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26 03 access to energy_emanuela colombo

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  • 1. Access to energy, human promotionand sustainable developmentProf. Emanuela Colombo,Rector’s Delegate to “Cooperation and Development” - Politecnico di MilanoUNESCO Chair in Energy for Sustainable DevelopmentDepartment of EnergyEngineering Without Border
  • 2. 2 Is Energy somehow Linked to Development ?Emanuela Colombo - POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  • 3. Energy and Development 3 World Bank, IEA, UNDP 2009Energy and Socio-Economic Development Energy is linked to Development and vice-versaQuantitative interdependency between Energy and Development Emanuela Colombo - POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  • 4. 4 Energy and DevelopmentEnergy and Social DevelopmentThe Human Development Index The Energy Development index HDI 3 LEI EI GNI index EDI 1 4 Ec 1 4 EEc 1 4 ME% 1 4 EE%• Life expectancy at birth (LEI), • commercial energy consumption (Ec):• Mean years + Expected years of schooling (EI), • electricity in residential sector (EEc):• A decent standard of living, (GNIindex), • modern fuels in residential sector (ME%) • population with access to electricity (EE%). 0,9 Human Development Index 0,8 0,7 0,6 R² = 0,78 0,5 0,4 0,3 0,2 0,1 0,0 0,0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1,0 Energy Development Index IEA, UNDP 2011 Emanuela Colombo - POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  • 5. 5 Energy is Linked to DevelopmentAccess to Energy should be a “right” for ALL .. But it is not...Emanuela Colombo - POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  • 6. 6 Access to EnergyAccess to Energymandatory to overcome “development divide” 80% in LIE 1.3 billions do not have 99% in rural area access to electricity 90% in informal suburbs 1 further billion do not have 5-15% annual outages reliable access to electric energy 15% efficiency 2.7 billions rely on biomass 10% of fuel carbon to HC for cooking and lighting 1-2 millions deaths /y Emanuela Colombo - POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  • 7. 7 Access to Energy has two faces Access to Electric Energy Access to Modern fuelsEmanuela Colombo - POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  • 8. 8 Access to EnergyAccess to electric energyShare of people without it for DCs, 2008 Comparisons Rural vs Urban DCs : 41 % vs 10% SSA : 89% vs 46% Data From UNDP 2010 Emanuela Colombo - POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  • 9. 9 Access to EnergyAccess to modern fuelsShare of people without it for DCs, 2008 Comparisons Rural vs Urban DCs : 81 % vs 30% modern fuels include gas, kerosene, electricity SSA : 95% vs 58% Data From UNDP 2010 Emanuela Colombo - POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  • 10. 10 UNs say that without at least Other 400 millions people With access to electric energy 1 billions people With access to modern fuels No chance to achieve MDG 1 on povertyEmanuela Colombo - POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  • 11. Universal Access to Energy to 2030 11Access to Energy and Investments- Access to electric energy: $ 700 billions 5-600 $ per capita- Access to modern fuel : $ 60 billions 40 $ per capita OECD electric energy 9300 TWh per year If we increased the price $ 760 billions to 2030 0.5 c$/kWh (2.3% of New Policy Scenario investments) We could make $ 49 billions / year $ 40 billions / year Emanuela Colombo - POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  • 12. 12 We as responsible people could (should) afford itEmanuela Colombo - POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  • 13. 13 Universal Access to Energy to 2030Access to EnergyThe Technical dimension is not the only one. Access to energy Social Dimension Equity Health • Accessibility • Accident fatalities • Affordability • Local Pollution • Disparities Which Strategies for Access to Energy ? Emanuela Colombo - POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  • 14. 14 Technologies for access to energy WEO 2011Access to electric energyPossible options according to the IEA forecast : 50-250 kWh per year per capita1. Improve access to the national electric grid: • increase generating capacity via traditional power plants based on fossils • extend the electric transmission and distribution systems • improve the reliability of the service while reaching the LAST mile2. Foster Distributed Generation [DG]: • exploitation of local energy resources → reduce energy dependence • coupling of small-scale fossil-based and renewable-based energy technologies a) Stand alone /single Component: Energy home Systems (EHSs) b) Integrated Systems/multi-vectors: Integrated Renew. Energy Syst. (IRES) c) Integrated System/electricity only: Mini-Grid (MG) Emanuela Colombo - POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  • 15. 15 Technologies for access to energyAccess to electric energyDistributed Generation: Energy Home System [EHS]Depending on [1] the dispersion of the households and [2] the types of load required → longerdistribution lines entail higher connection costs. Stand-alone systems can be a better solution:Power are up to 100-200W  Solar home systems [SHS]  Pico-hydro systems [PHS]  Wind home systems [WHS]• power generation is close to load• no transmission and distribution costs• Total cost of energy tends to be higher, no economies of scale• to keep prices affordable, components capacities are low (100-200W)• Due to small generation capacities Energy Home Systems do not support income generating activities, which enable a village to create productive services and jobs. ARE 2011 Emanuela Colombo - POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  • 16. 16 Technologies for access to energyAccess to electric energyDistributed Generation: Integrated Renewables Energy System (IRES) Systems supplying a variety of energy vectors to a variety of loads harnessing two or more renewable energy sources. Power are up to 100 kW  match local renewable resources with local needs  maximize efficiency and minimize cost  integrate benefits at the user end  Energization Vs Electrification fits in the countrys infrastructure, compatible with the local capacity can be properly maintained, affordable, to be accessible to virtually all, not destructive to the environment suitable to be applied on a small scale,  Due to small generation capacities Energy Home Systems do not support income generating activities, which enable a village to create productive services and jobs. Emanuela Colombo - POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  • 17. 17 Technologies for access to energyAccess to electric energyDistributed Generation: Mini grid (MG)Electricity Mini-Grids provide centralized electricity generation. MG can power households andlocal Small and Medium Enterprises [SMEs] Power is up to few MW :  grid extension is highly costly and not feasible → isolated remote areas  grid extension is unlikely to be accomplished within the medium term• Renewable Energy Systems → [1] high investment [2] “fuel free” [3] not subject to fuel price volatility [4] non-dispatchable [5] relay on batteries [6] to avoid blackouts batteries are required• Diesel generator [1] low capital investment [2] high O&M [3] dispatchable [4] noising and polluting• Hybrid → [1] rely on renewable energy to generate 75-99% of supply [2] almost independent [3] less related to the cost of fossil fuel [4] diesel genset used as a backup [5] battery size can be lower• Hybrid systems often are the least-cost long-term energy solution to power economic development• More complicated and gebnerally more costly than previous solutions ARE 2011 Emanuela Colombo - POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  • 18. 18 Technologies for access to energyAccess to modern fuels WEO 2011Possible options according to the IEA forecast : 1.5-3 kWh per year per capita1. Improve access to the liquefied Petroleum Gas [LPG]2. Foster distribution of Improved Cooked Stoves [ICS]:3. Promote small scale Biogas Systems [BG]: Emanuela Colombo - POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  • 19. 19 Technologies for access to energyAccess to modern fuels: ICSThree Stones - traditional cooking systems• Strong impact on land degradation• Strong impact on local healthCooking Alternatives1. Promoting Improved Cooked Stoves (ICS) using non commercial biomass >>> shorter term2. Shift to Modern Energies (gas, electricity, kerosene or II gen biomass) >>> longer term Emanuela Colombo - POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  • 20. 20 Technologies for access to energy Access to modern fuels: ICS Stoves can be classified on the basis of biomass used as feeding fuelTraditional cook stoves Improved Cook Stoves Modern Energies Stoves Traditional Charcoal Rocket Liquid Gasifiers Gas stoveswood stoves stoves wood stoves stoves Emanuela Colombo - POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  • 21. 21 Technologies for access to energyAccess to modern fuels: ICS Rocket wood stoves Wood gasifier stovesMany commercial solutions G3300 WOOD COOKSTOVE EnvironfitBiolite camp stovewith Thermoelectricmodule Rare commercial solutions Emanuela Colombo - POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  • 22. 22 Technologies for access to energyAccess to modern fuels: BSHousehold Biogas SystemsThe installed low cost biogas plant, floating dome, consists of a digestor of transparent double filmtubular polyethylene.The diameter is 80 cm. The reservoir sack is transparentof 2 m3 volume. For a biogas production of 1m3/day/plant the expected energy output is 6kWh/day/plant, since the resulting gas is a mixture ofmethane (averagely 56%), carbon dioxide and othersDiogestor line Line to kitchen Emanuela Colombo - POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  • 23. 23 Technologies for access to energyAccess to modern fuels: BSCommunity Biogas SystemsAccording to the design of the fixed dome; (Nepalese design is preferred because of itsrobustness, ease of operation, opportunity to accommodate high shares of localmaterials, correct sizing and low cost) the digester sizes of 4 6 8 and 10 m3 are includedto entertain users’ demand for cooking energy and lighting Emanuela Colombo - POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  • 24. Which Strategies are Win Win ? When the goal is … developmentEmanuela Colombo - POLIMI – UNESCO Chair