module System Design for Sustainability learning subject 7 Design exercise learningresource7.4 The challenge of sustainable transport systems Luca Studer Politecnico di Milano . INDACO dept. . DIS Learning Network on Sustainability
CONTENTS . UNSUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT - PROBLEMS . SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT - SOME URBAN MEASURES . SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT - EUROPEAN COMMISSION STRATEGY
Unsustainable Transport ROAD SAFETY ENVIRONMENT ECONOMICS
Unsustainable Transport Road Safety (Road fatalities in the EU-27 since 1990)
Unsustainable Transport Road Safety (Road fatalities per year in the EU since 2001) The objective of the European Union is to halve the number of fatalities on European roads by 2010!!!
Unsustainable Transport Environment (GHG emissions in EU-27, by sector (1990=100)) To achieve EU target of 80% CO2 reduction by 2050 wrt to 1990, oil consumption in the transport sector must drop by around 70% from today, implying a revolution in transport fuels and the way we travel
Unsustainable Transport Environment (Emissions from Transport in EU-27 (1990=100))
Unsustainable Transport Environment (EU-27 Performance by Mode for Passenger Transport – 1995-2008 (billion passenger-kilometres))
Unsustainable Transport Environment (World Comparison–CO2 Emissions by Country (Million tones – 1991=1 ))
Unsustainable Transport Environment (World Comparison – CO2 Emissions by Country (Shares %))
In the EU, transport depends on oil and oil products for more than 96% of its energy needs (Source: Energy and Transport in Europe – Statistical Pocketbook 2010)
Europe imports around 84% of its crude oil from abroad. In 2010, the EU’s oil import bill was around € 210 billion
Transport greenhouse gas emissions, including from international aviation and maritime transport, increased by around 34% between 1990 and 2008. Over the same period, energy industries reduced their emissions by about 9% (Source: European Environment Agency)
Unsustainable Transport Environment
Transport is responsible for about a quarter of the EU's greenhouse gas emissions. 12.8% of overall emissions are generated by aviation, 13.5% by maritime transport, 0.7% by rail, 1.8% by inland navigation and 71.3% by road transport (2008) (Source: European Environment Agency)
In London, Cologne, Amsterdam and Brussels, drivers spend more than 50 hours a year in road traffic jams. In Utrecht, Manchester and Paris, they spend more than 70 hours stuck on roads (Sources: INRIX European National Traffic Scorecard 2010)
Unsustainable Transport Environment
One bus could carry the same number of people as 30 cars, while only occupying the road space of three cars (Source: International Road Transport Union)
Travelling from London to Brussels by train produces roughly nine times less emissions per passenger km than a plane journey (Source: Eurostat figures quoted in EEA)
Unsustainable Transport Transport & Economics (Evolution of GDP, population and GHG emissions from transport as well as freight and passenger transport demand in the EU-27 since 1995 (1995 = 100))
Unsustainable Transport Transport & Economics (Challenge of the future – decoupling traffic growth from economical growth) The quality and cost of transport services have a major impact on the ability of business to compete, on economic growth and on quality of life. Transport is fundamental to a more efficient European economy.
The transport industry directly employs more than 10 million people, accounting for 4.5% of total employment, and represents 4.6% of (GDP). Manufacture of transport equipment provides an additional 1.7% GDP and 1.5% employment (Source: Eurostat)
13.2% of every household's budget is spent on average on transport goods and services (Source: Eurostat)
Logistics, such as transport and storage, account for 10-15% of the cost of a finished product (Source: “Freight Transport Logistics in Eu–the key to sustainable mobility”)
Unsustainable Transport Transport & Economics
Congestion costs Europe about 1% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) every year (Source: Sources: TREMOVE and PRIMES-TREMOVE)
In London, 20% of commuters spend more than two hours a day travelling to and from work, which adds up to one working day a week. In Germany, 37% spend one hour a day commuting (Sources: Transport for London, 2009, Travel in London ; Mobilität in Deutschland 2008)
Over 750 million people – one third of the world market – used EU airports in 2009 (Source: Eurostat)
SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT SOME URBAN MEASURES
Sustainable Transport – some urban measures TRANSPORT MANAGEMENT URBAN GOODS TRANSPORT COLLECTIVE PASSENGER TRANSPORT ACCESS MANAGEMENT INNOVATIVE SOFT MEASURES LESS CAR INTENSIVE LIFESTYLES INTEGRATED PRICING STRATEGIES CLEAN FUELS AND VEHICLES
Sustainable Transport TRANSPORT MANAGEMENT TM is a better coordination of traffic flow for all users, benefitting public transport with faster travel time and cyclists and walkers by making roads safer.First, better collection, coordination and use of traffic data to manage traffic, and tools to evaluate, visualize and warehouse this information can help solve bottlenecks and unsafe situations. Second, traffic operations can be prioritized to give time advantages to sustainable modes, particularly public transport. Finally, parking information and parking management is another form of transport management. These measures are largely enabled by new technologies, including global positioning systems, wireless data transmission, automated traffic counting devices, and high resolution cameras.
Sustainable Transport URBAN GOODS TRANSPORT Promoting energy-efficient freight logistics and new methods for goods distribution that contribute to better overall urban transport A significant amount of traffic in our cities is generated by the delivery of goods to shops, factories, offices, hotels, etc. These vehicles take up more space than cars and require space to load and unload. Overall strategies to create cleaner and better transport in cities necessitates the inclusion of goods vehicles by encouraging the use of cleaner vehicles and better coordination of logistics and deliveries to reduce congestion, free space for sustainable modes, and reduce emissions from idling trucks and vans.
Sustainable Transport COLLECTIVE PASSENGER TRANSPORT Improving the quality and efficiency of public transport and better integration with other modes The stimulation of collective passenger transport involves improved quality of service by means of introducing clean and energy-efficient vehicle fleets; non-conventional public transport systems; innovative organizational, financing and management schemes; improved security and safety; integration with walking, cycling and other modes; in particular attention should be paid to accessibility for people with reduced mobility.
Sustainable Transport ACCESS MANAGEMENT Developing safe and secure roads for all users and managing parking One set of measures focus on demand management strategies that are based upon access restrictions to the inner city areas and other sensitive zones by means of introducing access control permitting, access only to clean and energy efficient vehicles (including collective transport vehicles) and to cycling and walking. It also includes the strategic management of parking to dissuade some car users from driving to highly congested places or during peak times and to encourage the use of more sustainable modes.
Sustainable Transport INNOVATIVE SOFT MEASURES Influencing travel behavior through mobility management, including communications, partnerships, and education Mobility Management is a concept to promote sustainable transport and manage the demand for car use by changing travelers' attitudes and behavior. At the core of Mobility Management are “soft” measures like information and communication, organizing services and coordinating activities of different partners. “Soft” measures most often enhance the effectiveness of “hard” measures within urban transport (e.g. new tram lines, new roads and new bike lanes). Mobility Management measures (in comparison to “hard” measures) do not necessarily require large financial investments and may have a high benefit-cost ratio.
Sustainable Transport LESS CAR INTENSIVE LIFESTYLES Finding new ways to get around the city, including car pooling, car sharing, cycling and walking While much of measures sought to shift travelers out of their cars and onto public transport, this group of measures seek to make more sustainable use of the car and non-motorized modes. This is accomplished in three principle ways: car pooling, car sharing and bicycling (and to a lesser extent, walking).
Sustainable Transport INTEGRATED PRICING STRATEGIES Managing travel demand via incentives, disincentives and regulations on fees The most effective way to get people to change their travel behavior is to work via their wallet or purse. Thus, pricing is often used to even the real costs of using various means to travel, or at least change the perceptions about how much an option costs. For example, people might be given a financial incentive to try a new, cleaner mode of travel. On the other side, disincentives can be used to make the car a little less appealing. This could include congestion charging (in the center of London or Stockholm). Or it could be a little more indirect, such as influencing the price and availability of parking in congested areas. Or certain types of vehicles are made to pay a fee to access certain areas (Milan).
Sustainable Transport CLEAN FUELS AND VEHICLES Creating travel options that utilize cleaner, more fuel efficient vehicles and alternative fuels In seeking to encourage cleaner and better transport, cities include the use of clean vehicle and clean fuels in their integrated strategies. The implementation of cleaner vehicles decrease air pollution, reducing the harmful effects from vehicle emissions and, in so doing, improving the quality of life for the citizens. On a longer-term perspective, the implementation of biodiesel or biogas vehicles can lead to greater energy independence (from fossil fuels) and relief from unstable oil prices.
SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT - EUROPEAN COMMISSION STRATEGY
Sustainable Transport - EC strategy EUROPEAN COMMISSION’S GOALS (1/4) WHITE PAPER - Roadmap to a Single European Transport Area – Towards a competitive and resource efficient transport system (March 2011) Ten Goals for a competitive and resource efficient transport system: benchmarks for achieving the 60% GHG emission reduction target. Developing and deploying new and sustainable fuels and propulsion systems Halve the use of “conventionally-fuelled” cars in urban transport by 2030; phase them out in cities by 2050; achieve essentially CO2-free city logistics in major urban centers by 2030
Sustainable Transport - EC strategy EUROPEAN COMMISSION’S GOALS (2/4) Low-carbon sustainable fuels in aviation to reach 40% by 2050; also by 2050 reduce EU CO2 emissions from maritime bunker fuels by 40% (if feasible 50%). Optimizing the performance of multimodal logistic chains, including by making greater use of more energy-efficient modes 30% of road freight over 300 km should shift to other modes such as rail or waterborne transport by 2030, and more than 50% by 2050, facilitated by efficient and green freight corridors. To meet this goal will also require appropriate infrastructure to be developed. By 2050, complete a Eu high-speed (HS) rail network. Triple the length of the existing HS network by 2030 and maintain a dense railway network in all MS. By 2050 the majority of medium-distance passenger transport should go by rail.
Sustainable Transport - EC strategy EUROPEAN COMMISSION’S GOALS (3/4) A fully functional and EU-wide multimodal TEN-T “core network” by 2030, with a high quality and capacity network by 2050 and a corresponding set of information services. By 2050, connect all core network airports to the rail network, preferably high-speed; ensure that all core seaports are sufficiently connected to the rail freight and, where possible, inland waterway system. Increasing the efficiency of transport and of infrastructure use with information systems and market-based incentives Deployment of the modernized air traffic management infrastructure in Eu by 2020 and completion of the European Common Aviation Area. Deployment of equivalent land and waterborne transport management systems. Deployment of the Eu Global Navigation Satellite System (Galileo).
Sustainable Transport - EC strategy EUROPEAN COMMISSION’S GOALS (4/4) By 2020, establish the framework for a European multimodal transport information, management and payment system. By 2050, move close to zero fatalities in road transport. In line with this goal, the EU aims at halving road casualties by 2020. Make sure that the EU is a world leader in safety and security of transport in all modes of transport. Move towards full application of “user pays” and “polluter pays” principles and private sector engagement to eliminate distortions, including harmful subsidies, generate revenues and ensure financing for future transport investments.
Sustainable Transport - EC strategy CO2-reduction concept of the Swedish Transport Administration
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