It was called the “Silk Road” since China produced a lot of silk<br />Connected Changan China to Mesopotamia<br />Chinese merchants made large fortunes by trading luxury goods, like silk, spices, teas, and porcelain<br />They were exchanged for woolen and linen clothes, glass, and precious stones<br />The road also reached a port city named Antioch, where goods from the West were traded for goods from the East<br />
  44. 44. Kingdom of Guptas<br />Kushnan kingdom ended around 3rd century AD<br />In 320 AD, a new state in the Ganges Valley was created by Chandragupta (no relation to the others)<br />This became a dominant political force throughout northern India<br />Established loose control over central India<br />A new age of Indian civilization was created<br />This kingdom saw prosperity and tolerance of Buddhism <br />Prosperity rose along trade routes<br />Much prosperity came from pilgrims (people who travel to religious places)<br />Gupta rulers managed trade and made a lot of profit<br />In the 5th century AD, they faced invading Huns who reduced their power<br />
  45. 45. Indian culture<br />Vedas (religious hymns) were passed down<br />Sanskrit was used to write down vedas<br />Mahabharata is the longest poem in any language<br />Describes war between cousins in Aryan society for control of the kingdom about 1000 BC<br />Architecture<br />3 main types of structures<br />Pillar<br />Sculptures of lions were made, depicting the Buddha’s message<br />Stupa<br />Meant to house a relic of the Buddha, like a lock of hair<br />These usually became places for devotion <br />Rock chamber<br />Carved out of rock cliffs<br />Provide a series of rooms to house monks and serve as a hall for religious ceremonies<br />Science<br />Great astronomers, charting movement of the heavenly bodies<br />Recognized that the earth is spherical and rotates on an axis<br />Introduced the concept of zero, and Aryabhata (scientist) used algebra<br />
  46. 46. Chinese civilizations<br />Huang He River (Yellow river) carries rich yellow silt all the way from Mongolia to the Pacific<br />Chang Jiang (Yangtze river) empties into the yellow sea<br />Area between these two rivers was very suitable for civilization<br />Chinese natural barriers (mountains, deserts) isolated the Chinese people from others<br />
  47. 47. Shang Dynasty<br />Farming society ruled by an aristocracy<br />Upper class whose wealth is based on land and whose power is passed on from one generation to another<br />Huge city walls, royal palaces, large royal tombs<br />Politics and Social Structures<br />Ruled by king<br />Realm divided into territories governed by aristocratic warlords<br />Early Chinese kings were buried with the corpses of their servants<br />Rulers would communicated with the gods using oracle bones<br />Great majority of people were farming peasants<br />There was a small number of merchants, artisans, and slaves<br />Religion and Culture under Shang<br />Strong belief in life after death<br />Spirits of family ancestors could bring good or evil fortune to living members, thus, spirits must be treated well<br />Mastery of bronze casting<br />
  48. 48. Zhou dynasty<br />Lasted almost 900 years, longest lasting Chinese Dynasty<br />Head of government was king<br />King was the connection between heaven and earth<br />Kingdom was divided into territories governed by appointees <br />Mandate of Heaven<br />It was believed that heaven kept order in the universe through the Zhou king<br />King is responsible for ruling people with goodness and efficiency<br />It was the king’s obligation to protect the people<br />This, however, implies that the king can be overthrown if he is evil<br />The king is only a representative of Heaven, but not divine himself<br />All new dynasties experienced a cycle<br />They would gain power, rule successfully for many years, then decline<br />The Fall of the Zhou Dynasty<br />Zhou began to decline intellectually and morally<br />This kingdom was divided into small territories<br />In 403 BC, a civil war broke out<br />Foot soldiers and cavalry came into appearance<br />Cavalry members were armed with powerful crossbow<br />The Qin Dynasty soon took control and established its dynasty in 221 BC<br />
  49. 49. China<br />Life during the Zhou Dynasty<br />Peasants worked on land owned by lords<br />Peasants also had land of their own, which they used for their own use<br />Artisans and merchants lived in walled towns under the direct control of the local lord<br />Economic and Technological Growth<br />Large scale water projects, such as irrigation, were set in motion to control the flow of rivers and spread of water<br />Changes in farming methods increased food production<br />Far reaching trade networks<br />Development of iron led to iron plowshares<br />Family in Ancient China<br />Family served as the basic economic and social unit<br />They practiced Filial Piety, duty of a members of the family to subordinate their needs and desires to those of the male head of the family<br />Children were essential, working in fields during early years<br />Males were eventually in charge of the well-being of their parents and physical labor<br />Male supremacy was a key element<br />Provided food for family<br />Wives of rulers played a part in court affairs<br />
  50. 50. ChiNa<br />Written language<br />Chinese developed a simple script <br />Composed of pictographs/picture symbols<br />Chinese Philosophies<br />3 major schools of thought<br />Confucianism<br />It is the duty of human beings to work hard to improve life on Earth<br />Daoism<br />True way to follow the will of Heaven is not action, but inaction<br />Legalism<br />Human beings are evil by nature<br />Harsh laws and stiff punishments can correct this evil<br />Chinese philosophers were concerned about the immediate world in which people lived and how to create a stable order in that world<br />
  51. 51. Qin Dynasty<br />Legalism was adopted as the official ideology<br />The government was divided into 3 parts<br />Civil division, military division, censorate (inspectors who checked on government officials to make sure they’re doing their jobs)<br />Two levels of administration: provinces and counties<br />Officials were appointed and dismissed by the emperor<br />Qin Shihuangdi unified the Chinese world<br />Created a single monetary system, ordered the building of a system of roads<br />The Qin built the Great wall to defend China from the Xiongnu<br />This group was separated into tribes but mastered the art of fighting on horseback<br />The first Qin emperor angered many Chinese <br />After his death, there was a civil war<br />
  52. 52. Han Dynasty<br />Emerged in 202 BC<br />Founder was Liu Bang, a man of peasant origin<br />Harsh policies from the Qin dynasty were discarded<br />Confucianism was adopted as the state’s philosophy<br />Government officials were chosen out of merit, rather than birth (as practiced by the Qin Dynasty)<br />School was created to teach Confucianism, Chinese history, and law<br />Population rapidly increased<br />Han emperors expanded the Empire, adding the southern region<br />Society<br />Great prosperity, but taxes and demands on labor caused issues<br />These taxes and duties led poor peasants to sell their land and become tenant farmers<br />Technology<br />Iron casting technology led to the invention of steel<br />Paper was developed<br />Rudder and fore-aft rigging, ships could sail using wind <br />Power of central government began declining<br />Wars and peasant uprisings brought the collapse of the dynasty<br />Qin and Han dynasty<br />Known for cultural achievements, such as the philosophical schools<br />Terra cotta army<br />Recreation of Qin’s imperial guard<br />

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