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1.2 evolution of sustainability within design vezzoli 12-13 (41)
 

1.2 evolution of sustainability within design vezzoli 12-13 (41)

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    1.2 evolution of sustainability within design vezzoli 12-13 (41) 1.2 evolution of sustainability within design vezzoli 12-13 (41) Presentation Transcript

    • course System Design for Sustainabilitysubject 1. Sustainable development and design: the reference frameworklearning resource 1.2Evolution of sustainability within designcarlo vezzolipolitecnico di milano . DESIGN dept. . DIS . School of Design . ItalyLearning Network on Sustainability (EU asia-link)Learning Network on Sustainabile energy systems (EU edulink) Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • CONTENTS. increasing role of design (for sustainability). evolution of sustainability within design . low environmental impact materials/energies . product life cycle design/ecodesign . Product-Service System design for eco-efficiency . design for social equity and cohesion. design for sustainability: state of the art. a “pluralism of aesthetics” for sustainability Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • APPROACHES TO SUSTAINABILITY - intervening after processes’ damages intervening on processes TIME intervening on products and services + intervening consumption patterns (SCP)INCREASING (POTENTIAL) ROLE FOR DESIGN Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • INCREASING (POTENTIAL) ROLE OF DESIGNemphasis on preventionemphasis on socio-cultural dimension> responsibility for:the “technical” definition of the solutionsthe “attractiveness” of solutions Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • WHAT DO THE DESIGN COMMUNITY (IN GENERAL)KNOWS OF DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABILITY? Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • cardboard seatHOW MANY (IN THE DESIGNCOMMUNITY) WOULD THINK IT IS WITH ALOW ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT? Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • Savonarola seat walnut-wood, so far 500 years life spanMADE WITHOUT ANYCONCERN FOR THE ENVIRONMENT, BUT … Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • + + + + + + + … + + + + + + + ……………………………………………………………….. = time/function Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • Chadwick , StumpfAeron, Herman Millerseat steel and plastics,12 years warrantyevenin use commodatumDESIGNED TODAY WITH ARIGHT CONCERN FOR THE ENVIRONMENT Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • pen, biodegradable material (from corn starch)HOW MANY (IN THE DESIGN COMMUNITY)WOULD THINK IT IS WITH A LOWENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT? Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • Pen, MONTBLANCDESIGNED WITHOUT ANYCONCERN FOR THE ENVIRONMENT, BUT … Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • + + + + + + + … + + + + + + + ………………………………………………………………............. = time/function Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • “Natural” materialsHOW MANY(IN THE DESIGN COMMUNITY)WOULD THINK THEY AREALWAYS WITH A LOWENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT? Asbestos (amianto) is a natural material! (and one of the most cancerogenic!) Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • how manypersons within thedesign community ?would evalautecorrectly theenvironmantalsustaianbility? “natural” “njatural”HOW MANY COULD materials materialsCORRECTLY DESIGNFOR SUSTAINABILITY(AND TEACH IT)? Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • THE TRUTH IS …... TODAY FEW WHTIN THE DESIGN COMMUNITYARE “EQUIPPED” WITH A SOLID KNOWLEDGE-BASEAND KNOW-HOW (METHODS AND TOOLS) ONDESIGN FOR SUSTAINABILITY… TODAY THE DESIGN COMMUNITY (AS A WHOLE)IS STILL MORE PART OF THE PROBLEM THEN PARTOF THE SOLUTION! Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • EVOLUTION OF THE (POTENTIAL) ROLE OF DESIGNFOR SUSTAINABILITY: (in industrially maturecontexts) d ig ne d es be o t ”t low impact ~1970-… c mat./energies fa r te “a Product t he Life Cycle Design ~1990-… n ing ecodesign de wi system design for eco-efficiency ~2000-… design for social equity and cohesion ~2005-… Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • 1. LOW ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTMATERIALS/ENERGIES… since the ’70 research has started to "produce knowledges"for the selection of low impact materials/energies:. NON-TOXIC. “NATURAL”. RECYCLABLE. RENEWABLE. BIO-DEGRADABLE Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • 2. PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE DESIGN (ECODESIGN)… since the beginning of the ’90 design research has started toredefine the approch to product design:an extended design horizonto the design of the product LIFE CYCLE stagesthe design “reference”from product designto product’s “FUNCTION” design Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE DESIGN: DEFINITION (ECODESIGN)“the design of the product life cyclestages that, while considering allrequirements, aims at minimisingthe environmental impact of thewhole of the life cycle phases inrelation to the functional unit”(Vezzoli & Manzini, Springer, London, 2008) Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • … in the ’90 research has developed a fundamental methodfor the product environmental impact assessment:LCA: LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENTa quantitative method to assess the environmentaleffects of the life cycle of a given product/service inrelation to its functional unitISO 14040 Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • … since the ‘90 some methods and tools have been developed forproduct life cycle designMETHODS/TOOLS …UNEP-TUD (PROMISE, 1997) POLIMI-DIS (MPDS, 2009)in 2002 has been issued the ISO/TR 14062:2002 Environmentalmanagement - Integrating environmental aspects into productdesign and development Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • 3. (PRDUCT-SERVICE) SYSTEM DESIGN FOR ECO-EFFICENCY… since the end of the ‘90 some business cases offering as a fullpackage a mix of product (not in owned by the customer) andservices shows to be capable of creating (new) value decouplingit from the materials and energy consumption has been studied Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • RICOH: PAY PER PAGE GREENphotocopiers/printers >PRINTED PAGES AND COPIESRicoh offers a packagedeal (Pay per Page Green)and installs, maintainsand collects at the end-of-life the printers andphotocopiers (not ownedby the customer); thecustomer pays for thenumber of deliveredpages and copies.the innovative interaction between the company and theclient, make the companies’ economic interest to provide (anddesign) long lasting, reusable and recyclable photocopiers i.e.environmentally friendly.photocopiers > COPIED PAPER Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • DEFINITIONS OF PRODUCTS-SERVICES SYSTEMSautors year definition(country)Goedkoop, van 1999 a Product Service System (or combination of products and services) is a set of marketable products andHalen, te Riele, services jointly capable of fulfilling a need for a client. [...] The PSS may lead to a benefit for environmment in connection with the creation of a (new) businessRommens (TheNetherland)Mont (Sweeden) 2001 PSS is a system of products, services, networks of actors and supporting infrastructure that continuously seeks to be competitive, satisfy customer needs and have a lower impact of traditional business modelsUNEP- Manzini, 2002 result of an innovative strategy that shifts the center of the business design and sale of products onlyVezzoli (world- (physical) systems offer products and services that are jointly capable of satisfying a given applicationwide)Brandsotter 2003 PSS is a product of material and intangible services designed and combined so that both jointly are able(Austria) to satisfy a specific need of a user. In addition a PSS may reach sustainability targetsUE, MEPPS (AA. 2005 result of an innovation strategy focused on the design and sale of a system of products and servicesVV.) that are jointly capable of fulfilling a specific customer demand(Cranfield) Evans 2007 PSS is an integrated offering of a product and a service that provides a value. When using a PSS offerset al. (UK) the opportunity to decouple economic success from material consumption and thus reduce the environmental impact of economic activityUNEP-Tischner, 2009 system of products and services (and infrastructure), jointly cope with the needs and demands ofVezzoli (world- customers in a more efficient and better value for both businesses and customers, compared to only offer products [...].wide) PSS can decouple the creation of value from the consumption of materials and energy and thus significantly reduce the environmental impact in the life cycle of traditional systems of productEU-asia link, 2010 an offer model providing an integrated mix of products and services that are together able to fulfil aLeNS (AA. VV.) particular customer demand (to deliver a “unit of satisfaction”), based on innovative interactions between the stakeholders of the value production system (satisfaction system), where the economic and competitive interest of the providers continuously seeks environmentally beneficial new solutions Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • … since ~2005 methods/tools have been developed (EU and UNEP researches) to support the development of eco-efficient PSS NEW METHODS/TOOLS HiCS, Highly MEPSS, MEthodology SusProNet, Network Design4Sustainability Product-Service Customerised for Product Service on sustainable PSS Step by step System Design for Solutions System development development approach Sustainability [see Manzini et [see van Halen et al. [see Tukker [see Tischner & [see Vezzoli et al., al. 2004] 2005] &Tischner, 2006] Vezzoli, 2009] tbp 2012] METHODSDESIGN TOOLS Story Interac board SDO B portfoli tion Solution toolkit Offering diagram l o diagram table SDO elements u Story System Interac toolkit tion board assessmen Offering diagram t table Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • … since ~2005 a new design role has been defined to developeco-efficient PSS:SYSTEM DESIGN FOR ECO-EFFICIENCY:A DEFINITION“the design of the system of productsand services that are together able tofulfil a particular customer demand(deliver a “unit of satisfaction”) based onthe design of innovative interactions ofthe stakeholders (directly and indirectlylinked to that “satisfaction” system)where the economic and competitiveinterest of the providers continuouslyseeks environmentally beneficial newsolutions[to be published in 2013, by Greenleafenglish, chinese, thailandese,pdf free of charge and in copy left www.lens.polimi.it] Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • … since ~2005 new design approaches has been defined todevelop eco-efficient PSS:A. “SATISFACTION-SYSTEM” APPROACH design the satisfaction of a particular demand (satisfaction unit) and the mix of product and servicesB. “STAKEHOLDER CONFIGURATION” APPROACH design the interactions of the stakeholder of a particular satisfaction-systemC. “SYSTEM ECO-EFFICIENCY” APPROACH design the interactions of the stakeholder (offer model) leading them for economic-competitive reasons towards the innovation reducing the environmental impact Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • 4. DESIGN FOR SOCIAL EQUITYwhere various forms of social inequality aredirectly addressed in the design process Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • … todays’ main approaches to design for social equity and cohesion. product design for low-income contexts and basics needs (design for the BOP, etc.). PSS (stakeholder interaction) design joining eco- efficiency with social equity and cohesion Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • AN EXAMPLE OFSOCIO-ETHICAL + ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILESYSTEM INNOVATIONS Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • SOLAR HOME KITS, BrasilTSSFA company offers to Brasilian ruralpeople a solar home kits that include thehardware to generate solar energy, theinstallation service and products that usethe electricity, e.g. lighting and electricaloutlets. Customers sign a three-yearservice contract (all of the tangible inputsare owned by the provider).environmentally sustainable because ituses the solar energy + socioethicallysustainable because give to poor peopleaccess to useful services + it iseconomically sustainable because in abusiness for TSSFA company. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • … since 2002 a working hypothesis has been by few proposed promotingPSS (stakeholder interaction) as capable to joining eco-efficiency withsocial equity and cohesionA PSS may act as a business opportunity tofacilitate the process of social-economicdevelopment in an emerging and low-incomecontext – by jumping over or by-passing thestage of individual consumption/ownership ofmass-produced goods – towards a more‘satisfaction-based’ and low resourceintensity advanced service-economy,characterized by locally-based and network-structured enterprises and initiatives, for asustainable re-globalization process aimingto democratize access to resources, goodsand services.[to be published in 2013, by Greenleafenglish, chinese, thailandese,pdf free of charge and in copy left www.lens.polimi.it] Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • … since 2005 few methods/tools have been developed (EU and UNEP researches) to support the design sustainable PSS NEW METHODS/TOOLS MEPSS, MEthodology Design4Sustainability Design for Sustainability: Product-Service for Product Service Step by step approach A Practical Approach for System Design for System development [UNEP funded project] Developing Economies Sustainability [EU funded project] [UNEP funded project] [see Vezzoli et al., tbp 2012] METHODDESIGN TOOLS works Stor heets Interac yboar SDO portfoli B tion d Interac Offering diagram toolkit o diagram l table tion SDO u Story table toolkit board Offering diagram Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • … since 2005 a new design role has been defined to develop eco-efficient and socio-ethically sustainable PSS:SYSTEM DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABILITY:A DEFINITION“the design of the system of productsand services that are together able tofulfil a particular customer demand(deliver a “unit of satisfaction”) based onthe design of innovative interactions ofthe stakeholders (directly and indirectlylinked to that “satisfaction” system)where the economic and competitiveinterest of the providers continuouslyseeks both environmentally and socio-ethically beneficial new solutions[to be published in 2013, by Greenleafenglish, chinese, thailandese,pdf free of charge and in copy left www.lens.polimi.it] Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • SUSTAINABILITY IN DESIGN ROLE: STATE OF THE ART (in industrially mature contexts) … aim at 100% e d (education and practice) sign de DISSEMINATION o be low impact t ”t mat./energies jec ob e“ Product h gt Life Cycle Design n in ecodesign w ide system design for eco-efficiency design for social equity and cohesionnewresearch 0 CONSOLIDATION 100%frontier … (research achievements on knowledge-base and know-how) Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • IN “SYSTEM DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABILITY” WE WILL SEE: … aim at 100% e d (education and practice) sign de DISSEMINATION o be low impact t ”t mat./energies jec ob e“ Product h gt Life Cycle Design n in ecodesign w ide system design for eco-efficiency design for social equity and cohesion new research 0 CONSOLIDATION 100% frontier … (research achievements on knowledge-base and know-how) Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • .A NEW AESTHETICS FOR SUSTAINABILITY? Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • … BUT SUSTAINABILITY REQUIRE A DIFFUSED (RADICAL) CHANGEDIFFUSED INNOVATIONPROMOTE SUSTAINABLE (SYSTEM) INNOVATIONFEASABLE AND “ATTRACTIVE” Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • AN AESTHETIC FOR SUSTAINABILITY?the aesthetic has a fundamental role!A “ICONIC-ENVIRONMENTALIST AESTHETIC”?a mass of “green-recycled-panda” products?A “PLURALISM OF AESTHETICS FORSUSTAINABILITY” arise from the sustainability’s (new) values that takethe expressions in a multiplicity of forms Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • AN NEW AESTHETIC FORPRODUCTSas well asSERVICES AND INTERACTIONS BETWEENSOCIO-ECONOMIC STAKAHOLDERS Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
    • DESIGNER: A SOCIO-CULTURAL “INNOVATOR”?A DESIGNER MAY …… observe emerging/new types of demands(coherent with sustainability) and transformingthem into products, services and systems… A DESIGNER MAY …… induce new quality criteria (coherent withsustainability) throughout the offer of (more)attractive products, services and systems Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy