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    2.1 eco efficient system innovation vezzoli-11-12 (33) 2.1 eco efficient system innovation vezzoli-11-12 (33) Presentation Transcript

    • course System Design for Sustainabilitysubject 2. System design for eco-efficencylearning resource 2.1Eco-efficent system innovationcarlo vezzolipolitecnico di milano . INDACO dpt. . DIS . school of design . ItalyLearning Network on Sustainability Carlo Vezzoli AH-DESIGN, EU PROJECT Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • CONTENTS. Resume: sustainability and system innovation. Traditional sales model: eco-efficiency constraints. Moving towards system eco-efficiency. E-E Product-Service System (PSS): definition. Eco-efficient system innovation typologies . Adding value to the product life cycle . Providing final results to customers . Providing enabling platforms for customers. Not all PSS are eco-efficient + rebound effects. Barriers to PSS diffusion. Eco-efficient system innovation: summing up Carlo Vezzoli AH-DESIGN, EU PROJECT Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • SUSTAINABILITY: SIZE OF CHANGEIN 50 YEARS A WORLD-WIDE EQUITABLE SYSTEMSOF PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION SHOULD USE~90% LESS RESOURCES THAN THEINDUSTRIALISED CONTEXTS ARE DOING TODAY Carlo Vezzoli AH-DESIGN, EU PROJECT Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • SUSTAINABILITY: QUALITY OF CHANGERADICAL CHANGE (DISCONTINUITY)PROMOTE (EVEN) SYSTEM INNOVATIONSbroader than product innovation, not onlytechnological, but even socio-cultural andorganisational innovations Carlo Vezzoli AH-DESIGN, EU PROJECT Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • A KEY CONTEMPORARY QUERRY:WITHIN THE ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMICALCRISIS WHICH ARE THE OPPORTUNITIES?DO WE KNOW ANY OFFER/BUSINESS MODELSCAPABLE OF CREATING (NEW) VALUEDECOUPLING IT FROM THE MATERIALS ANDENERGY CONSUMPTION?> significantly reducing the environmental impactof traditional production/consumption systems? Carlo Vezzoli AH-DESIGN, EU PROJECT Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • ECO-EFFICENT SYSTEM INNOVATIONSinnovations delinking economic interests fromenvironmental impact increasebroader than process and product productinnovations, not only technological, but even socio-cultural and organisational ones Carlo Vezzoli AH-DESIGN, EU PROJECT Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • A PRELIMINARY EXAMPLE OFECO-EFICIENT SYSTEM INNOVATION Carlo Vezzoli AH-DESIGN, EU PROJECT Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • RICOH: PAY PER PAGE GREENphotocopiers/printers >PRINTED PAGES AND COPIESRicoh offers a packagedeal (Pay per Page Green)and installs, maintainsand collects at the end-of-life the printers andphotocopiers (not ownedby the customer); thecustomer pays for thenumber of deliveredpages and copies.the innovative interaction between the company and theclient, make the companies’ economic interest to provide (anddesign) long lasting, reusable and recyclable photocopiers i.e.environmentally friendly. Carlo Vezzoli AH-DESIGN, EU PROJECT Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • ECO-EFFICINET SYSTEM INNOVATION:A DEFINITION“an offer model providing theintegrated mix of products andservices that are together able tofulfil a particular demand of(customer) “satisfaction”, based oninnovative interactions between thestakeholders of the value productionsystem (satisfaction system), wherethe economic and competitive interestof the providers continuously seekafter environmentally beneficial newsolutions”[to be published in 2011, by Greenleafenglish, chinese, thailandese,pdf free of charge and in copy left www.lens.polimi.it] Carlo Vezzoli AH-DESIGN, EU PROJECT Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • SYSTEM ECO-EFFICENCY: moving out of traditional product sales/design system (life cycle) resources wide system (multiple life cycles) optimization: product/function-based resources optimization: demand/satisfaction-baseddiscrete resources optimization: phase/stakeholder-based retailers retailers retailers r r r cus ent cus ent cus ent uce uce uce c li c li cli tom to m to m pr o d pr o d pr o d designer designer designer er er er ife ife ife su -l r su -l r su -l r pp of e pp of e pp of e lie d- a g lie d- ag lie d- ag rs en an rs en an rs en an m m m [e.g. detergent] [e.g. washing machine] [e.g. energy supply] [e.g. satisfaction-syetem= to have cleaned cloths] Carlo Vezzoli AH-DESIGN, EU PROJECT Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • TRADITIONAL PRODUCT SALES MODEL:ECO-EFFICENCY CONSTRAINTSlow interact. between product-system’s stakeholderslow interact. between satisfaction-system’s stakeholders- phase’s transformation (processes): interest in reducing resources consumption- phase’s transaction (semi-finished/products): indifference in reducing resources consumption or interest in increasing resources consumption- cycles’ combinations (products/services): indifference in reducing resources consumption or interest in increasing resources consumption Carlo Vezzoli AH-DESIGN, EU PROJECT Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • TOWARD THE SYSTEM ECO-EFFICIENCY(delinking economic interests from environmental impact increase)hift/allocate,n the stakeholder responsible for the products and/orthe services development,he direct economic and competitive interest to reducetheir environmental impacts Carlo Vezzoli AH-DESIGN, EU PROJECT Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • TOWARD THE SYSTEM ECO-EFFICIENCYwhich characteristics of the offer (company/ies models)?INNOVATIVE STAKEHOLDERS’ INTERACTIONSA. STAKEHOLDER’S INTEGRATION (controll extension) vertical: one stakeholder > IN Product life cycle horizontal: one stakeholder > IN Ps + Ss life cyclesB. STAKEHOLDERS’ INTERACTIONS EXTENSIONS vertical: (multiple) stakeholders > IN Product life cycle horizontal: (multiple) stakeholders > IN Ps + Ss life cycles Carlo Vezzoli AH-DESIGN, EU PROJECT Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • ECO-EFFICENT SYSTEM INNOVATIONTYPOLOGIES (EXAMPLES) Carlo Vezzoli AH-DESIGN, EU PROJECT Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • KLUBER LUBRIFICATIONoffers lubricants + serviceon-site identification(movable lab) of equipmentinefficiency, and thepotential reduction ofemissions’ impactthe innovative interaction between the companyand the client, make the companies’ economicinterest to be other than only selling higheramount of lubricantslubricant > LUBRFIICATION Carlo Vezzoli AH-DESIGN, EU PROJECT Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • KLUBER LUBRIFICATIONE-E PSS of Type I – Adding value to the product life cycle Kluber sells to engineering industry lubricants and ... KLUBER CUSTOMER LUBRICATION Engineering LAB industry ... a service of analysis for the lubricants effectiveness and environmental impact reduction (movable lab)BENEFIT FOR KLUBER BENEFIT FOR ENVIRONMENT BENEFIT FOR CUSTOMER. Offer diversificationReduction ofImproved efficiency > Cost reduction . . lubricants use >. Customer loyalty reduced environmental impact . Less environmental issues to solve Carlo Vezzoli AH-DESIGN, EU PROJECT Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • E.-E. SYSTEM INNOVATION (TYPE I)ADDING VALUE TO THE PRODUCT LIFE CYCLEa company (alliance of companies) providesadditional services - maintenance, repair, up-grading, substitution and product take back - toguarantee life cycle performance of the product(sold to the customer)it is reduced the user reaponsibility in the use and/or disposal of the product/semi-finished product(own by her/him) Carlo Vezzoli AH-DESIGN, EU PROJECT Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • XEROXXerox offers a package dealand installs and maintainphotocopiers (not owned bythe customer) and may evenmakes and delivers copies. Thecustomer pays for thepackage.the innovative interaction between the companyand the client, make the companies’ economicinterest to provide (and design) long lasting,reusable and recyclable photocopiers.photocopiers > COPIED PAPER Carlo Vezzoli AH-DESIGN, EU PROJECT Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • XEROXE-E PSS of Type II – Providing final results to customers Xerox offers a package deal (products + services). The customer pays for the package ...XEROX CUSTOMER ... and Xerox installs and maintain photocopiers (not owned by the customer), makes and delivers copies.BENEFIT FOR RANK BENEFIT FOR ENVIRONMENT XEROX BENEFIT FOR CUSTOMER. Directly profit from components re-use need to invest in the machine . Increased products’ lifespan and resources . No and materialrecycling from discardeda photocopier producer only. Xerox is not reduced environmental impact efficiency > products purchase and overall cost reduction in use. Directly profit from resources efficiency XEROX: A DOCUMENT COMPANY! Carlo Vezzoli AH-DESIGN, EU PROJECT Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • E.-E. SYSTEM INNOVATION (TYPE II)PROVIDING FINAL RESULTS TO CUSTOMERSa company (alliance of companies) provides acustomised mix of services, instead of products, inorder to provide a specific final result to thecustomerthe client does not own the products and does notoperate on them to obtain the final satisfaction(the client pays the company to provide theagreed results) Carlo Vezzoli AH-DESIGN, EU PROJECT Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • ARISTON + ENEL: PAY-PER-USEpayment is based on number ofwashes and includes: delivery of awashing machine at home (notowned), electricity supply (not directlypaid), maintenance, up-grading andend-of-life collection.the innovative interaction between the twocompanies and the client, make the companies’economic interest to provide (and design) highefficient, long lasting, reusable and recyclablewashing machineswashing machine > ABILITY TO WASH Carlo Vezzoli AH-DESIGN, EU PROJECT Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • ARISTON + ENEL: PAY-PER-USE E-E PSS of Type III – Providing enabling platforms for customersPARTNERSHIP The partnership offers an enabling washing platform. ARISTON The customer will pay for Household + appliances the number of washes he/she will do ... CUSTOMER Household ... and the partnership delivers the ENEL washing machine (not owned by the Energy customer) and supply energy (not provider directly paid by the customer), maintenance, up-grading and end-of-life collection. BENEFIT FOR THE PARTNERSHIP ENVIRONMENT BENEFIT FOR BENEFIT FOR CUSTOMER . Increased energy efficiency and products’ . Directly profit from energy efficiency need to invest in the machine . No . Re-use of components from discarded productsimpactreduction in use lifespan > reduced environmental cost purchase and overall Carlo Vezzoli AH-DESIGN, EU PROJECT Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • E.-E. SYSTEM INNOVATION (TYPE III)ENABLING PLATFORMS FOR CUSTOMERScompany (alliance of companies) provides accessto products, tools, opportunities enabling clients toget their “satisfaction”the client does not own the product/s, butoperates on them to obtain the “satisfaction” (andpays only for the use of the product/s) Carlo Vezzoli AH-DESIGN, EU PROJECT Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • ECO-EFFICIENT SYSTEM INNOVATION TYPOLOGIES- adding value to the product life cycle- providing final results to customers- providing enabling platforms for customers Carlo Vezzoli AH-DESIGN, EU PROJECT Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • SYSTEM INNOVATION WIN-WIN POTENTIALSYSTEM ECO-EFFICIENCYinnovation in which is the company/companies’economic and competitive interest that leads to anenvironmental impact reduction (system eco-efficiency) Carlo Vezzoli AH-DESIGN, EU PROJECT Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • SYSTEM INN. ECO-EFFICIENT POTENTIALSthe economic interest of a stakeholders foster:. product life cycle optimization. materials life extension. “in use” resources minimizationhigher system eco-efficiency given too by:. provider: higher available investiment allowing most advanced and effcient technologies. product sharing > faster replacement of ware out products with new and more eco-efficient ones (on equal number of units produced in time) Carlo Vezzoli AH-DESIGN, EU PROJECT Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • NOT ALL SYSTEM INNOVATION AREECO-EFFICENT!> CRITERIA AND GUIDELINES ARE NEEDED> METHODS AND TOOLS ARE NEEDEDto orientate design towards system eco-efficentstakeholder interactions (and related mix of productsand services) Carlo Vezzoli AH-DESIGN, EU PROJECT Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • NOT ALL ECO-EFFICENT SYSTEM INNOVATION AREWITHOUT (ENVIRONMENTAL) REBOUND EFFECTS!> may generate unwanted (enevironmentalydamaging) side effectse.g.1 access to product, rather than their ownership,could lead to careless behaviour (shorter product lifespan> higher environmental impact)> some rebound effects are too difficult to be predicted,but as far as they are, design attention should be given toavoid those eventual side effects Carlo Vezzoli AH-DESIGN, EU PROJECT Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • IN FACT, PSS IS NOTHING NEWevery most of the products involve services and viceversa and change towards service economy ishappening anyway services (not products) generate:. more than 50 % of GDP in Europe .more than 75% of GDP in USAWHY ECO-EFFICIENT-PSS ARE NOT YET DIFFUSED? Carlo Vezzoli AH-DESIGN, EU PROJECT Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • BARRIERS FOR THE ECO-EFFICIENT PSS DIFFUSION:. for the customers/users: in industrialized contexts the cultural shift necessary in accepting behavioural change, e.g. a ownerless consumption, …. for companies: the difficulty in changing the corporate culture and the traditional business model, …. for governments: the difficulty in defining and implementing policies to facilitate EE-PSS oriented companies, … Carlo Vezzoli AH-DESIGN, EU PROJECT Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • DIFFUSED INERTIA (CONSOLIDATED HABITS) ISLIMITING ECO-EFFICIENT SYSTEM INNOVATIONSDIFFUSION. PSS are not simply leapfrog business strategy: atransition path is many time needed. there is a lack of knowledge on SPSS development:we need a new generation of designers (and designeducators) and other professionals capable ofoperating for (complex) system research andinnovation Carlo Vezzoli AH-DESIGN, EU PROJECT Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • … ANYHOW A PROMISING WIN-WIN MODEL“nevertheless, PSS development, seen as a whole,present a potential for generating win-win solutionwhich promote profit, environmental and socialbenefits”“they have the potential to provide the necessary, ifnot sufficient, conditions to enable communities toleapfrog to less resources intensive system of socialand economical standards of living”[UNEP, 2002] Carlo Vezzoli AH-DESIGN, EU PROJECT Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • SYSTEM INNOVATION MAIN CHARACTERISTICROOTED IN A SATISFACTION-BASED ECONOMIC MODELeach offer is developed/designed and delivered in relation to aparticular customer “satisfaction” (unit of satisfaction)STAKEHOLDER INTERACTIONS-BASED INNOVATIONradical innovations, not so much as technological ones, asnew interactions/partnerships between the stakeholders of aparticular satisfaction production chain (life cycle/s)INTRINSIC ECO-EFFICIENCY POTENTIALinnovation in which is the company/companies’ economic andcompetitive interest that may leads to an environmentalimpact reduction (system eco-efficiency: decoupling thecreation of value from resources consumption) Carlo Vezzoli AH-DESIGN, EU PROJECT Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy