Unit 1


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This is the first unit of World Geography.

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Unit 1

  1. 1. CHAPTER 1 What is Geography?
  2. 2. GEOGRAPHY <ul><li>Comes from Greek word, Geographia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth description </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What do geographers study? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe earth’s physical features </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe human features </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe interactions of people, places, and environments </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. WORLD IN SPATIAL TERMS <ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific place on the earth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Absolute location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exact spot where a place is found on the globe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relative location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most people locate a place in relation to other places </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>i.e. New Orleans is located NEAR the mouth of the Mississippi River </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This can be used to help one orient oneself in space and develop an awareness of the world around you </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hemispheres </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Line circling the earth midway between the North and South poles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Divides Earth into north and south hemispheres </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prime Meridian (aka the Meridian of Greenwich) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Runs through Greenwich, England </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Divides Earth into East and West </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Longitude and Latitude lines cross one another to form the grid system (look at map) </li></ul>
  4. 5. PLACES AND REGIONS <ul><li>Place </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A particular space with physical and human meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Every place has unique characteristics that are determined by the surrounding and the people who live there </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Region </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Area united by specific factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical or human factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soil type, vegetation, river systems, climate </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Language, culture, customs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are used to interpret earth’s complexity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Formal/Uniform Region </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defined by a common characteristic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Corn Belt (Iowa-Illinois, corn is a major crop) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Functional Region </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Central place and the surrounding area linked to it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>i.e. Metropolitan areas like Los Angeles and Tokyo </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ports, such as Laredo </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Perceptual Region </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defined by popular feelings and images rather than by objective data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>i.e. Heartland of America/The West/The North East </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Implies that this is the central area in which values are believed to predominate </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 6. DIFFERENT SYSTEMS <ul><li>Physical Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural phenomenon can shape the earth’s surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical features interact with plant and animal life to create, support, or change ecosystems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ecosystems are communities of plants and animals that depend one each other and their surroundings for survival </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Human Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People shape the world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is constant MOVEMENT of people, goods, and ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People compete or cooperate to change or control various aspects of the earth to meet their needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Food crops, man-made lakes, dams, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Human-environment interaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Study of the interrelationship between people and their physical environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People use and change their environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical environment affects human activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mountains and deserts pose barriers to humans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do humans change the environment, or does the environment cause humans to change? </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. BRANCHES OF GEOGRAPHY <ul><li>Geographers divide their subject area into different branches to make their work easier </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Geography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focuses on physical features </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Climate, land, water, plants, and animal life in terms of their relationships to one another and humans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Human Geography (aka Cultural Geography) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focuses on human activities and their relationship to the cultural and physical environments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Political, economic, cultural factors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Population density, urban development, economic production, ethnicity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Sub-branches include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meteorology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Study of weather and weather forecasting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Historical geography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Study of places and human activities over time </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 8. RESEARCH METHODS <ul><li>Direct Observation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aerial photographs and satellite images </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>i.e. Using images to see how air pollution affects forests </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Mapping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many geographic findings can be shown on maps better than they can be explained in text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cartography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Study of maps and map-making </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Interviewing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Geographers must go beyond observation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geographers might want to find out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How people’s beliefs and attitudes have led to changes in the physical environment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A sample of the community of interest is selected to represent the entire population </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Statistics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Statistical methods are used to test data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This helps geographers analyze findings to find patterns and relationships between different variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>i.e. Muslim immigration to France </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Satellites and computers are important in gathering data about the earth’s environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This has made cartography easier </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. GEOGRAPHY AND OTHER SUBJECTS <ul><li>History and Government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>History is used to help geographers understand the differences between the past and present </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>i.e. Difference between colonial Boston, MA, and current day Boston, MA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government is used to help one understand how people in different places are governed and how political boundaries have formed and changed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sociology and anthropology is used to examine people’s way in different parts of the world </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Locations of resources affect the ways people make, transport, and use goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Locations are chosen for various economic activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Farming, mining, manufacturing </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 10. CHAPTER 2 The Earth
  10. 11. SOLAR SYSTEM <ul><li>Sun is the center of the solar system </li></ul><ul><li>Sun’s mass creates gravity </li></ul><ul><li>Solar System also consists of planets (8) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inner planets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mercury </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Venus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Earth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5 th largest </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mars </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outer planets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jupiter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Largest planet </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Saturn </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uranus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neptune </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pluto (recently demoted to a dwarf planet) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>All planets but Mercury and Venus have moons, smaller spheres, or satellites </li></ul><ul><li>Terrestrial planets have solid, rocky crusts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gas giant planets are much more gaseous and less dense than terrestrial planets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. ASTEROIDS, COMETS, AND METEOROIDS <ul><li>There are other objects in the solar system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asteroids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small, irregularly shaped, planet like objects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Found mainly between the asteroid belt region which lies between Mars and Jupiter </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Made of icy dust particles and frozen gas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Look like bright balls of fire with long, feathery tails </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meteoroids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pieces of space debris </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usually chunks of rock and iron </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Friction usually burns them up when they enter earth’s atmosphere </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Meteoroids that collide with earth are meteorites </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can affect the landscape by leaving a crater </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 13. EARTH <ul><li>Hydrosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Composed of oceans, lakes, rivers, and other bodies of water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Covers 70 % of earth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Lithosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is composed of land, including continents and islands, ocean basins, and land beneath ocean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>30 % of earth is covered by land </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Atmosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Layer of gas extending about 1,000 miles above the surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>78% Nitrogen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>21% Oxygen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1% other gases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Biosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The part of earth that supports life </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. LANDFORMS <ul><li>Four major landforms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mountains, hills, plateaus, plains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These usually contain rivers, lakes, and streams </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Most visible major landforms are continents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Australia and Antarctica </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stand alone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Europe and Asia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parts of one huge landmass called Eurasia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>North America and South America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Connected by the Isthmus of Panama, a narrow neck of land </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mount Everest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The highest point on earth, found in Asia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dead Sea shore </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lowest dry land point </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. EARTH’S STRUCTURE <ul><li>Surface of the earth has been in slow, constant motion </li></ul><ul><li>Wind and water can change surface of the earth </li></ul><ul><li>Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions originate deep within the earth </li></ul><ul><li>Earth is composed of 3 layers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Core </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inner Core </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Iron and nickel under enormous pressure </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outer Core </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Band of iron and nickel surrounding inner core </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mantle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thick layer of hot, dense rock and various elements (oxygen, iron, etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rocky shell that forms the earth’s surface </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 16. PLATE MOVEMENT <ul><li>Scientists believe that all land masses were once combined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pangaea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This broke off into smaller continents, drifted away, and recombined in some places </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continental Drift </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Theory that continents were once joined and DRIFTed apart </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This could have caused the many mountain ranges </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plate Tectonics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Describes activities of continental drift and magma flow which created many of the earth’s physical features </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 17. INTERNAL FORCES OF CHANGE <ul><li>Colliding and Spreading Plates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subduction can create mountains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heavier sea plate dives beneath the lighter continental plate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Andes in South America formed like this </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Folds and Faults </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Squeezing the earth’s surface until it buckles can create folds, which are bends, in layers of rock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes they create faults, which are cracks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Earthquakes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formed by the sudden, violent movements of plates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ring of fire is one of the earth’s most earthquake-prone zone which is found in the Pacific Ocean </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Volcanic Eruptions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Volcanoes are mountains formed by lava </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usually formed along plate boundaries </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 18. EXTERNAL FORCES OF CHANGE <ul><li>Surface can be changed by various elements </li></ul><ul><li>Weathering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical weathering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large masses of rock are physically broken into smaller pieces </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical weathering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the chemical makeup of rocks can change, whereby the minerals of the rock are changed or combined with new elements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water with carbon dioxide in air dissolves certain types of rock, such as limestone </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Erosion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The wearing away of the earth’s surface by wind, glaciers, and water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wind Erosion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Involves the movement of dust, sand, and soil from one place to another </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plants help protect against wind erosion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glacial Erosion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glaciers pick up rocks and soil in their path, changing landscapes, destroying forests, and cutting out valleys </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water Erosion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fast-moving water, such as rain, rivers, streams, and oceans cause erosion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As water flows, water cuts into the land </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This usually first forms a gully, then a v shaped valley </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grand Canyon in Colorado </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 19. EARTH AND WATER <ul><li>Total amount of water does not change, but it’s always moving </li></ul><ul><li>Water cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sun’s heat causes evaporation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The changing of liquid water into vapor, or gas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Condensation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As the air cools, excess water vapor changes into liquid water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precipitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>After the vapor is changed into water, it is released as rain, snow, or sleet, depending on the air temperature and wind conditions </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 20. SALT WATER VS FRESH WATER <ul><li>Fresh water makes up only a small percentage of the earth’s water </li></ul><ul><li>Salt water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oceans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Arctic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seas, Gulfs, Bays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller than oceans and are usually partially enclosed by land </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Fresh Water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes up only about 3 % of earth’s water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lakes, streams, rivers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most lakes contain freshwater, but those that used to be ancient seas will contain salt water (Utah’s Great Salt Lake) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Groundwater </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Freshwater that lies beneath the earth’s surface </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wells and springs tap into groundwater </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aquifers are underground porous rock layers that usually contain water </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 21. CHAPTER 3 Climates of the Earth
  21. 22. CLIMATES OF THE EARTH <ul><li>Weather </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Condition of the atmosphere in one place during a limited time period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Looking outside to see if it’s raining or sunny </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Climate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Term used for weather patterns that an area typically experiences over a long period of time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People living in Seattle, WA usually carry an umbrella because the Seattle has a wet climate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Earth’s axis is tilted at an angle of 23 ½ degrees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Axis is an imaginary line running from the North Pole to the South Pole through the planet’s center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This causes variations in sunlight </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This tilt affect temperature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature is how hot or cold a place is </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most common scales for measuring temperature are Fahrenheit and Celsius </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Earth makes one complete rotation every 24 hours, rotating from west to east </li></ul>
  22. 23. THE EARTH <ul><li>Earth also experiences a revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Revolutions take 365, whereby it orbits around the sun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The seasons are reversed north and south of the equator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When it’s summer in the north, it’s winter in the south </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Earth experiences an equinox </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The night is normally as long as the day during the equinox </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>March 21 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tropic of Cancer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>North-most point to receive direct sun rays, usually around June 21 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This also leads to the longest day of sunlight north </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Known as the Summer SOLstice (sol = sun) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Tropic of Capricorn </li></ul><ul><ul><li>South-most point to receive direct sun rays, usually around December 22 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This leads to the shortest day of sunlight in the north </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Known as the Winter Solstice </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 24. THE EARTH <ul><li>Poles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For 6 months, one pole is tilted towards the sun and receives continuous sunlight, while the other receives little or no sunlight </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Greenhouse Effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only part of the sun’s radiation passes through the earth’s atmosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greenhouse gasses warm the earth and makes it possible for plants to grow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water vapor and carbon dioxide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>However, carbon dioxide has risen rapidly due to the burning of fossil fuels, which has led to a rise in global temperatures known as global warming </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Without the greenhouse effect, the earth would be too cold </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. LATITUDE AND CLIMATE <ul><li>Earth-sun relationship is important </li></ul><ul><li>Low Latitude </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are between Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This includes the equator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portions of this area receive direct rays of the sun year-round </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High Latitudes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consist the world’s polar areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For about 6 months each, these regions experience either continuous, but indirect, sunlight, OR twilight </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mid-Latitudes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Area between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle as well as the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These experience dramatic climate differences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Elevation and Climate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Latitude elevations affect climate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth’s atmosphere thins as altitude increases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thinner air retains less heat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Places on mountaintops are cooler than lowlands </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. WIND AND OCEAN CURRENTS <ul><li>Wind Patterns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevailing winds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Winds that blow in fairly constant patterns </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These directions are determined by latitude </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coriolis effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Effect that causes prevailing winds to blow diagonally rather than along strict north-south or east-west lines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Horse Latitudes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At the equator, there is a nearly windless band called the DOLDRUMS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 other similar bands can be found just north of the Tropic of Cancer and just south of the Tropic of Capricorn </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ocean Currents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ocean currents affect climate in the coastal lands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold oceans cool the lands they pass, while warm currents bring warmer temperatures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold water comes from the polar areas, while warm water comes from the tropics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>El Nino </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Periodic reversal of the pattern of ocean currents and water temperatures in the mid-Pacific region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not occur every year, however it has become more frequent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This causes increased precipitation along the coasts of North and South America </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. LANDFORMS AND CLIMATE <ul><li>Physical features can also cause climate </li></ul><ul><li>Large bodies of water are slower to heat and to cool than land </li></ul><ul><li>Water temperatures are more uniform than land temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>Coastal lands receive less changeable weather </li></ul><ul><li>Mountain ranges influence precipitation and affect climate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windward side </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Side of the mountain facing wind </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Receives precipitation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leeward side </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Warmer and dryer side of the mountain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Receives rain shadow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A light precipitation effect </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 28. CLIMATE REGIONS <ul><li>Natural vegetation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plant life that grows in an area where the natural environment is unchanged by human activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is affected by climate regions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Climate regions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical Climates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Found near low latitudes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usually hot and wet throughout the year </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wildlife is abundant and there’s lush vegetation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry Climates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Desert Climates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Desert and Steppe climate are subcategories </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sparse plant and animal life </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs in around 1/5 th of the earth’s land area </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Steppe Climates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usually borders desert </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dry and treeless grasslands </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 29. CLIMATE REGIONS <ul><li>Mid-Latitude Climates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marine West Coast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pacific coast of NA, much of Europe </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cool summers and damp winters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mediterranean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Around the Mediterranean Sea, Southern California </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mild, rainy winters and hot, sunny summers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humid Subtropical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>South Eastern US and parts of South America </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mild winters and nearly year-round rain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humid Continental </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Northeastern China, southern Canada, western Russia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Farther north one travels, the longer and more severe are the snowy winters and the shorter and cooler are the summers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>High Latitude Climates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Normally freezing temperatures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summers are short and cool, winters are bitterly cold, with permafrost, or frozen subsoil </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Highlands Climates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determined by elevation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The higher the elevation, the cooler the temperatures are </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. CLIMATIC CHANGES <ul><li>Climate changes over time </li></ul><ul><li>During the last 1 to 2 million years, the earth has gone through more than 4 ice ages </li></ul><ul><li>Human interaction with environment affects climate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Burning fossil fuels releases gases and acid that can fall in the form of rain or snow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smog </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Visible chemical haze </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Endangers people’s lives </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 31. CHAPTER 4 World Population
  31. 32. POPULATION GROWTH <ul><li>On 2003 there were 6.2 billion people on earth </li></ul><ul><li>Population of earth more than doubled between 1800 and 1950 </li></ul><ul><li>Population grows when birthrates pass death rates </li></ul><ul><li>Population growth occurs at different rates in various parts of the world </li></ul><ul><li>Improved health care and food abundance has brought down death rate </li></ul><ul><li>Many industrialized countries also experience Zero population growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When the birthrate and death rate are equal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many countries in Asia, Africa, and Latina America experience high birthrates </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid population grown can present many challenges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most people are young and cannot contribute to the production of food and services </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Negative Population Growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Death rate exceeds birthrate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Germany and Hungary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This has economic consequences </li></ul></ul>
  32. 33. POPULATION DISTRIBUTION <ul><li>Population Distribution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The pattern of human settlement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is an uneven distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most of the earth’s land is inhospitable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High mountain peaks, frozen tundra, barren deserts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most people live where the soil is fertile, water is available, and climate is not extreme </li></ul><ul><li>Asia contains more than 60% of world’s population </li></ul><ul><li>Many people live in metropolitan/urban areas </li></ul><ul><li>Geographers check Population Density to figure out how crowded an area is </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is determined by dividing the total population of the country by its total land area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The average number of people living on a square mile or kilometer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canada has low population density, while Bangladesh has one of the highest </li></ul></ul>
  33. 34. POPULATION MOVEMENT <ul><li>Migration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement of people from place to place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many people moved from rural areas to suburb/city areas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Urbanization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth of city populations brought by migration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caused by the desire of rural people to find jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About half of the world’s people live in cities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some people also immigrate to other countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immigrants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some people flee from their countries due to wars and other problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refugees </li></ul></ul>
  34. 35. CULTURE <ul><li>Culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Way of life of a group of people who share similar beliefs and customs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Key element of culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to communicate and pass on cultural values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the strongest unifying force of one’s culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linguists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Study languages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enables people to find a sense of identity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influences aspects of daily life and moral values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major religions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, Christianity, Islam </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 36. CULTURE <ul><li>Social Groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Family is normally the most important group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnic group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Made up of people who share a common language, history, place of origin, or combination of elements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government maintains order within country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides protection from outside dangers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supplies people with services </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economic Activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some cultures rely on farming, industry, or service to make profits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different regions utilize natural resources differently </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Culture Regions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes many different countries that have certain common traits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>North America and Canada, Latin America, Europe, Middle East and Northern Africa </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 37. CULTURAL CHANGE <ul><li>Cultural diffusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process of spreading new knowledge and skills from one culture to another </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Agricultural revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The shift from gathering food to producing food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earliest humans were nomads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No fixed homes and moved from place to place </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many nomads settled in river valleys and on fertile plains as the earth warmed (10,000 years ago) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They then became farmers and settled in permanent villages </li></ul></ul>
  37. 38. CULTURAL CHANGE <ul><li>Culture Hearths </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Origins of the first civilizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Places include Egypt, Iraq, Pakistan, China, Mexico </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All emerged from farming settlements with mild climate and fertile lands near rivers or sources of water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Specialization and Civilization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surplus of food allowed the rise of cities and civilization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More food meant people could develop other ways of living </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This led to the rise of technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Metalworking and shipbuilding spurred long-distance trade </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wealth from trade led to rise of cities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Cultural contact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contact with other civilizations promoted change of ideas and practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immigration has fostered cultural diffusion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Industrial and Information Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New production methods changed economies due to the production of quicker and cheaper goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial revolution led to social changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers have increased the access to information </li></ul></ul>
  38. 39. THE GOVERNMENT <ul><li>Levels of government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unitary System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All key powers to the central government </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>France, United Kingdom </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Divides power between national government and state governments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>United States, Brazil, Australia </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Autocracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oldest and one of the most common forms of government </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One person rule </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nazi Germany </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monarchy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>King or queen exercises absolute power </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Saudi Arabia </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oligarchy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small group of people holds the power </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Governments of Communist countries like China </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Derives power from wealth, military power, social position, and religion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Democracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leaders rule with consent of the citizens </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Comes from Greek Demos Kratia meaning “The people rule” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Countries have representative democracies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>United States, France, United Kingdom (Constitutional Monarchy) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 40. ECONOMIC SYSTEMS <ul><li>Traditional Economy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Habit and custom determine the rules for all economic activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals are not free to make decisions based on what they would like to have </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exists in very few parts of the world </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Market Economy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals and private groups make decisions about what to produce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on Free Enterprise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Idea that private individuals or groups have the right to own property or businesses to make profit with LIMITED government interference </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed market economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Government supports and regulates free enterprise through decisions that affect the market place </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Command Economy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government owns or directs means of production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Citizens have no voice in how taxes are spent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requires strict government control </li></ul></ul></ul>
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