Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
course System Design for Sustainabilit...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
CONTENTS
. Product environmental effec...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
(product) LIFE CYCLE DESIGN
(or eco-de...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
it is to design for minimizing product...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
INPUT AND ITS (DAMAGING) EFFECTS
RESOU...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
OUTPUT AND ITS (DAMAGING) EFFECTS
glob...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
CAN WE ASSOCIATE THE ENVIRONMENTAL EFF...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE DESIGN: APPROACH
an...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
LIFE CYCLE
APPROACH
manufac.
assemb.
f...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
an extended design horizon
from produc...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
FUNCTIONAL APPROACH
IS NOT THE PRODUCT...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
an extended design horizon
from produc...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF
PRODUCT
LC...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
e.g. LCA upholstered seat (8 years lif...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
e.g. LCA refrigerator (10 years life s...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
“the design of the product life cycle
...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
LCD: ENVIRONMENTAL CRITERIA
RESOURCES ...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
MATERAIL USE MINIMISATION
in all life ...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
Ikea Air sofa,
Ikea
EX. MATERIALS CONS...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
FRIA,
refrigerator,
Tischner
EX. ENERG...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
RESOURCES CONSERVATION/RENEWABILITY
in...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
rags for cleaning in
micro-fiber (no
n...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
Solar
shuttle,
Kopf Umwelt
EX. ENERGY ...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
gardening
vase in
mater-B,
cornstarch
...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
RESOURCES RENEWABILITY
DEPENDS ON:
- R...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
MATERIALS’ ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
A RANK...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
PRODUCT LIFE OPTIMISATION
DESIGN FOR:
...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
CARE, changing top>kids table>writing ...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
PRODUCTION
DISTRIBUTION
USE
PRE-PRODUC...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
PRE-PROD. PROD. DISTR. DISPOS.
use (fu...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
MATERIAL LIFE EXTENSION
DESIGN FOR:
RE...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
PRE-
PRODUCTION
PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTIO...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
MATERIALS’ RECYCLABILITY (COMB., COMP....
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
POST-CONSUMPTION RECYCLING PHASES:
(CO...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
water
bottle for
easy
recycling,
EVIAN...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
> of parts/components
PRODUCT LIFE OPT...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
Mirra seat,
Herman Miller
EX. DESIGN F...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
some have been developed (according to...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
(brief)
product
strategies
product
con...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
… SOME OF THE MPDS TOOLS
free download...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
if you want to know more about:
PRODUC...
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  • Now we wiil see briefly the main notion of product LCD
    This is the argument of the whole course at the second year
    Firstly we will see what we mean by
    Then we will introduce the concepts of … and …
    Finally we will see the main design criteria, with some guidelines and examples
    These criteria are:





  • Well by LCD we mean the discipline integrating ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS within the PRODUCT design process
    This is usually referred to the product LIFE CYCLE DESIGN
    You may find even other expression like ...
  • products ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS are related to product’s caused…ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS
    so, each environmental effect is based on a substance’s exchange (impact) between the nature/environment and a production and consumption system
    We can have the env. effect in two ways
    As input, namely substances’ extraction from the environment
    Or as output, namely substances’ emission in the environment
    Naturally not all the impacts are damaging or they are damaging with the same entity
    Throwing into the environment 1 kg of water is quite different than throwing 1 kg of asbestos powder or lead
    Let us see then what are generally the env. effects that we come to consider when we are talking about the produt env. req.
  • We saw already the other time what are the main environmental impacts dued to emissions
    These usually are:
    global warming (greenhouse effect)
    ozone layer depletion
    eutrophication
    acidification
    smog
    toxicity
    Wastes
    There are even others, like the noise or the electromagnetic or genetic pollution
    Nevertheless, we will not study those effects, but it is important for me that you know that when we speak about e. r. the design aim is to reduce the product’s infuence on these effects
  • So we can see the approach as as moving from …
  • By product life cycle it is meant the idea of considering the product as a single unit in all its life cycle phases, from …
    And in relation to all the input and output of all the processes of all the phases; and to thier environmental impact.
    In particulare 5 phases

  • A second key approach is that of designing the function more than the product

  • Solar shuttle IT IS MOVED BY AN ELECTRIC MOTOR POWERED BY SOLAR PANEL
  • Mater-Bi is a bio-polymer based on cornstarch, an agricultural renewable raw material, and natural plasticiser.
    Mater-Bi iS fully bio-degradable and can be re-assimilated by the earth like any organic substance produced by the nature.
    gardening vase IS A PERFECT USE OF SCHE MATERIAL, SINCE … IT CAN BE PLANTED WITH ITS FLOWER inside AND THEn IT WILL BIODEGRADE INTO THE GORUND, WITHOOUT THE NEED
  • An explanation is needed on RESOURCES RENEWABILITY
    Can you tell me a material that is renewable and one which is not?
    for ex. a same type of wood that comes from 2 different areas; of which one is planned and controlled and the other one not, leading to deforestation,
    In this sense the same material can be defined renew. in the first case, and not renew. in the other case
    The RENEWABILITY depends upon… and upon….
    Therefore we could define that a resource is renewable if…
  • 2 product life cycle design vezzoli 13_14

    1. 1. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy course System Design for Sustainability subject 2. Introduction to product Life Cycle Design learning resource 2.1 Introduction to product Life Cycle Design carlo vezzoli politecnico di milano . DESIGN dept. . DIS . School of Design . Italy Learning Network on Sustainability (EU asia-link) Learning Network on Sustainabile energy systems (EU edulink)
    2. 2. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy CONTENTS . Product environmental effects and requirements . Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) . Life Cycle Design approach: life cycle + functional . Introduction to Product Life Cycle Design criteria . Resources minimisation . Low impact resources selection . Product life optimisation . Material life extension . Design for disassembly
    3. 3. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy (product) LIFE CYCLE DESIGN (or eco-design, design for the environment, …) the discipline integrating ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS within the PRODUCT design process
    4. 4. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy it is to design for minimizing product’s ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS EACH ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECT IS BASED ON A SUBSTANCE’S EXCHANGE (IMPACT) BETWEEN THE NATURE/ENVIRONMENT AND A (ANTHROPIC TRASFORMATION) PROCESS OF A PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION SYSTEM input: substance extraction from the environment output: substance emission in the environment (not all impacts damage with the same entity) ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS
    5. 5. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy INPUT AND ITS (DAMAGING) EFFECTS RESOURCES EXHAUSTION ALTERATION OF THE ECOSYSTEMS’ BALANCE (damaging outputs of extractive processes)
    6. 6. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy OUTPUT AND ITS (DAMAGING) EFFECTS global warming (greenhouse effect) ozone layer depletion eutrophication acidification smog toxicity wastes ...
    7. 7. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy CAN WE ASSOCIATE THE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS TO A PRODUCT? AND HOW? APPROACHES: - PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE - FUNCTIONAL UNIT EVALUATION METHOD: - LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT (LCA) ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS IN DESIGN
    8. 8. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE DESIGN: APPROACH an extended design horizon from product design to the design of the product life cycle stages
    9. 9. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy LIFE CYCLE APPROACH manufac. assemb. finish collection resource’sachieving m ater. energy produc. package trasp. storage other product’s life cycle
    10. 10. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy an extended design horizon from product design to the design of the product life cycle stages the design “reference” from product design to product’s “function” design PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE DESIGN: APPROACH
    11. 11. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy FUNCTIONAL APPROACH IS NOT THE PRODUCT TO BE DESIGNED (ASSESSED) BUT, THE WHOLE OF THE PROCESSES ASSOCIATED WITH THE FULFILLMENT OF A GIVEN FUNCTION
    12. 12. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy an extended design horizon from product design to the design of the product life cycle stages the design “reference” from product design to product’s “function” design the environmental design “objective” minimise the environmental impact of the whole of the phases in relation to the functional unit PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE DESIGN: APPROACH
    13. 13. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF PRODUCT LCA: LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT a quantitative method to assess the environmental effects of the life cycle of a given product/service in relation to its functional unit ISO 14040
    14. 14. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy e.g. LCA upholstered seat (8 years life span) PRE-PROD. PRODUCTION DISTRIBUT. USE DISPOSAL
    15. 15. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy e.g. LCA refrigerator (10 years life span) PRE-PROD. PRODUCTION DISTRIBUT. USE DISPOSAL
    16. 16. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy “the design of the product life cycle stages that, while considering all requirements, aims at minimising the environmental impact of the whole of the life cycle phases in relation to the functional unit” (Vezzoli & Manzini, Springer, London, 2008) PRODUCT LYFE CYCLE DESIGN: DEFINITION
    17. 17. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy LCD: ENVIRONMENTAL CRITERIA RESOURCES MINIMISATION LOW IMPACT RESOURCES SELECTION PRODUCT LIFE OPTIMISATION MATERIAL LIFE EXTENSION DESIGN FOR DISASSEMBLY
    18. 18. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy MATERAIL USE MINIMISATION in all life cycle phases (as a whole) ENERGY USE MINIMISATION in all life cycle phases (as a whole) RESOURCES MINIMISATION quantitative impact reduction DESIGN FOR:
    19. 19. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy Ikea Air sofa, Ikea EX. MATERIALS CONSUMPTION MINIMISATION
    20. 20. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy FRIA, refrigerator, Tischner EX. ENERGIES CONSUMPTION MINIMISATION
    21. 21. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy RESOURCES CONSERVATION/RENEWABILITY in all life cycle phases (as a whole) RESOURCES NON TOXICITY AND HARMFULNESS in all life cycle phases (as a whole) LOW IMPACT RESOURCES SELECTION qualitative impact reduction DESIGN FOR:
    22. 22. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy rags for cleaning in micro-fiber (no need for detergent) EX. TOXICITY AND HARMFULNESS MINIMISATION
    23. 23. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy Solar shuttle, Kopf Umwelt EX. ENERGY RENEWABILITY IMPROVEMENT
    24. 24. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy gardening vase in mater-B, cornstarch bio-deg. polimer by Novamont EX. MATERIAL BIO-COMPATIBILITY IMPROVEMENT
    25. 25. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy RESOURCES RENEWABILITY DEPENDS ON: - RE-GROWING SPECIFIC SPEED - EXTRACTION FREQUENCY a resource is renewable if: a context related anthropic consumption rate < natural re-growing rate
    26. 26. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy MATERIALS’ ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT A RANKING FROM THE BEST TO THE WORST IS (USUALLY) “MISLEADING ” DEPENDS ON: - MATERIAL-SPECIFIC CHARACTERISTICS - CHARACTERISTICS GIVEN TO PRODUCT
    27. 27. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy PRODUCT LIFE OPTIMISATION DESIGN FOR: EXTENDING PRODUCT (COMPONENT) LIFE SPAN INTENSIFYING PRODUCT (COMPONENT) USE
    28. 28. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy CARE, changing top>kids table>writing desk, Stokke EX. PRODUCT LIFE OPTIMISATION
    29. 29. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION USE PRE-PRODUCTION NEW TECHNOLOGIES AND TECHNIQUES WITH LOWER USE CONSUMPTION USE DISP. P-PROD. PROD. DISTRIB. UPDATING OF THE COMPONENTS CAUSING CONSUMPTION PRE-PRODUCTION PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION USE DISPOSAL same function in time PRE-PRODUCTION PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION USE USE AVOIDED IMPACTS LIGHTER IMPACTS SHORT product/component life EXTENDED product/component life
    30. 30. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy PRE-PROD. PROD. DISTR. DISPOS. use (function) during time PRE-PROD. PROD. DISTR. DISPOS. PRE-PROD. PROD. DISTR. DISPOS. PRE-PROD. PROD. DISTR. DISPOS. B 1 B 2 B 3A 1 A 2 A 3C 1 C 2 C 3 A 1 A 2 A 3 B 1 B 2 B 3 C 1 C 2 C 3 LIFESPANINDIPENDENTFROMLENGHTOFUSE AVOIDED IMPACTS products/components NOT INTENSE life product/component INTENSE life
    31. 31. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy MATERIAL LIFE EXTENSION DESIGN FOR: RECYCLING ENERGY RECOVERY COMPOSTING
    32. 32. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy PRE- PRODUCTION PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION USE LANDFILL PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION USE PRE- PRODUCTION PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION USE RECYCLING COMBUSTION COMPOSTING PRE-PRODUCTION material NON-EXTENDED life material EXTENDED life AVOIDED IMPACTS ADDITIONAL IMPACTS
    33. 33. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy MATERIALS’ RECYCLABILITY (COMB., COMP.) DIPENDS ON: - SPECIFIC MATERIAL’S CHARACTERISTICS performances recovery (and costs of process) - PRODUCT’S ARCHITECTURE - RECYCLING PHASES
    34. 34. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy POST-CONSUMPTION RECYCLING PHASES: (COMBUSTION, COMPOSTING) . collection . transportation . separation (disassembly a/o crushing) . identification . cleaning . secondary raw material’s production
    35. 35. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy water bottle for easy recycling, EVIAN EX. MATERIAL LIFE EXTENSION
    36. 36. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy > of parts/components PRODUCT LIFE OPTIMISATION > of materials MATERIAL LIFE EXTENSION DESIGN FOR DISASSEMBLY
    37. 37. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy Mirra seat, Herman Miller EX. DESIGN FOR DISASSEMBLY
    38. 38. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy some have been developed (according to ISO/TR 14062:2002 Environmental management - Integrating environmental aspects into product design and development) PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE DESIGN: METHODS/TOOLS … UNEP-TUD (D4S) POLIMI-DIS (MPDS)
    39. 39. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy (brief) product strategies product concept product design ingegner. PRODUCT DESIGN PHASES processes/tools to orientate processes/tools envirnomental assesm. LCA on reference product for design: es. SIMAPRO sustainability-focused ideas generation: tavole eco-idee (ICS) abrdiged LCA check: es. SIMAPRO qualitative check: cecklist (ICS) check of sustainability design priorities: sch. IPSA/radar (ICS) environmental design priorities identification: sch. IPSA/radar (ICS) most promising concept selection low environmental impact processes selection: tools to orientate specific environmental issues es. idemat abrdiged LCA on potential impact reduction: es. SIMAPRO qualitative check: cecklist (ICS) LCA of comparisonfor environmental quality communication: es. SIMAPRO MPDS: Method for Product Design for Environmental Sustainability (developed and adopted by DIS-Polimi)
    40. 40. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy … SOME OF THE MPDS TOOLS free download at www.lens.polimi.it / tools Multicriteria Radar_ICS toolkit Eco-idea tables_ICS toolkit Idea 3 Idea 1 Idea 2 Checklist (guidelies related)_ICS toolkit
    41. 41. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy if you want to know more about: PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE DESIGN (LECTURER’S BIBLIOGRAPHY)
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