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3.2 System Design For Eco Efficiency

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    • 1. carlo vezzoli politecnico di milano . INDACO dpt. . DIS . faculty of design . Italy Learning Network on Sustainability course System Design for Sustainability subject 3. System design for eco-efficency learning resource 3.2 System design for eco-efficiency
    • 2. CONTENTS System design for eco-efficiency: approach “ satisfaction-system” approach “ stakeholders’ interactions” approach “ eco-efficiency-oriented” system approach System design for eco-efficiency criteria System life optimisation Transportation-distribution reduction Resources reduction Waste minimisation-valorisation Conservation-biocompatibility Toxic reduction
    • 3. new research frontier … low impact mat./energies design for social equity and cohesion system design for eco-efficiency Product Life Cycle Design ecodesign SYSTEM DESIGN FOR ECO-EFFICIENCY : STATE OF ART (in industrially mature countries) CONSOLIDATION (research achievements) (education and practice) DISSEMINATION 100% 100% 0 widening the “object” to be designed … aim at
    • 4.
      • SYSTEM INNOVATION MAIN CHARACTERISTIC:
      • ROOTED IN A SATISFACTION-BASED ECONOMIC MODEL
      • each offer is developed/designed and delivered in relation to a particular customer “satisfaction”
      • STAKEHOLDER INTERACTIONS-BASED INNOVATION
      • radical innovations, not so much as technological ones, as new interactions/partnerships between the stakeholders of a particular satisfaction production chain (life cycle/s)
      • INTRINSIC ECO-EFFICIENCY POTENTIAL
      • innovations that could lead up to new economic interest convergences between the stakeholders, characterized by an intrinsic eco-efficiency
    • 5.
      • 1. “SATISFACTION-SYSTEM” APPROACH
      • DEMAND-SATISFACTION DESIGN
      • 2. “STAKEHOLDER INTERACTIONS” APPROACH
      • STAKEHOLDER CONFIGURATION DESIGN
      • 3. “SUSTAINABILITY-ORIENTED” SYSTEM APPROACH
      SYSTEM DESIGN FOR ECO-EFFICIENCY: APPROACH
    • 6.
      • 1. “SATISFACTION-SYSTEM” APPROACH
      • DEMAND-SATISFACTION DESIGN
      • THERE IS NOT ONE SINGLE PRODUCT TO BE DESIGNED ( ASSESSED ), BUT RATHER ALL THE PRODUCTS AND SERVICES ( AND ALL THE RELATED PROCESSES) ASSOCIATED WITH THE FULFILMENT OF A PARTICULAR (CUSTOMER) DEMAND OF SATISFACTION
      • ... A SATISFACTION UNIT COULD BE DEFINED
    • 7.
      • SATISFACTION UNIT:
      • (a car):
      • functional unit : trasportation of one persosn (per one km)
      • (possible with a car)
      • satisfaction unit 1 : one person having access to his/her working space (per one year)
      • satisfaction unit 2 : one person having access to public services delivering personal documents (per one year)
      • . ...
      • a satisfaction unit require an approach at the same time:
      • . wider (more products, services, stakeholders to be considered)
      • . more narrow (looking at one specific final customer satisfaction)
    • 8.
      • SATISFACTION APPROACH IN DESIGN
      • IS TO THINK MORE ON BEING (SATISFIED), RATHER ON HAVING (PRODUCTS TO BE SATISFIED) [Ehrnelfeld, Sustainability by design, MIT, 2008]
    • 9. SATISFACTION OFFERING DIAGRAMM
    • 10.
      • … a parallel with product design: it defines the technical performance and aesthetic characteristics of its “components” – materials/shape - and its “connections” – joining elements - to respond to a set of “requirements”
      • systems design for eco-efficiency should imagine and promote innovative types of
      • “ connections” – interactions/partnerships –
      • between appropriate “components” – socio-economic stakeholders –
      • of a system, responding to a particular “requirement” - social demand for satisfaction -
      2. “STAKEHOLDER INTERACTIONS” APPROACH STAKEHOLDER CONFIGURATION DESIGN
    • 11. SYSTEM MAP
    • 12. > CRITERIA AND GUIDELINES ARE NEEDED > METHODS AND TOOLS ARE NEEDED to orientate design towards system eco-efficent stakeholder interactions 3. NOT ALL SYSTEM INNOVATION ARE ECO-EFFICENT!
    • 13. SDO SUSTAINABILITY DESIGN-ORIANTING TOOLKIT
    • 14.
      • DEFINITION:
      • “ the design for eco-efficiency of the system of products and services that are together able to fulfil a particular demand of (customer) “satisfaction”, as well as the design of the interaction of the stakeholders directly and indirectly linked to that “satisfaction” system ”
      • (VEZZOLI, Maggioli, Milan, 2007)
      SYSTEM DESIGN FOR ECO-EFFICIENCY
    • 15.
      • - design an integrated system of products and services fulfilling a particular demand for “satisfaction”
      • - promote/facilitate new socio-economic stakeholder interactions (configurations)
      • - promote/facilitate participated design between different stakeholders
      • - ORIENTATE THE ABOVE PROCESSES TOWARDS ECO-EFFICENT SOLUTIONS
      … introducing system inn. in design for eco-efficiency ... REQUIRES NEW (STRATEGIC) DESIGN SKILLS :
    • 16. some are the methods/tools for system design and its orientation towards eco-efficient solutions METHODS/TOOLS
    • 17. some methods/tools developed to orientat e system design towards sustainable solutions: [EU RESEARCHES: MEPSS, HICS, PROSECCO, …] METHODS/TOOLS MEPSS, EU RESEARCH, 2005 van Halen, Vezzoli & Wimmer, Methodology for product service system innovation, Van Gorcum, Assen, The Netherlands, 2005 HiCS, EU RESEARCH, 2005 Manzini, Collina & Evans, Highly Customerised Solutions, Cranfield University, 2006
    • 18. STRATEGIC ANALYSIS Gaining the information needed to facilitate the generation of ideas oriented towards sustainability EXPLORING OPPORTUNITIES SYSTEM CONCEPT DESIGN SYSTEM DESIGN (AND ENGIN.) COMMUNICATION MSDS PHASES OBJECTIVES Producing a “catalogue” of promising strategic possibilities, i.e. a sustainability design-orienting sceanario Defining one or more system concept oriented towards sustainability Developing the most promising system concept in a detailed version necessariy to its implementation Producing the documents for the external communication of the solution’s characteristics (general characteristics but above all the sustainability ones) ANALYSIS OF THE PROJECT PROMOTERS ANALYSIS OF THE REFERENCE CONTEXT ANALYSIS OF BEST PRACTICES ANALYSIS OF THE REFERENCE STRUCTURE DEFINITION OF SUSTAINABILITY DESIGN PRIORITIES IDEAS GENERATION ORIENTED TO SUSTAINABILITY DEVELEPMENT OF THE SUSTAINABILITY DESIGN ORIENTING SCENARIO - VISIONS/CLUSTERS/IDEAS VISIONS, CLUSTERS AND IDEAS SELECTION SYSTEM CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT ENV., SOC. & ECON. CHECK SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT (EXECUTIVE LEVEL) ENV., SOC. & ECON. CHECK DOCUMENTS EDITING
    • 19. MODULAR METHOD : 1. enabling to START up the process at any stage 2. enabling to use a SELECTED set of processes and tools STRATEGIC ANALYSIS EXPLORING OPPORTUNITIES SYSTEM CONCEPT DESIGN SYSTEM DESIGN (AND ENGIN.) COMMUNICATION ANALYSIS OF THE PROJECT PROMOTERS ANALYSIS OF THE REFERENCE CONTEXT ANALYSIS OF BEST PRACTICES ANALYSIS OF THE REFERENCE STRUCTURE DEFINITION OF SUSTAINABILITY DESIGN PRIORITIES IDEAS GENERATION ORIENTED TO SUSTAINABILITY DEVELEPMENT OF THE SUSTAINABILITY DESIGN ORIENTING SCENARIO - VISIONS/CLUSTERS/IDEAS VISIONS, CLUSTERS AND IDEAS SELECTION SYSTEM CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT ENV., SOC. & ECON. CHECK SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT (EXECUTIVE LEVEL) ENV., SOC. & ECON. CHECK DOCUMENTS EDITING MSDS PHASES
    • 20. SYSTEM DESIGN FOR ECO-EFFICIENCY CRITERIA System life optimisation Transportation-distribution reduction Resources reduction Waste minimisation-valorisation Conservation-biocompatibility Toxic reduction
    • 21. SYSTEM LIFE OPTIMISATION DESIGN FOR, SYSTEM STAKEHOLDERS’ INTERACTIONS LEADING TO, EXTEND ING THE SUM OF THE PRODUCTS’ LIFE SPAN AND INTENS IFYING THE SUM OF THE PRODUCTS’ USE
    • 22. given function in time USE AVOIDED IMPACTS LIGHTER IMPACTS short product’s (system sum) life extended product’s (system sum) life PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION USE PRE-PRODUCTION NEW TECHNOLOGIES AND TECHNIQUES WITH LOWER USE CONSUMPTION USE DISP. P-PR. PROD . DISTR . UPDATING OF THE COMPONENTS CAUSING CONSUMPTION PRE-PRODUCTION PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION USE DISPOSAL PRE-PRODUCTION PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION USE
    • 23. LIFE INDIPENDENT FROM LENGHT OF USE AVOIDED IMPACTS product’s (system sum) not intense life product’s (system sum) intense life P-PROD . PROD . DISTR . DISP . use (function) during time P-PROD . PROD . DISTR . DISP . P-PROD . PROD . DISTR . DISP. P-PROD . PROD . DISTR . DISP . B 1 B 2 B 3 A 1 A 2 A 3 C 1 C 2 C 3 A 1 A 2 A 3 B 1 B 2 B 3 C 1 C 2 C 3
    • 24. PP P Dt PP P Dt PP P Dt PP P Dt Ds use (function) during of time NEW TECHNOLOGIES AND TECHNIQUES WITH LOWER USE CONSUMPTION NEW PRE AND POST CONSUMPTION TECHNOLOGIES WITH LOWER IMPACT LIFE FUNCTION OF LENGHT OF USE product’s (system sum) not intense life product’s (system sum) intense life LIGHTER IMPACTS LIGHTER IMPACTS Ds Ds Ds PP P Dt Ds PP P Dt Ds
    • 25. TRANSPORTATION/DISTRIBUTION REDUCTION DESIGN FOR, SYSTEM STAKEHOLDERS’ INTERACTIONS LEADING TO, REDUCING THE SUM OF THE TRANSPORTATIONS AND PACKAGINGS
    • 26. RESOURCES REDUCTION DESIGN FOR, SYSTEM STAKEHOLDERS ’ INTERACTIONS LEADING TO, REDUCING THE SUM OF THE RESOURCES USED BY ALL PRODUCTS AND SERVICES OF THE SYSTEM
    • 27.
      • RESOURCES CONSERVATION for future generations
      • (ENVIRONMENTAL) IMPACT AVOIDANCE
      • pre-production, production, distribution and disposal of the not used resource quantitative
      RESOURCES MINIMISATION quantitative impact reduction (whole of the PPSS) DESIGN FOR:
    • 28. WASTE MINIMISATION/VALORISATION DESIGN FOR, SYSTEM STAKEHOLDERS’ INTERACTIONS LEADING TO, IMPROVING THE SUM OF THE SYSTEM RECYCLING, ENERGY RECOVERY AND COMPOSTING AND REDUCING THE SUM OF THE WASTE PRODUCED
    • 29. material (system sum ) non-extended life material (system sum ) extended life AVOIDED IMPACTS ADDITIONAL IMPACTS PRE-PRODUCTION PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION USE LANDFILL PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION USE PRE-PRODUCTION PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION USE RECYCLING COMBUSTION COMPOSTING PRE-PRODUCTION
    • 30. CONSERVATION/BIOCOMPATIBILITY DESIGN FOR, SYSTEM STAKEHOLDERS’ INTERACTIONS LEADING TO, IMPROVING THE SUM OF THE SYSTEM’S RESOURCES CONSERVATION/RENEWABILITY
    • 31. TOXIC REDUCTION DESIGN FOR, SYSTEM STAKEHOLDERS’ INTERACTIONS LEADING TO, REDUCING/AVOIDING THE SUM OF THE SYSTEM’S RESOURCES TOXICITY AND HARMFULNESS
    • 32.
      • FOR DECISION MAKING (DESIGNING)
      • identify the (environmental) design PRIORITIES:
      • > CRITERIA relevance (relative) per system type
      • > most promising stakeholders’ INTERACTIONS types (criteria related GUIDELINES)
      INTERRELATIONS BETWEEN ENVIRONMENTAL CRITERIA (AND RELATED GUIDELINES) FOR A GIVEN SATISFACTION SYSTEM: - some have HIGHER RELEVANCE than others - can be SYNERGETIC or CONFLICTING