• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
2.1 Product Life Cycle Design
 

2.1 Product Life Cycle Design

on

  • 1,217 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
1,217
Views on SlideShare
1,213
Embed Views
4

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
0
Comments
0

1 Embed 4

http://www.slideshare.net 4

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    2.1 Product Life Cycle Design 2.1 Product Life Cycle Design Presentation Transcript

    • carlo vezzoli politecnico di milano . INDACO dpt. . DIS . faculty of design . Italy Learning Network on Sustainability course System Design for Sustainability subject 2. Introduction to product Life Cicle Design (LCD) learning resource 2.1 Product Life Cycle Design
    • CONTENTS Product design environmental requirements Damaging environmental effects Life cycle assessment (LCA) Life Cycle Design approach: life cycle + functional Product Life Cycle Design criteria Resources minimisation Low impact resources selection Product life optimisation Material life extension Design for disassembly
      • the discipline integrating
      • ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS
      • within the product design process:
      • (product) LIFE CYCLE DESIGN
      • (or eco-design, design for the environment, …)
    • PRODUCT DESIGN ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS - RELATED TO: (DAMAGING) ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS - ASSOCIATED HOW (TO A PRODUCT): > LIFE CYCLE AND FUNCTIONAL UNIT
    • ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS
      • EACH ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECT IS BASED ON A SUBSTANCE’S EXCHANGE ( IMPACT ) BETWEEN THE NATURE /ENVIRONMENT AND A ( ANTHROPIC TRASFORMATION) PROCESS OF A PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION SYSTEM
      input : substance extraction from the environment output : substance emission in the environment (not all impacts damage with the same entity)
    • INPUT AND ITS (DAMAGING) EFFECTS
      • RESOURCES EXHAUSTION
      • ALTERATION OF THE ECOSYSTEMS’ BALANCE
      • (damaging outputs of extractive processes)
    • OUTPUT AND ITS (DAMAGING) EFFECTS
      • global warming (greenhouse effect)
      • ozone layer depletion
      • eutrophication
      • acidification
      • smog
      • toxicity
      • wastes
      • ...
    • serra greenhouse effect
    • ozono ozone la yer deplation
    • eutrhophication
    • acidification
    •  
    • toxici ty
    • rifiuti wastes
    • CAN WE ASSOCIATE THE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS TO A PRODUCT? AND HOW? CRITERIA: - PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE - FUNCTIONAL UNIT EVALUATION METHOD: - LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT DESIGN ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS
    • use service manufac . assemb . finish collection resource’s achieving mater. energy produc. package trasp. storage PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE APPROACH USE PRODUCTION DISPOSING PREPRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION landfill incineration composting recycling reuse comp. reuse remanufactoring other product’s life cycle biosphere geosphere
      • FUNCTIONAL UNIT ( APPROACH)
      • IS NOT THE PRODUCT TO BE ASSESSED ( DESIGNED) BUT, THE WHOLE OF THE PROCESSES ASSOCIATED WITH THE FULFILLMENT OF A GIVEN FUNCTION
      • ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF PRODUCT
      • LCA: LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT
      • a quantitative method to assess the environmental effects of the life cycle of a given product/service in relation to its functional units
      • ISO 14040
    • e.g. LCA upholstered seat (8 years life span) PRE-PROD. PRODUCTION DISTRIBUT . USE DISPOSAL
      • e.g. LCA refrigerator (10 years life span)
      PRE-PROD. PRODUCTION DISTRIBUT . USE DISPOSAL
      • PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE DESIGN: APPROACH
      an extended design horizon from product design to the design of the product LIFE CYCLE stages the design “reference” from product design to product’s “ FUNCTION ” design
      • LIFE CYCLE DESIGN
      • ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMETS:
      • MINIMIZE THE INPUTS AND THE OUTPUTS
      • quantitatively
      • qualitatively
      • in relation to life cycle and functional unit
      • LCD: ENVIRONMENTAL CRITERIA
      RESOURCES MINIMISATION LOW IMPACT RESOURCES SELECTION PRODUCT LIFE OPTIMISATION MATERIAL LIFE EXTENSION DESIGN FOR DISASSEMBLY
      • RESOURCES CONSERVATION for future generations
      • (ENVIRONMENTAL) IMPACT AVOIDANCE pre-production, production, distribution and disposal of the not used resource quantitative
      RESOURCES MINIMISATION quantitative impact reduction (life cycle/function) DESIGN FOR:
      • RESOURCES CONSERVATION/RENEWABILITY for the future generation
      • RESOURCES NON TOXICITY AND HARMFULNESS in all life cycle phases
      LOW IMPACT RESOURCES SELECTION qualitative impact reduction (life cycle/function) DESIGN FOR:
      • RESOURCES RENEWABILITY
      DEPENDS ON: - RE-GROWING SPECIFIC SPEED - EXTRACTION FREQUENCY a resource is renewable if: a context related anthropic consumption rate < natural re-growing rate
      • MATERIALS’ ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
      A RANKING FROM THE BEST TO THE WORST IS (USUALLY) “ MISLEADING ” DEPENDS ON: - MATERIAL-SPECIFIC CHARACTERISTICS - CHARACTERISTICS GIVEN TO PRODUCT
      • PRODUCT LIFE OPTIMISATION
      • DESIGN FOR :
      • EXTEND ING PRODUCT (COMPONENT) LIFE SPAN
      • INTENS IFYING PRODUCT (COMPONENT) USE
    • same function in time USE AVOIDED IMPACTS LIGHTER IMPACTS short product/component life extended product/component life PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION USE PRE-PRODUCTION NEW TECHNOLOGIES AND TECHNIQUES WITH LOWER USE CONSUMPTION USE DISP. P-PROD. PROD. DISTRIB. UPDATING OF THE COMPONENTS CAUSING CONSUMPTION PRE-PRODUCTION PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION USE DISPOSAL PRE-PRODUCTION PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION USE
    • LIFE INDIPENDENT FROM LENGHT OF USE AVOIDED IMPACTS products/components not intense life product/component intense life PRE-PROD. PROD. DISTR. DISPOS. use (function) during time PRE-PROD. PROD. DISTR. DISPOS. PRE-PROD. PROD. DISTR. DISPOS. PRE-PROD. PROD. DISTR. DISPOS. B 1 B 2 B 3 A 1 A 2 A 3 C 1 C 2 C 3 A 1 A 2 A 3 B 1 B 2 B 3 C 1 C 2 C 3
    • PP P Dt PP P Dt PP P Dt PP P Dt Ds use (function) during of time NEW TECHNOLOGIES AND TECHNIQUES WITH LOWER USE CONSMPTION NEW PRE AND POST CONSUMPTION TECHNOLOGIES WITH LOWER IMPACT LIFE FUNCTION OF LENGHT OF USE not intense life products/components intense life products/components LIGHTER IMPACTS LIGHTER IMPACTS Ds Ds Ds PP P Dt Ds PP P Dt Ds
      • MATERIAL LIFE EXTENSION
      • DESIGN FOR :
      • RECYCLING
      • ENERGY RECOVERY
      • COMPOSTING
    • material non-extended life material extended life AVOIDED IMPACTS ADDITIONAL IMPACTS PRE-PRODUCTION PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION USE LANDFILL PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION USE PRE-PRODUCTION PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION USE RECYCLING COMBUSTION COMPOSTING PRE-PRODUCTION
    • POST-CONSUMPTION RECYCLING PHASES: (COMBUSTION, COMPOSTING) . collection . transportation . separation (disassembly a/o crushing) . identification . cleaning . secondary raw material’s production
      • MATERIALS’ RECYCLABILITY (COMB., COMP.)
      DIPENDS ON: - SPECIFIC MATERIAL’S CHARACTERISTICS performances recovery (and process costs) - PRODUCT’S ARCHITECTURE - RECYCLING PHASES
      • > of parts/components PRODUCT LIFE OPTIMISATION
      • > of materials MATERIAL LIFE EXTENSION
      DESIGN FOR DISASSEMBLY
      • FOR DECISION MAKING (DESIGNING)
      • identify the (environmental) design PRIORITIES:
      • > CRITERIA relevance (relative) per product type
      • > most promising criteria related GUIDELINES
      INTERRELATIONS BETWEEN ENVIRONMENTAL CRITERIA/GUIDELINES FOR A GIVEN PRODUCT: - some have HIGHER RELEVANCE than others - can be SYNERGETIC or CONFLICTING