carlo vezzoli politecnico di milano  .  INDACO dpt.  .   DIS  .  faculty of design  .   Italy Learning Network on Sustaina...
CONTENTS Product design environmental requirements Damaging environmental effects Life cycle assessment (LCA)  Life Cycle ...
<ul><li>the discipline integrating </li></ul><ul><li>ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS </li></ul><ul><li>within the product desig...
PRODUCT DESIGN  ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS - RELATED TO:  (DAMAGING) ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS - ASSOCIATED HOW (TO A PRODUCT)...
ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS <ul><li>EACH  ENVIRONMENTAL  EFFECT   IS BASED ON A SUBSTANCE’S  EXCHANGE  ( IMPACT ) BETWEEN THE  N...
INPUT AND ITS (DAMAGING) EFFECTS <ul><li>RESOURCES EXHAUSTION </li></ul><ul><li>ALTERATION OF THE ECOSYSTEMS’ BALANCE </li...
OUTPUT AND ITS (DAMAGING) EFFECTS <ul><li>global warming (greenhouse effect) </li></ul><ul><li>ozone layer depletion </li>...
serra greenhouse effect
ozono ozone la yer deplation
eutrhophication
acidification
 
toxici ty
rifiuti wastes
CAN WE ASSOCIATE THE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS TO A PRODUCT?  AND HOW? CRITERIA: - PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE - FUNCTIONAL UNIT EVALUA...
use service manufac . assemb . finish collection resource’s achieving mater. energy produc. package trasp. storage PRODUCT...
<ul><li>FUNCTIONAL UNIT ( APPROACH) </li></ul><ul><li>IS NOT THE PRODUCT TO BE ASSESSED ( DESIGNED)  BUT,   THE WHOLE OF T...
<ul><li>ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF PRODUCT </li></ul><ul><li>LCA: LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT </li></ul><ul><li>a quantitative ...
e.g. LCA upholstered seat (8 years life span) PRE-PROD. PRODUCTION DISTRIBUT . USE DISPOSAL
<ul><li>e.g. LCA   refrigerator (10 years life span) </li></ul>PRE-PROD. PRODUCTION DISTRIBUT . USE DISPOSAL
<ul><li>PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE DESIGN: APPROACH </li></ul>an extended design horizon from product design to the design of the ...
<ul><li>LIFE CYCLE DESIGN </li></ul><ul><li>ENVIRONMENTAL  REQUIREMETS: </li></ul><ul><li>MINIMIZE  THE INPUTS AND THE OUT...
<ul><li>LCD: ENVIRONMENTAL  CRITERIA </li></ul>  RESOURCES MINIMISATION   LOW IMPACT RESOURCES SELECTION   PRODUCT LIFE OP...
<ul><li>RESOURCES CONSERVATION    for future generations </li></ul><ul><li>(ENVIRONMENTAL) IMPACT AVOIDANCE   pre-producti...
<ul><li>RESOURCES CONSERVATION/RENEWABILITY   for the future generation </li></ul><ul><li>RESOURCES NON TOXICITY AND HARMF...
<ul><li>RESOURCES RENEWABILITY </li></ul>DEPENDS ON: - RE-GROWING SPECIFIC SPEED - EXTRACTION FREQUENCY a resource is rene...
<ul><li>MATERIALS’ ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT </li></ul>A RANKING FROM THE BEST TO THE WORST IS (USUALLY) “ MISLEADING  ” DEPEND...
<ul><li>PRODUCT LIFE OPTIMISATION </li></ul><ul><li>DESIGN FOR : </li></ul><ul><li>EXTEND ING   PRODUCT (COMPONENT) LIFE  ...
same function in time USE AVOIDED IMPACTS LIGHTER IMPACTS short product/component life extended product/component life PRO...
LIFE  INDIPENDENT  FROM LENGHT OF  USE AVOIDED IMPACTS products/components not intense life  product/component intense lif...
PP P Dt PP P Dt PP P Dt PP P Dt Ds use (function) during of time NEW TECHNOLOGIES AND TECHNIQUES WITH LOWER USE CONSMPTION...
<ul><li>MATERIAL LIFE EXTENSION   </li></ul><ul><li>DESIGN FOR : </li></ul><ul><li>RECYCLING </li></ul><ul><li>ENERGY RECO...
material non-extended life material extended life AVOIDED IMPACTS ADDITIONAL IMPACTS PRE-PRODUCTION PRODUCTION  DISTRIBUTI...
POST-CONSUMPTION RECYCLING PHASES: (COMBUSTION, COMPOSTING) .  collection  . transportation . separation (disassembly a/o ...
<ul><li>MATERIALS’ RECYCLABILITY (COMB., COMP.) </li></ul>DIPENDS ON: - SPECIFIC MATERIAL’S CHARACTERISTICS  performances ...
<ul><li>> of parts/components   PRODUCT LIFE OPTIMISATION </li></ul><ul><li>> of materials   MATERIAL LIFE EXTENSION </li>...
<ul><li>FOR DECISION MAKING (DESIGNING) </li></ul><ul><li>identify the (environmental) design  PRIORITIES: </li></ul><ul><...
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2.1 Product Life Cycle Design

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Transcript of "2.1 Product Life Cycle Design"

  1. 1. carlo vezzoli politecnico di milano . INDACO dpt. . DIS . faculty of design . Italy Learning Network on Sustainability course System Design for Sustainability subject 2. Introduction to product Life Cicle Design (LCD) learning resource 2.1 Product Life Cycle Design
  2. 2. CONTENTS Product design environmental requirements Damaging environmental effects Life cycle assessment (LCA) Life Cycle Design approach: life cycle + functional Product Life Cycle Design criteria Resources minimisation Low impact resources selection Product life optimisation Material life extension Design for disassembly
  3. 3. <ul><li>the discipline integrating </li></ul><ul><li>ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS </li></ul><ul><li>within the product design process: </li></ul><ul><li>(product) LIFE CYCLE DESIGN </li></ul><ul><li>(or eco-design, design for the environment, …) </li></ul>
  4. 4. PRODUCT DESIGN ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS - RELATED TO: (DAMAGING) ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS - ASSOCIATED HOW (TO A PRODUCT): > LIFE CYCLE AND FUNCTIONAL UNIT
  5. 5. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS <ul><li>EACH ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECT IS BASED ON A SUBSTANCE’S EXCHANGE ( IMPACT ) BETWEEN THE NATURE /ENVIRONMENT AND A ( ANTHROPIC TRASFORMATION) PROCESS OF A PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION SYSTEM </li></ul>input : substance extraction from the environment output : substance emission in the environment (not all impacts damage with the same entity)
  6. 6. INPUT AND ITS (DAMAGING) EFFECTS <ul><li>RESOURCES EXHAUSTION </li></ul><ul><li>ALTERATION OF THE ECOSYSTEMS’ BALANCE </li></ul><ul><li>(damaging outputs of extractive processes) </li></ul>
  7. 7. OUTPUT AND ITS (DAMAGING) EFFECTS <ul><li>global warming (greenhouse effect) </li></ul><ul><li>ozone layer depletion </li></ul><ul><li>eutrophication </li></ul><ul><li>acidification </li></ul><ul><li>smog </li></ul><ul><li>toxicity </li></ul><ul><li>wastes </li></ul><ul><li>... </li></ul>
  8. 8. serra greenhouse effect
  9. 9. ozono ozone la yer deplation
  10. 10. eutrhophication
  11. 11. acidification
  12. 13. toxici ty
  13. 14. rifiuti wastes
  14. 15. CAN WE ASSOCIATE THE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS TO A PRODUCT? AND HOW? CRITERIA: - PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE - FUNCTIONAL UNIT EVALUATION METHOD: - LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT DESIGN ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS
  15. 16. use service manufac . assemb . finish collection resource’s achieving mater. energy produc. package trasp. storage PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE APPROACH USE PRODUCTION DISPOSING PREPRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION landfill incineration composting recycling reuse comp. reuse remanufactoring other product’s life cycle biosphere geosphere
  16. 17. <ul><li>FUNCTIONAL UNIT ( APPROACH) </li></ul><ul><li>IS NOT THE PRODUCT TO BE ASSESSED ( DESIGNED) BUT, THE WHOLE OF THE PROCESSES ASSOCIATED WITH THE FULFILLMENT OF A GIVEN FUNCTION </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF PRODUCT </li></ul><ul><li>LCA: LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT </li></ul><ul><li>a quantitative method to assess the environmental effects of the life cycle of a given product/service in relation to its functional units </li></ul><ul><li>ISO 14040 </li></ul>
  18. 19. e.g. LCA upholstered seat (8 years life span) PRE-PROD. PRODUCTION DISTRIBUT . USE DISPOSAL
  19. 20. <ul><li>e.g. LCA refrigerator (10 years life span) </li></ul>PRE-PROD. PRODUCTION DISTRIBUT . USE DISPOSAL
  20. 21. <ul><li>PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE DESIGN: APPROACH </li></ul>an extended design horizon from product design to the design of the product LIFE CYCLE stages the design “reference” from product design to product’s “ FUNCTION ” design
  21. 22. <ul><li>LIFE CYCLE DESIGN </li></ul><ul><li>ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMETS: </li></ul><ul><li>MINIMIZE THE INPUTS AND THE OUTPUTS </li></ul><ul><li>quantitatively </li></ul><ul><li>qualitatively </li></ul><ul><li>in relation to life cycle and functional unit </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>LCD: ENVIRONMENTAL CRITERIA </li></ul> RESOURCES MINIMISATION LOW IMPACT RESOURCES SELECTION PRODUCT LIFE OPTIMISATION MATERIAL LIFE EXTENSION DESIGN FOR DISASSEMBLY
  23. 24. <ul><li>RESOURCES CONSERVATION for future generations </li></ul><ul><li>(ENVIRONMENTAL) IMPACT AVOIDANCE pre-production, production, distribution and disposal of the not used resource quantitative </li></ul>RESOURCES MINIMISATION quantitative impact reduction (life cycle/function) DESIGN FOR:
  24. 25. <ul><li>RESOURCES CONSERVATION/RENEWABILITY for the future generation </li></ul><ul><li>RESOURCES NON TOXICITY AND HARMFULNESS in all life cycle phases </li></ul>LOW IMPACT RESOURCES SELECTION qualitative impact reduction (life cycle/function) DESIGN FOR:
  25. 26. <ul><li>RESOURCES RENEWABILITY </li></ul>DEPENDS ON: - RE-GROWING SPECIFIC SPEED - EXTRACTION FREQUENCY a resource is renewable if: a context related anthropic consumption rate < natural re-growing rate
  26. 27. <ul><li>MATERIALS’ ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT </li></ul>A RANKING FROM THE BEST TO THE WORST IS (USUALLY) “ MISLEADING ” DEPENDS ON: - MATERIAL-SPECIFIC CHARACTERISTICS - CHARACTERISTICS GIVEN TO PRODUCT
  27. 28. <ul><li>PRODUCT LIFE OPTIMISATION </li></ul><ul><li>DESIGN FOR : </li></ul><ul><li>EXTEND ING PRODUCT (COMPONENT) LIFE SPAN </li></ul><ul><li>INTENS IFYING PRODUCT (COMPONENT) USE </li></ul>
  28. 29. same function in time USE AVOIDED IMPACTS LIGHTER IMPACTS short product/component life extended product/component life PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION USE PRE-PRODUCTION NEW TECHNOLOGIES AND TECHNIQUES WITH LOWER USE CONSUMPTION USE DISP. P-PROD. PROD. DISTRIB. UPDATING OF THE COMPONENTS CAUSING CONSUMPTION PRE-PRODUCTION PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION USE DISPOSAL PRE-PRODUCTION PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION USE
  29. 30. LIFE INDIPENDENT FROM LENGHT OF USE AVOIDED IMPACTS products/components not intense life product/component intense life PRE-PROD. PROD. DISTR. DISPOS. use (function) during time PRE-PROD. PROD. DISTR. DISPOS. PRE-PROD. PROD. DISTR. DISPOS. PRE-PROD. PROD. DISTR. DISPOS. B 1 B 2 B 3 A 1 A 2 A 3 C 1 C 2 C 3 A 1 A 2 A 3 B 1 B 2 B 3 C 1 C 2 C 3
  30. 31. PP P Dt PP P Dt PP P Dt PP P Dt Ds use (function) during of time NEW TECHNOLOGIES AND TECHNIQUES WITH LOWER USE CONSMPTION NEW PRE AND POST CONSUMPTION TECHNOLOGIES WITH LOWER IMPACT LIFE FUNCTION OF LENGHT OF USE not intense life products/components intense life products/components LIGHTER IMPACTS LIGHTER IMPACTS Ds Ds Ds PP P Dt Ds PP P Dt Ds
  31. 32. <ul><li>MATERIAL LIFE EXTENSION </li></ul><ul><li>DESIGN FOR : </li></ul><ul><li>RECYCLING </li></ul><ul><li>ENERGY RECOVERY </li></ul><ul><li>COMPOSTING </li></ul>
  32. 33. material non-extended life material extended life AVOIDED IMPACTS ADDITIONAL IMPACTS PRE-PRODUCTION PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION USE LANDFILL PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION USE PRE-PRODUCTION PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION USE RECYCLING COMBUSTION COMPOSTING PRE-PRODUCTION
  33. 34. POST-CONSUMPTION RECYCLING PHASES: (COMBUSTION, COMPOSTING) . collection . transportation . separation (disassembly a/o crushing) . identification . cleaning . secondary raw material’s production
  34. 35. <ul><li>MATERIALS’ RECYCLABILITY (COMB., COMP.) </li></ul>DIPENDS ON: - SPECIFIC MATERIAL’S CHARACTERISTICS performances recovery (and process costs) - PRODUCT’S ARCHITECTURE - RECYCLING PHASES
  35. 36. <ul><li>> of parts/components PRODUCT LIFE OPTIMISATION </li></ul><ul><li>> of materials MATERIAL LIFE EXTENSION </li></ul>DESIGN FOR DISASSEMBLY
  36. 37. <ul><li>FOR DECISION MAKING (DESIGNING) </li></ul><ul><li>identify the (environmental) design PRIORITIES: </li></ul><ul><li>> CRITERIA relevance (relative) per product type </li></ul><ul><li>> most promising criteria related GUIDELINES </li></ul>INTERRELATIONS BETWEEN ENVIRONMENTAL CRITERIA/GUIDELINES FOR A GIVEN PRODUCT: - some have HIGHER RELEVANCE than others - can be SYNERGETIC or CONFLICTING

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