Mugendi_Out of Africa: a sampler

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Mugendi_Out of Africa: a sampler

  1. 1. Mugendi M’Rithaa CPUT / Faculty of Informatics & Design / Dept of Industrial Design / South Africa course System design for sustainability learning resource: Out of Africa: a sampler contributor: Mugendi M’Rithaa Cape Peninsula University of Technology / Faculty of Informatics & Design / Department of Industrial Design / South Africa LeNS, the Learning Network on Sustainability: Asian-European multi-polar network for curricula development on Design for Sustainability focused on product service system innovation. Funded by the Asia-Link Programme, EuroAid, European Commission.
  2. 2. Mugendi M’Rithaa CPUT / Faculty of Informatics & Design / Dept of Industrial Design / South Africa
  3. 3. THE PLACE… Mugendi M’Rithaa CPUT / Faculty of Informatics & Design / Dept of Industrial Design / South Africa
  4. 4. AFRICAN TRADITIONAL WORLDVIEW ¹ <ul><li>Dynamism and Vitalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>principle of proximity of origin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>distinction of sexes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solidarity (Relationality), Totality and Participation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. U buntu: ‘humanness’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>connection between cause and effect (is immediate) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Sacred </li></ul><ul><ul><li>interconnectivity between living and dead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sacredness of ancestors (and veneration of elders) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anthropocentrism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. batho pele: ‘people first’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>human dignity is highly respected </li></ul></ul>Mugendi M’Rithaa CPUT / Faculty of Informatics & Design / Dept of Industrial Design / South Africa <ul><ul><li>Related thoughts : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expressions of fecundity and vitality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The concept of the cool </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The power of the spoken word (and nomenclature) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paradigm of duality and complimentarity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Triadic inter-relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concept of African time </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. COMMUNITY FOCUS <ul><li>1 . Forum for communal dialogue, public debate, and consensus building: </li></ul><ul><li>baraza- kiSwahili - Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania </li></ul><ul><li>indaba- isiZulu- Swaziland, South Africa, Zimbabwe </li></ul><ul><li>lekgotla- seTswana- Botswana, Lesotho, South Africa </li></ul><ul><li>2. S ystem of collective self-reliance, and mutual assistance : </li></ul><ul><li>bataka kwegaita (communal solidarity)- Uganda </li></ul><ul><li>harambee (pulling together)- Kenya </li></ul><ul><li>ujamaa (familyhood)- Tanzania </li></ul><ul><li>stokvels (co-operative societies)- South Africa </li></ul><ul><li>boipelogo (self-reliance); molaletsa (collective labour sharing systems) and motshelo (group credit unions)- Botswana </li></ul>Mugendi M’Rithaa CPUT / Faculty of Informatics & Design / Dept of Industrial Design / South Africa
  6. 6. UBUNTU ² <ul><li>“ umuntu ngumuntu ngabantu ”(in isiZulu ) or </li></ul><ul><li>“ mtu ni watu” (in kiSwahili ): </li></ul><ul><li>“ a person is a person through other persons” </li></ul><ul><li>Human= Mu - Ntu =Intelligent beings=> People </li></ul><ul><li>Things= Ki - Ntu =Non-Intelligent beings=> Products </li></ul><ul><li>Things Abstract= Ku - Ntu =Modal beings=> Places </li></ul><ul><li>Time and Space= Hu - Ntu =Localising beings=> Phenomena </li></ul>Mugendi M’Rithaa CPUT / Faculty of Informatics & Design / Dept of Industrial Design / South Africa
  7. 7. UBUNTU IN A NUTSHELL <ul><li>“ I am because we are, </li></ul><ul><li>and </li></ul><ul><li>we are, therefore I can ”… </li></ul>Mugendi M’Rithaa CPUT / Faculty of Informatics & Design / Dept of Industrial Design / South Africa
  8. 8. Mugendi M’Rithaa CPUT / Faculty of Informatics & Design / Dept of Industrial Design / South Africa ADINKRA SYMBOLS ³
  9. 9. Mugendi M’Rithaa CPUT / Faculty of Informatics & Design / Dept of Industrial Design / South Africa
  10. 10. Mugendi M’Rithaa CPUT / Faculty of Informatics & Design / Dept of Industrial Design / South Africa
  11. 11. Mugendi M’Rithaa CPUT / Faculty of Informatics & Design / Dept of Industrial Design / South Africa AFRICAN RITUAL Performance and Ritual are the two important concepts with African Art Both imply ACTIVE involvement and the use of Art within the context of the live , real setting To understand you must EXPERIENCE African art and not just see it as a viewer – THIS CONCEPT ( Experience versus Sight ) highlights a major difference between African and Western Art Take into account: Motion Sound and scent Engagement of audience and bystanders Colour Rhythm and tempo Heat and energy The religious, ritual & social significance of the performance
  12. 12. Mugendi M’Rithaa CPUT / Faculty of Informatics & Design / Dept of Industrial Design / South Africa AFRICAN ARTS & CRAFTS TRADITIONS
  13. 13. Mugendi M’Rithaa CPUT / Faculty of Informatics & Design / Dept of Industrial Design / South Africa
  14. 14. Mugendi M’Rithaa CPUT / Faculty of Informatics & Design / Dept of Industrial Design / South Africa
  15. 15. Mugendi M’Rithaa CPUT / Faculty of Informatics & Design / Dept of Industrial Design / South Africa
  16. 16. Mugendi M’Rithaa CPUT / Faculty of Informatics & Design / Dept of Industrial Design / South Africa
  17. 17. Mugendi M’Rithaa CPUT / Faculty of Informatics & Design / Dept of Industrial Design / South Africa
  18. 18. Mugendi M’Rithaa CPUT / Faculty of Informatics & Design / Dept of Industrial Design / South Africa
  19. 19. Mugendi M’Rithaa CPUT / Faculty of Informatics & Design / Dept of Industrial Design / South Africa
  20. 20. Mugendi M’Rithaa CPUT / Faculty of Informatics & Design / Dept of Industrial Design / South Africa
  21. 21. Mugendi M’Rithaa CPUT / Faculty of Informatics & Design / Dept of Industrial Design / South Africa FOOD: PURE vs ECCLECTIC
  22. 22. Mugendi M’Rithaa CPUT / Faculty of Informatics & Design / Dept of Industrial Design / South Africa BARK CLOTH: HARVESTING
  23. 23. Mugendi M’Rithaa CPUT / Faculty of Informatics & Design / Dept of Industrial Design / South Africa BARK CLOTH: PROCESSING
  24. 24. Mugendi M’Rithaa CPUT / Faculty of Informatics & Design / Dept of Industrial Design / South Africa BARK CLOTH: REJUVENATING
  25. 25. BARK CLOTH: PRODUCTS Mugendi M’Rithaa CPUT / Faculty of Informatics & Design / Dept of Industrial Design / South Africa
  26. 26. SELF-TAUGHT INNOVATION Mugendi M’Rithaa CPUT / Faculty of Informatics & Design / Dept of Industrial Design / South Africa © M. Maré
  27. 27. SUSTAINABLE SOLUTIONS Mugendi M’Rithaa CPUT / Faculty of Informatics & Design / Dept of Industrial Design / South Africa
  28. 28. AN ‘HONEST’ DESIGN ETHOS Mugendi M’Rithaa CPUT / Faculty of Informatics & Design / Dept of Industrial Design / South Africa
  29. 29. NURU™ LIGHT SYSTEM: PROTOTYPING Mugendi M’Rithaa CPUT / Faculty of Informatics & Design / Dept of Industrial Design / South Africa © B. Whitmill
  30. 30. NURU ™ LIGHT SYSTEM: TESTING Mugendi M’Rithaa CPUT / Faculty of Informatics & Design / Dept of Industrial Design / South Africa © B. Whitmill
  31. 31. Mugendi M’Rithaa CPUT / Faculty of Informatics & Design / Dept of Industrial Design / South Africa © B. Whitmill
  32. 32. Mugendi M’Rithaa CPUT / Faculty of Informatics & Design / Dept of Industrial Design / South Africa
  33. 33. Mugendi M’Rithaa CPUT / Faculty of Informatics & Design / Dept of Industrial Design / South Africa traditional highly localized society de-localized global society THE ‘LEAPFROG’ HYPOTHESIS : the shift towards an advanced multi-local society in the not-yet (fully) industrialized societies – Ezio Manzini advanced multi-local society 1 2 3
  34. 34. Mugendi M’Rithaa CPUT / Faculty of Informatics & Design / Dept of Industrial Design / South Africa industria l information design agriculture subsistence AFRICA CAN INDEED LEAPFROG ! AFRICA
  35. 35. Mugendi M’Rithaa CPUT / Faculty of Informatics & Design / Dept of Industrial Design / South Africa ECONOMIC DUALISM HIGH TECHNOLOGY PRIVILEGED SECTOR GOOD INFRASTRUCTURE TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER FUNDING URBAN/AFFLUENT MAINSTREAM ECONOMY LOW TECHNOLOGY DISADVANTAGED SECTOR NO INFRASTRUCTURE NO TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER NO FUNDING RURAL/TOWNSHIP MARGINALISED ECONOMY ‘ FIRST’ ECONOMY ‘ SECOND’ ECONOMY INDUSTRIAL / TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENTS PROJECTS (after G. Mametja)
  36. 36. THE INFORMAL SECTOR Mugendi M’Rithaa CPUT / Faculty of Informatics & Design / Dept of Industrial Design / South Africa
  37. 37. Mugendi M’Rithaa CPUT / Faculty of Informatics & Design / Dept of Industrial Design / South Africa AN INTEGRATED MODEL IN FORMAL ECONOMY INDUSTRIAL/TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENTS PROJECTS APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY INTERCONNECTED SECTORS IMPROVED INFRASTRUCTURE TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER SUSTAINED FUNDING URBAN/PERI-URBAN/RURAL INTEGRATED ECONOMY DYNAMISM CREATIVITY ROBUSTNESS PROSPERITY RESILIENCE
  38. 38. WOMEN: THE SOUL OF THE COMMUNITY Mugendi M’Rithaa CPUT / Faculty of Informatics & Design / Dept of Industrial Design / South Africa
  39. 39. CHILDREN: THE HOPE OF THE COMMUNITY Mugendi M’Rithaa CPUT / Faculty of Informatics & Design / Dept of Industrial Design / South Africa
  40. 40. GOING THE DISTANCE… <ul><li>African Proverb : </li></ul><ul><li>“ If you run alone - you run faster, </li></ul><ul><li>but </li></ul><ul><li>if we run together - we run farther ”… </li></ul><ul><li>Moral: </li></ul><ul><li>in essence, sustainability can only be attained when we shift the focus from who gets there first , to strategies that ensure that we all get there together … </li></ul>Mugendi M’Rithaa CPUT / Faculty of Informatics & Design / Dept of Industrial Design / South Africa
  41. 41. SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS FOR AFRICA <ul><li>Traditional African consumption and production processes are by default eco-friendly and sustainable - the challenge is to sustain this approach by design ; </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize the time-honoured indigenous knowledge systems and traditional value systems which promote social cohesion and equity [1;2;3]; </li></ul><ul><li>Promote socio-ethical equity and social justice as a way of advancing and consolidating genuine grassroots democracy [2,6]; </li></ul><ul><li>Keep it simple – honest, slow human-paced, distributed systems are best [6]; </li></ul><ul><li>Initiate progressive and responsive community -focused participatory service learning opportunities for design students [6]; </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthen micro-enterprises and the informal sector (known as the ‘second’ economy in South Africa, and the jua kali sector in East Africa) by removing structural obstacles to the naturally available creativity therein [4;5]; and </li></ul><ul><li>Promote the psychosocial welfare of all Africa’s people (with a special focus on the empowerment of women as change agents ) to enable everyone to achieve their fullest (creative) potential [1;2;5]. </li></ul>Mugendi M’Rithaa CPUT / Faculty of Informatics & Design / Dept of Industrial Design / South Africa
  42. 42. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS <ul><li>Barry Whitmill </li></ul><ul><li>Carlo Vezzoli </li></ul><ul><li>Ezio Manzini </li></ul><ul><li>Fabrizio Ceschin </li></ul><ul><li>Marcel Maré </li></ul><ul><li>Sara Katebalirwe </li></ul>Mugendi M’Rithaa CPUT / Faculty of Informatics & Design / Dept of Industrial Design / South Africa
  43. 43. REFERENCES <ul><li>Nyamiti, Charles: Ancestor Veneration In Africa: http://www.afrikaworld.net/afrel/nyamiti.htm [21/07/05]. </li></ul><ul><li>Bhengu, Mfuniselwa John. 2006. UBUNTU: The Global Philosophy for Mankind. Cape Town: Lotsha Publications. </li></ul><ul><li>Adinkra Symbols © West African Wisdom: Adinkra Symbols & Meanings. http://www.welltempered.net/adinkra/ [04/07/08]. </li></ul><ul><li>du Toit, Andries, and Neves, David. 2007. In search of South Africa’s Second Economy: chronic poverty, economic marginalisation and adverse incorporation in Mt Frere and Khayalitsha. Chronic Poverty Research Centre. CPRC Working Paper 102. www.chronicpoverty.org/ pdf s/102duToit_Neves. pdf [19/04/08]. </li></ul><ul><li>Macharia, Sarah. 2006. The urban ‘informal economy’ in the Global South: a feminist postempiricist study of policy discourse in sub-Saharan Africa. www.yorku.ca/ishd/SM.Kenya.Report.field.pdf [09/05/08]. </li></ul><ul><li>Vezzoli, Carlo. 2007. System design for sustainability. Theory, methods and tools for a sustainable “satisfaction-system” design. Rimini: Maggioli Editore. </li></ul><ul><li>Google Images. www.google.com [12/05/09]. </li></ul>Mugendi M’Rithaa CPUT / Faculty of Informatics & Design / Dept of Industrial Design / South Africa
  44. 44. Mugendi M’Rithaa CPUT / Faculty of Informatics & Design / Dept of Industrial Design / South Africa PRECISION IS SUBSERVIENT TO RHYTHM… … THANK YOU.

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