26 03 cooperation and development_emanuela colombo

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26 03 cooperation and development_emanuela colombo

  1. 1. Cooperation and Development:evolution and key elementsProf. Emanuela Colombo,Rector’s Delegate for Cooperation and DevelopmentUnesco Chair in Eneegy for Sustainable DevelopmentDepartment of Energy - Politecnico di MilanoIngegneria Senza Frontiere – Milano
  2. 2. Summary• Cooperation and Development in a glance• Strengths and weaknesses of the economic factor• The evolution of the concept of development• International guidelines for a new cooperation Thanks to Prof. Gianni Vaggi, development economist Pro Rector for the International Relationship,Università di Pavia Thanks to Prof Felice Rizzi, humanist Unesco Chair for Human Rights, Università di Brescia Emanuela Colombo - POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  3. 3. What is attracting your attention?What do we like?What we do not like?What does it tell? Emanuela Colombo - POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  4. 4. Cooperation and Development in glance• Co-operation• Relationship with the “other” 1950-1960 • The other does not exist • The other exists but is not important • The other has the right to self-determination • "I know how to help you" (welfare) 1970  “Can I help you?”  “Let’s Cooperate!” 1980  “How could we cooperate?”  “We are on the same boat” • “I walk with you” (inculturation) • “Could I walk with you?” Emanuela Colombo - POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  5. 5. Cooperation and Development in glance• Co-operation Fish To Teach Fishing? Is fishing an asset? Emanuela Colombo - POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  6. 6. Cooperation and Development in glance From 1500 to 1900 The conquest of America (1500-1600) and colonizations From the two world wars to the end of colonialism 1945 To promote the growth of less developed areas: • essential for GLOBAL development (peace and prosperity) • specific responsibility for the international community (and political tool)• 1948, «piano Marshall» to support Europe for: • Reconstraction, Increase currency reserves in Europe, • An instrument of American Policy• 1960 Declaration of independence to colonial countries and peoples (UN) • The sunset of colonialism does NOT lead to coincided with autonomy and development of the colonized countries Emanuela Colombo - POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  7. 7. Cooperation and Development in glanceThe following years…. Cooperation is not only constituted by actions aimed at increasing economic opportunities but is a complex process that aims to initiate a change in policy and economy which would be systematic and structural Cooperation Economic New changes Development models Evolves the cultural thought, born a collective consciousness, the cooperation for development become a discipline of study with a multidisciplinary perspective Emanuela Colombo - POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  8. 8. Summary• Cooperation and Development in a glance• Strengths and weaknesses of the economic factor• The evolution of the concept of development• International guidelines for a new cooperation Emanuela Colombo - POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  9. 9. Strengths and weaknesses of the economic factorWeakness…..Do not overestimate the economic growthWho grows and accordingly to which indicator?First paradox: the inequalitiesThe purpose of the economy is the growth of globalwealth, which, however, leads to an increase in inequality:Second paradox: the resourcesPoverty is not a consequence of lack of resourcesbut their maldistribution Third paradox: Happiness Happiness and income are significantly correlated. There is a threshold limit of income Emanuela Colombo - POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  10. 10. Strengths and weaknesses of the economic factorStrengths…..Do not underestimate the strength of economic change in many cases cananswer to the problem of unemployment,What is the state of the world today?Can we still speak of rich and poor countries?Who grows and for which indicator? Prodotto Nazionale Lordo* Soglia di Indice di Popolazione pro capite annuo reddito Sviluppo Popolazione Tasso annuale Tasso annuale pro capite Umano 2009 2009 Urbana (previsioni al 2035) (previsioni al 2035) milioni di $/anno $/anno % %min %max %min %max abitanti pro capitePaesi a Basso Reddito < 995 0.32 846 28.7 0.6 2.2 509 2.7 5.5Paesi a Medio Reddito 0.56 4813 48 0.1 1.3 3397 3 9.5Paesi a Alto Reddito >12196 0.81 1117 78 -0.2 0.9 37990 1.0 2.7 Mondo 6775 50.3 8732 *World Bank Atlas method Emanuela Colombo - POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  11. 11. Strengths and weaknesses of the economic factorEconomy yes, but not only…..Today’s scenary is more complex than 30 years ago- New players in the markets and new political and economic dynamics- Huge internal disparity in many countires- The socio-economic crisis hits the industrialized countries- Internal Outbreakes for the socio-political problems (MENA countries)- humanitarian crisis for structural deficiencies (horn of Africa) Emanuela Colombo - POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  12. 12. Summary Cooperation and Development in a glance• Strengths and weaknesses of the economic factor• The evolution of the concept of development• International guidelines for a new cooperation Emanuela Colombo - POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  13. 13. The evolution of the concept of development• Why development? From War to Cooperation • In 1948, at the base of cooperation there is peace, which can only exist if there is democracy and guaranteed the human rights. Human Rights • First generation rights (individual): civil and political • Second-generation rights (individual): social, economic and cultural • Third generation rights (individual and society): development • In 1948 we see the declaration of human rights: - Universal: everyones business - Positive: integrates them in the legal systems offering effective guarantees • .... injustice, oppression and misery of some countries today, are a sign that the statements were in part unexpected: there is no law without development Emanuela Colombo - POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  14. 14. The evolution of the concept of development• During ‘50 and ‘60: growth’s economy • The postwar years were characterized by reconstruction in Europe • Marshall Plan: injection of capitals, economic cooperation has generated growth and wellness: the model seems to work! Causes of Underdevelopment • low capital accumulation and inefficient deployment of resources: a vicious circle emerges between savings and growth • need the assistance from developed countries to inject capital. • based on the economics of growth: objective is a growth rate of GNP. • Since the mid-50s have the first criticism of the model Emanuela Colombo - POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  15. 15. The evolution of the concept of development• The ‘70: the primary needs • It expands the idea of ​development • Differences in the growth are marked, aggregate data are variable • South-East Asia grow significantly • Africa grow modestly • A positive performance in terms of GNP may be accompanied by unemployment, persistent poverty • The theory of basic needs reverses the order of priorities • Achievement of a minimum standard of living for the poorest • Moving capitals to social services and basic goods. • Unfavorable reception in the developing countries • World Bank redefines the concept of poverty Emanuela Colombo - POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  16. 16. The evolution of the concept of development• The ‘80: the market as a model • Further turning point of the idea of development • The market set prices and procedures for the allocation of resources • Protectionist policies are damaging to the development • Emerge the structural adjustment programs of the World Bank: • Condition the granting of loans, both public and private • Internal Imbalances (high inflation) and external dependence (high deficits in the balance of payments), • liberalization and privatization process • Strenghts: the importance of the control of monetary variables, external imbalances, private company role, integration in an international context • Weakness: it produced purely economic vision of human and social reality • Development cooperation has not yet an own and specific identification Emanuela Colombo - POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  17. 17. The evolution of the concept of development• The ‘90: Human and sustainable development • In 1987 the ONU report «Our common future», (Bruntland report) present the idea of sustainable development. It emerge the environmental aspect but even bigger is the attention to the temporal dimension: equal rights for different generation, and also the passing of the baton between generations. • In 1990 UNDP publish the first Report on Human Development and present the HDI Human Development Index that includes the economic dimension, the level of education and the health as fundamental elements for human development. • In 2000 the UN, with the World Bank, IMF International Monetary Found and OECD launch the objectives of the millennium, Millenium Development Goals- MDGs, ranging from poverty to education, to health, to environment, gender and the definition of development widens further. Goals such as improvements to be achieved in 2015. Emanuela Colombo - POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  18. 18. The evolution of the concept of development• The ‘90: human and sustainable development • We talk about Sustainable Human Development as a process of gradual broadening of the choice of persons (UNDP). Human development, it become necessary to : • improve human capacities in the cultural and professional, taking into account first and foremost health (development of the people) • stimulate economic growth and equitable distribution of wealth (development for the people) • guarantee each individual the opportunity to participate in the development (development by the people) Sustainable development must integrate three dimensions (space and time): • economic system • environmental system • Social system (socio-political) Emanuela Colombo - POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  19. 19. The evolution of the concept of development• TODAY: development as freedom What more is there in the idea of development today? Amartya Sen, asserts that poverty is mainly exclusion; • from basic needs: food, health, housing, and more. • inability to develop own skills, to grow as individuals, to take future in own hands … therefore development is freedom and needs • be authentic (some call it integral, holistic ) • Be focus on all dimension of the dignity of the human person • address “all” mankind (space and time), • Promote empowerment (liberation exclusion) • Foster ownership (participation, make your own, freedom not to depend on aid ...!) =>> Development as freedom: developing countries take control of their destiny ... Are the players of cooperation ready: Governmental (bilateral and multilateral), Non governmental, decentralised cooperation but also universities , private sectors…) Emanuela Colombo - POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  20. 20. Summary Cooperation and Development in a glance• Strengths and weaknesses of the economic factor• The evolution of the concept of development• International guidelines for a new cooperation Emanuela Colombo - POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  21. 21. The new Cooperation for DevelopmentIn cooperation and development: its time to to work WITH.• Only in this way, cooperation will be: • instrument of emancipation OF people. • instrument of dialogue BETWEEN people and nations• Thus having an impact on Cooperation projects • They must promote a new MODEL of partnership • the ownership and local involvement • Empowerment of the individual and institutional capacities; • Confidence between actors • They must promote the growth FOR the people • Respect of the other (person or organization) and his point of view; • Overcome prejudices dictated by "ignorance.“ Emanuela Colombo - POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  22. 22. ... and so?• The cooperation has a final GOAL human development Cooperation • Space (here and elsewhere) • Time (now and in the future) • Human promotion Economic New • Sustainable for the society changes Development models as freedom • ontological affirmation of the dignity of all human beings• Cooperation can benefit from a number of TOOLS • The market, economic growth • primary education, secondary, professional .... • fundamental rights (freedom, life ....) and instrumental (access to resources!) • Projects (and NOT vice versa) • But also ....................................?????????????? Emanuela Colombo - POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  23. 23. ... and so?• The Scientific Research helps to evolve the Cooperation cooperation (north-south) to a condition of mutual learning: It becomes an instrument for the development Economic New changes Development• Technology , Innovation and «technology models transfer» Should now be at the service of development Today these dimensions must be reinterpreted in the light of human, social and individual responsibility, and integrated with an ethical evaluation of choices and solutions . The “transfer” becomes a collective construction and innovation a leverage to overcome also other frontiers than Technological state of the art Emanuela Colombo - POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  24. 24. Contesto 2410 golden rulesDo not think that you are the first nor the only one,Do not believe that everyone is waiting for youDo not believe that the problems are simpleDo not think that you can do it in a hurryDo not think that you can avoid making …. mistakesDo not believe that the goodwill is enoughDo not believe that the technology alone is enoughDo not believe that there is only ONE supreme goodDo not believe that there is only one South of the WorldNever assume that local partners are all saint or corruptedSearch ... your way to the truth,be analytical and systematic, honest and consistent, open and solid Emanuela Colombo - POLIMI – UNESCO Chair

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