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5.6 off main-grid systems for access to electricity
 

5.6 off main-grid systems for access to electricity

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    5.6 off main-grid systems for access to electricity 5.6 off main-grid systems for access to electricity Presentation Transcript

    • Off-main-grid systems for access to electricity Eng. Stefano Mandelli stefano.mandelli@polimi.it Eng. Lorenzo Mattarolo lorenzo.mattarolo@polimi.it UNESCO Chair in Energy for Sustainable Development Department of Energy
    • Outline 1. Technologies and appropriateness 2. Centralized Vs off-main-grid electrification 3. Introduction to off-main-grid systems generation technologies
    • Technologies and Appropriateness NEW APPROACH Importance of local resources and local human capital Supported by Schumacher – “Small is Beautiful, Economics as if People Mattered” (1973) Identification of technologies 1. small-scale 2. labour-intensive 3. energy efficient 4. environmental friendly 5. locally controlled STARTING POINT - THE CONTEXT Over reliance on colonial administration Top-down approach to economic development Low technological capacity development TOP DOWN BOTTOM UP NEW CONCEPT OF DEVELOPMENT Technology that fits in the country's infrastructure, affordable, easy to properly maintain, not destructive to the environment. (Kaplan, 1994) SUSTAINABILITY
    • Importance of boundary conditions • flexibility to adapt to local conditions • not related to a defined technology mix • scaled to the context • tailored to the needed services • accounting the local culture Appropriate technologies Economic feasibility • business model enhancing sustainability • counting the coverage and cost The ‘space pen’ example! Ownership/commitment • involvement of final users • end-users requirements • installation, management and maintenance • enhancing job creation • strengthening of research institutions to support local production
    • Replicability • Increase access to new technologies of scale • Innovative models to scale up technologies • Preserving the environment Functionality • availability of local materials • impact on human capacity • final user ownership Appropriate technologies Impact • Access to modern energy services and electricity necessarily need to be linked to other social or economic strategy. • The implementation of energy programmes have to be measured over socio- economic indicators such as: quality of life, education, health, information, agriculture, transport, promotion of small enterprises. (Asociación Argentina de Energía Eólica )
    • Centralised generation Large power plants in central location Huge transmission and distribution grids Large number of consumers Graphic representation of centralized electrical system Paradigm of centralised electrical systems Centralized Vs Off-main-grid electrification At the beginning of the electrification era • System were decentralized End of the first era of electrification • System moved to centralised electrical system
    • Developed versus Developing countries • In Developed Countries area has been electrified by the ‘70. • In Developing countries the issue has not be solved yet (2013) Little or no autonomy of monopoly enterprises vs government Weak financial capacity Aid (if any) is used for maintenance rather then capital investment Huge transmission and distribution grids The focus is more on urban then rural area (Low interest for utilities) Liberalised Marked and Competition • Around the ‘80s two mains drivers started the end of the centralised era • Increase efficiency • Attract private capitals (to reduce public burden) Centralised generation Centralized Vs Off-main-grid electrification
    • Five dimensions are promoting the spreading of decentralised and distributed generation based on Renewable energies 1. Technological improvement (technical dimensions) • increased performance of the small power technologies • development of electronic metering and control equipment • increased consumer demands for highly reliable power supply 2. Environmental concerns (environmental dimension) • growing concern as for the greenhouse gases emissions • public awareness of the impacts of the electric industry • opposition to building new transmission lines 3. Economic opportunities (economic dimensions) • to avoid transmission and distribution related costs • To tackle the current risky nature of large scale plant investments • to reduce power plants costs with combined heat and power generation • to better exploit profit margins within the competitive market Beyond Centralised generation Centralized Vs Off-main-grid electrification
    • Five dimensions are promoting the spreading of decentralised and distributed generation based on Renewable energies 4. Political asset (political dimensions) • to decrease dependence from fossil fuels • to increase primary source diversification (energy mix) • to reduce vulnerability of the supply chain in centralized systems 5. Social issues (social dimension) • increasing public desire to promote “green technologies” • growing interest towards energy autonomy communities and sustainability Two other issues essential for Developing Countries • Accessibility (socio-economic and technical dimension) • Poverty reduction (socio economic and political dimension) Beyond Centralised generation Centralized Vs Off-main-grid electrification
    • Classification of electrification systems • Large power plants in central location • Huge transmission and distribution grids • Size effect • Large number of consumers Centralised systems Off Main Grid Systems Centralized Vs Off-main-grid electrification
    • • DECENTRALISED SYSTEMS • Built by autonomous units (one single source) • Locally based and Need oriented • Restricted number of consumers • DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS • Based on a number of decentralised systems • Interacting trough a transmission distribution grid • Virtual power plant Off Main Grid Systems Centralized Vs Off-main-grid electrification
    • Decentralised and Distributed generation • Decentralised (single unit single source) can be: • Consumer/need oriented • Home based system => for household • Community based systems => for community needs • MSEs or SMEs based systems => for micro/small/medium enterprises • Multipurpose • Micro Grid • Distributed can be: • Hybrid system (renewable + diesel) • Size is limited < 5 MWel • No connection to the main grid (“off-main-grid” microgrid) bottom up & top down approach can be mixed A network of smart minigrid that can be connected…. 1 source, 1 component, 1 customer 1 source, multi component, multi customer multi source, multi component, multi customer Electrification via “off-main-grid systems”
    • Off-main-grid Systems for rural areas Off-main-grid systems Centralized Vs Off-main-grid electrification
    • Off-main-grid Systems for rural areas Generation technologies can be identified as follows Off-main-grid systems generation technologies
    • Off-main-grid Systems: conventional Conventional systems are mainly diesel-powered generators (gen-sets). Widely used to improve the access to electricity and for emergency. Advantages - dispatchable on demand - simple technology - require reduced civil work and time for installation - meet low rural power demand - have a low capital cost per kW Disadvantages - high maintenance and fuel costs (including transportation), - high noise generation, - low efficiency when operating far from nominal conditions (they operates at 20- 30% of the nominal conditions - environmental implications Off-main-grid systems generation technologies
    • Off-main-grid Systems: non-conventional Non-conventional energy systems are Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs) : photovoltaic (PV), wind, pico and micro-hydro (PH, MH) systems. These technologies are selected based on existing practices, policies, and technological maturity Advantages - Energy security - lower energy prices in the long term: - efficiency are increasing prices are decreasing - flexibility and modularity, - low maintenance, and reduced environmental impact Disadvantages - aleatory nature of the sources, especially solar and wind, - storage is a mandatory component - increasing cost, complexity and maintenance) - high dependence on weather conditions (solar, wind), seasonal (hydro, wind technologies) and daily cycles (solar) attention to the peak load demand and to the temporal load distribution is required Off-main-grid systems generation technologies
    • Off-main-grid Systems: non-conventional Non-conventional energy systems biomass-based technologies are not included even if biomass is considered one of the most important renewable sources in the near future. Two are the reasons: - the minimum plant size for electricity production - The minimum scale for electricity production from biomass is estimated to be 10-100 kW, fitting the Microgrid scale but not the home-based and community-based typical scale - The steam cycle technology is available for loads higher than 5 MW, suitable for grid- connected generation plants - the complexity of the supply chain. - Biomass is largely used on small-scale energy systems for thermal applications, while for power generation a large-scale combustion/gasification plant is necessary - The extremely complex and multidisciplinary biomass supply chain requires specific deep analyses that are not tackled in this chapter. - Good management of the whole supply chain is required Off-main-grid systems generation technologies
    • Off-main-grid Systems: hybrid Hybrid systems are often built up with diesel generator technology coupled with RET-based system. Advantages • high reliability and continuity of supply • reduction of the storage system size • batteries lifetime and operation costs benefit Disadvantages • higher investment and maintenance costs than pure RET use. • hybrid solution increases the complexity of the system • the management and maintenance of different technologies is required Off-main-grid systems generation technologies