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1.3 Evolution Of Sustainability Within Design

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  • 1. carlo vezzoli politecnico di milano . INDACO dpt. . DIS . faculty of design . Italy Learning Network on Sustainability course System Design for Sustainability subject 1. Sustainable development and design: the reference framework learning resource 1.3 Evolution of sustainability within design
  • 2. CONTENTS Low impact environmental impact materials/energies Product life cycle design/ecodesign (Product-service) system design for eco-efficiency Design for social equity and cohesion Design for Sustainability: state of the art SDS: polimi/DIS projects
  • 3. low impact mat./energies design for social equity and cohesion system design for eco-efficiency Product Life Cycle Design ecodesign SUSTAINABILITY IN DESIGN ROLE: EVOLUTION (in industrially mature countries) widening the “object” to be designed
  • 4.
    • 1. LOW ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT MATERIALS/ENERGIES
    . NON-TOXIC . “NATURAL” . RECYCLABLE . RENEWABLE . BIO-DEGRADABLE
  • 5.
    • 2. PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE DESIGN (ECODESIGN)
    an extended design horizon from product design to the design of the product LIFE CYCLE stages the design “reference” from product design to product’s “ FUNCTION ” design
  • 6. LIFE CYCLE APPROACH use service manufac. assemb. finish collection resource’s achieving mater. energy produc. package trasp. storage USE PRODUCTION DISPOSING PREPRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION landfill incineration composting recycling reuse comp. reuse remanufactoring biosphere geosphere other product’s life cycle
  • 7.
    • FUNCTIONAL APPROACH
    • IS NOT THE PRODUCT TO BE DESIGNED ( ASSESSED ) BUT, THE WHOLE OF THE PROCESSES ASSOCIATED WITH THE PRODUCT AND FULFILLMENT OF A GIVEN FUNCTION
  • 8.
    • LCD: ENVIRONMENTAL CRITERIA /GUIDELINES (DEVELOPED)
    RESOURCES MINIMISATION LOW IMPACT RESOURCES SELECTION PRODUCT LIFE OPTIMISATION MATERIAL LIFE EXTENSION DESIGN FOR DISASSEMBLY LCD: METHODS AND TOOLS (DEVELOPED)
  • 9.
    • FROM PRODUCT INNOVATION ( FUNCTION )
    • TO SYSTEM INNOVATION (PARTICULAR DEMAND “ SATISFACTION ” )
    … BUT SUSTAINABILITY ASK FOR RADICAL INNOVATIONS
  • 10. 3. (PRDUCT-SERVICE) SYSTEM DESIGN FOR ECO-EFFICENCY
  • 11. A DEFINITION OF PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEM “ the result of an innovation strategy, shifting the business focus from designing and selling physical products only, to designing and selling a system of products and services which are jointly capable of fulfilling specific client demands (satisfactions).” “ system innovation can lead, throughout innovative stakeholders’ interactions , to system eco-efficiency.” free pdf at: http://www.unep.fr/scp/publications/details.asp?id=WEB/0081/PA
  • 12. PRDUCT-SERVICE SYSTEMA DEFINITION “ A PSS is a system of products, services, network of actors and supporting infrastructure that continuously strives to be competitive, satisfy customer needs and have a lower impact than traditional business models.” [O. Mont, IIIEE]
  • 13.
    • AN EXAMPLE OF
    • ECO-EFFICENT SYSTEM INNOVATION
  • 14.
    • ARISTON + ENEL : PAY-PER-USE
    • payment is based on number of washes and includes: delivery of a washing machine at home ( not owned ), electricity supply ( not directly paid ), maintenance, up-grading and end-of-life collection.
    the innovative interaction between the two companies and the client, make the companies’ interest to design and provide (and design) high efficient, long lasting, reusable and recyclable washing machines
  • 15.
    • (PRODUCT-SERVICE) SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT
    • UNDERSTANDING OF WIN-WIN POTENTIAL:
    • IS THE COMPANY/COMPANIES’ ECONOMIC AND COMPETITIVE INTEREST THAT LEAD TOWARDS INNOVATIONS THAT REDUCE THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
  • 16.
    • - design an integrated system of products and services fulfilling a particular demand for “satisfaction”
    • - promote/facilitate new socio-economic stakeholder interactions/partnerships
    • - promote/facilitate participated design between different stakeholders
    • - ORIENTATE THE ABOVE PROCESSES TOWARDS AN ECO-EFFICIENT SOLUTION
    … introducing system inn. in design for eco-efficiency ... REQUIRES NEW (STRATEGIC) DESIGN SKILLS:
  • 17. some methods/tools were developed for system design and to orientat e it to sustainable solutions: [EU RESEARCHES: MEPSS, HICS, PROSECCO, …] METHODS ... MEPSS, EU RESEARCH van Halen, Vezzoli & Wimmer, Methodology for product service system innovation, Van Gorcum, Assen, The Netherlands, 2005 HiCS, EU RESEARCH Manzini, Collina & Evans, Highly Customerised Solutions, Cranfield University, 2006
  • 18. … TOOLS www.sdo-lens.polimi.it Sustainability system Design-Orienting (SDO) toolkit Stakeholder System Map Interaction story board
  • 19. where various forms of social inequality are directly addressed in the design process 4. DESIGN FOR SOCIAL EQUITY
  • 20. DEFINITION OF DESIGN [ICSID, 2005>2009: AUTHORITATIVE] “ design is a creative activity whose aim is to establish the multi-faceted qualities of objects, processes, services and their systems in whole life-cycles. ... with the task of: . enhancing global sustainability and environmental protection (global ethics) . giving benefits and freedom to the entire human community , individual and collective . supporting cultural diversity despite the globalisation of the world (cultural ethics) . …”
  • 21. MAIN APPROACHES OF DESIGN FOR SOCIAL EQUITY AND COHESION . product design for low-income contexts and basics needs (design for BOP, etc.) . design for social innovation, facilitating promising bottom-up initiatives . system (stakeholder interaction) design for social equity and cohesion . ...
  • 22. “ a product-service system innovation ( approach) may act as a business opportunity to facilitate the process of a social-economical development in an emerging context - by jumping over the stage characterised by individual consumption/ownership of mass produced goods - towards a “satisfaction-based” and “low resource-intensity” advanced service-economy.” UNEP, 2002: PSS FOR ALL
  • 23. “ a system innovation ( approach) may act as a business opportunity to facilitate the process of a social-economical development in an emerging context - by jumping over the stage characterised by individual consumption/ownership of mass produced goods - towards a “satisfaction-based” and “low resource-intensity” advanced service-economy, characterized by the development of local-based and network-structured enterprises and initiatives, for a sustainable re-globalisation process aiming at a democratisation of access to resources, goods and services”. LENS design research working hypothesis [based on UNEP, 2002]:
  • 24.
    • AN EXAMPLE OF
    • SOCIO-ETHICAL + ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILE SYSTEM INNOVATIONS
  • 25. GREENSTAR SOLAR E-COMMERCE AND COMMUNITY CENTRE India (Parvatapur), Jamaica and Ghana A modular, scalable, highly portable “station” is delivered for villages in the developing world, as e-commerce centres. It is solar powered and connected to the web through a satellite or digital modem. Residents of remote rural communities can sell their wares world-wide and become shareholders in the Greenstar network.
  • 26. Very few methods/tools has been developed to orientat e design towards socially equitable solutions: METHODS/TOOLS UNEP, RESEARCH TUD – UNEP, Design for Sustainability: A Practical Approach for Developing Economies , UNEP-DTI, 2006 MEPSS, EU RESEARCH, 2005 Tishner, socio-ethical dimension in Sustainability Design orienting toolkity , www.sdo-lens.polimi.it, 2005
  • 27. new research frontier … low impact mat./energies design for social equity and cohesion system design for eco-efficiency Product Life Cycle Design ecodesign SUSTAINABILITY IN DESIGN ROLE : STATE OF THE ART (in industrially mature countries) CONSOLIDATION (research achievements) (education and practice) DISSEMINATION 100% 100% 0 widening the “object” to be designed … aim at
  • 28. POLIMI/DIS CONSULTANCIES/APPLIED RESEARCH IN SYSTEM DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABILITY
  • 29. LESS WASTES: OTHER WAYS OF DOING SCENARIOS AND SYSTEMS’ CONCEPTS OF UPSTREAM WASTES REDUCTION IN THE FOOD AND PAPER CHAINS IN THE CITY OF BRESCIA, ITALY commissioned by: ASM-BRESCIA existing system analysis eco-efficient scenarios and system concept development sustainability focused ideas generation
  • 30. abridged LCA ABRIDGED LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT DESIGN OF THE SYSTEM INNOVATION INTRODUCTION AND DIFFUSION PATH ECO-EFFICIENT SCENARIOS ELABORATION commissioned by: system innovation introd. and diffusion path eco-efficient scenarios elaboration PSS concept design PSS engineering PSS CONCEPT DESIGN AND ENGINEERING 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Impatto relativo (%) 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% and production Pre - production - Distribution Disposal Impatto relativo (%)
  • 31. PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND CREATING PROTOTYPES DESIGN OF ECO-EFFICIENT PRODUCT SERVICE SYSTEMS DEFINITION OF A STRATEGIC PATH FOR THE INTRODUCTION AND DIFFUSION OF THE DESIGNED SYSTEMS product design system design path to intro. and diffusion of system innovation commissioned by: ARCHIMEDE ENERGIA ARCHIMEDE ENERGIA
  • 32. system design product design path to intro. and diffusion of system innovation coordinated by: MIT (USA) INTRODUCTION OF SUSTAINABLE MOBILITY SYSTEMS IN EMERGING CONTEXTS 1 . introduction of sustainable Mobility Management system in Bangalore 2 . introduction of sustainable Car sharing (+carpooling) system in Bangalore 3 . introduction of sustainable residential Carpooling system in Beijing
  • 33. system design product design system innovation introd. and diffusion path SYSTEM DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABLE PILOT PROJECT AIMING AT AN INTRODUCTION OF LOCALLY-BASED AND LONG LASTING MOBILITY SYSTEM FOR LOW INCOME CONTEXTS IN AFRICA United Nations Industrial Development Organization A Global UNIDO Network of University Chairs on Innovation Politecnico di Milano Cape Peninsula University of Technology