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4.1 towards social equity and cohesion vezzoli

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  • 1. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy course System Design for Sustainability subject 4. Design for social equity and cohesion learning resource 4.1 Towards social equity and cohesion carlo vezzoli politecnico di milano . DESIGN dept. . DIS . School of Design . Italy Learning Network on Sustainability (EU asia-link) Learning Network on Sustainabile energy systems (EU edulink)
  • 2. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy CONTENTS . the socio-ethical dimension of sustainability . PSS: sustainable opportunities even for low and middle-income contexts . distributed economies: a promising model for social equity and cohesion . distributed economies a promising PSS characteristic for sustainable innovation for all
  • 3. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy [UN SUMMIT, RIO, JOHANNESBURG, RIO+20 (1992-2012)] EQUITY PRINCIPLE “every person, in a fair distribution of resources, has a right to the same environmental space, i.e. to the same availability of global natural resources” THE SOCIO-ETHICAL SUSTAIANBILITY [EU, SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY, 2006/2009] SOCIAL EQUITY AND COHESION “promotion of a democratic, socially inclusive, cohesive, healthy, safe and just society with respect for fundamental rights and cultural diversity that creates equal opportunities and combats discrimination in all its forms”
  • 4. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy . eradicating of poverty . promotion of principles and rules of democracy . promotion of human rights and freedom . achievement of peace and security . access to information, training, employment . respect for cultural diversity, regional identity THE SOCIO-ETHICAL SUSTAIANBILITY: ACTIONS
  • 5. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy 1996: Rome, FAO summit: 185 countries agreed and committed to cut by half the number of undernourished people 2000: UN Millenium summit > “Millenium decleration” signed by 191 member states: 1. Eradicate poverty and by for 2015: . reduce by half, form 1990 to 2015, the percentage of undernourished persons . grant a full and productive employment and a dignitous job for all, including women and yungseter … ERADICATING POVERTY international commitments
  • 6. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy 2001: the world bank; United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) . 1,1 billion people live on less than 1 US dollar a day . 2,7 billion people (half the world) live on less than 2 US dollar a day . 1 billion children (1 in 2 children in the world) live in poverty . 11 million children die every year before fifth birthday . 18 million people a year (1/3 of deaths) are due to poverty . 400 million have no access to safe water . 800 million people are undernourished . 80% of world population uses 20% of consumed natural resources ERADICATING POVERTY international commitments
  • 7. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy 11.2012: FAO UNDERNURISHEMENT IN THE WORLD ERADICATING POVERTY international commitments Total= 868 milionTotal= 1 000 milion
  • 8. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy 11.2012: FAO UNDERNURISHEMENT IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD ERADICATING POVERTY international commitments
  • 9. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy 11.2012: FAO UNDERNURISHEMENT IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD ERADICATING POVERTY international commitments
  • 10. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy IT IS NOT JUST A MATTER OF SO CALLED “DEVELOPING COUNTRIES” . in a global market companies in industrialised countries are interacting with stakeholders of their supply chain, being in low-income and emerging countries . even industrialised countries are facing poverty and problem with social cohesion THIS IS WHY IT IS BETTER TO SPEAK ABOUT LOW-INCOME, MIDDLE-INCOME, INDUSTRIALISED CONTEXTS SOCIAL EQUITY AND COHESION: A CONCERN FOR ALL
  • 11. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEMS (PSS): SUSTAINABLE OPPORTUNITIES EVEN FOR LOW AND MIDDLE-INCOME CONTEXTS
  • 12. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy … in terms of (social-ethical) sustainability a question has been (UNEP, 2000-2002): IS A PSS APPROACH APPLICABLE TO LOW AND MIDDLE-INCOME CONTEXTS TOO? IF SO, COULD IT ALSO FACILITATE (TOGHETHER WITH ECO-EFFICENCY) SOCIO-ETHICAL ENHANCEMENT IN THESE CONTEXTS? IF SO, WITH WHAT CHARACTERISTICS?
  • 13. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy PSS IN LOW AND MIDDLE-INCOME CONTEXTS: CASES
  • 14. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy VIRTUAL STATION (OFFICES) Fortaleza, Brasil supply a full range of products, infrastructure (owned by virtual station) and services for a complete office. clients only pay for the periods of use; spaces are equipped with computers, printers, scanners, access to internet, TV, copiers etc; reception, personalised phone answer, answering and remittance of fax reception/transmiss. it is environmentally sustainable because infrastructure/equipment are shared (less needed) and most efficient are used + it is socio- economically sustainable because of no need for initial investiment facilitate the set-up of small company.
  • 15. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy WHY PSSs ARE OPPORTUNITIES FOR SUSTAINABILITY IN LOW AND MIDDLE-INCOME CONTEXTS? being more eco-efficient on a system level > are “cheaper” to implement, can respond to unsatisfied demands more easily in a low income context focusing on a specific context of use > lead to local rather than global stakeholder (competent) involvement (empowerment) being more labour/relation intensive > lead to a rise in (local) employment and the diffusion of skills focusing on access rather than ownership > reduce/avoid the higher costs of initial investment, can be accessed more easily from all
  • 16. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy “a product-service system innovation (approach) may act as a business opportunity to facilitate the process of a social-economical development in low and middle-income contexts - by jumping over the stage characterised by individual consumption/ownership of mass produced goods - towards a “satisfaction-based” and “low resource-intensity” advanced service-economy.” UNEP, 2002: PSS AN OPPORTUNITY EVEN FOR LOW AND MIDDLE-INCOME CONTEXTS (FOR ALL) free pdf at: http://www.unep.fr/scp/publications/details.asp?id=WEB/0081/PA
  • 17. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy [assuming they PSS are promising in all contexts] WITH WHAT CHARACTERISTICS A PSS APPROACH COULD FACILITATE -TOGHETHER WITH ECO- EFFICENCY - SOCIO-ETHICAL ENHANCEMENT IN LOW AND MIDDLE-INCOME CONTEXTS?
  • 18. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy DISTRIBUTED ECONOMIES (DE): “selective share of production distributed to regions where activities are organized in the form of small scale, flexible units that are synergistically connected with each other” [JOHANSSON et al., IIIEE, SWEEDEN, 2005] are there promising offer models for social equity and cohesion?
  • 19. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy DISTRIBUTED ECONOMIES: TYPES . to produce energy (i.e. distributed energy generation) . to produce informations (e.g. wikipedia) . to produce software products (e.g. Linux) . to produce (hardware) products (e.g. 3-D Printing) … . to design (e.g. open innovation/design and crowd- sourcing)
  • 20. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy ENTERPRISES/INITIATIVES IN DISTRIBUTED ECONOMIES: CHARACTERISTICS LOCALLY-BASED: start from sustainable local resources and needs, but could become open non- local or global systems + NETWORK-STRUCTURED: gain critical mass and potential by their connections in network SOCIOETHICAL POTENTIAL: direct access to resources > increased participation and power to individuals and local communities > democratisation of access to resources> poverty and inequality reduction
  • 21. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy WORKING HYPOTHESIS: DISTRIBUTED ECONOMIES A PROMISING PSS CHARACTERISTIC IN LOW AND MIDDLE-INCOME CONTEXTS (FOR ALL): LeNS book “PSS design for Sustainability”, Greenleaf, 2014 “a PSS approach may act as a business opportunity to facilitate the process of a social equity and economic development in low and middle-income contexts - by jumping over the stage characterised by individual consumption/ownership of mass produced goods - towards a more advanced service-economy with a low resource- intensity being “satisfaction-based”, characterized by the development of locally-based and network-structured enterprises and initiatives, for a sustainable re-globalisation process characterised by a democratisation of access to resources, goods and services”.