1.2 evolution of sustainability within design vezzoli 10-11 (48)

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  • 1. carlo vezzoli politecnico di milano . INDACO dpt. . DIS . School of Design . Italy Learning Network on Sustainability course System Design for Sustainability subject 1. Sustainable development and design: the reference framework learning resource 1.2 Evolution of sustainability within design
  • 2. CONTENTS . increasing role of design (for sustainability) . evolution of sustainability within design . low environmental impact materials/energies . product life cycle design/ecodesign . (Product-Service) system design for eco-efficiency . design for social equity and cohesion . design for sustainability: state of the art . a “pluralism of aesthetics” for sustainability
  • 3. interven ing after processes ’ damages interven ing on processes interven ing on products and services interven ing c onsumption patterns (SCP) APPROACHES TO SUSTAINABILITY INCREASING (POTENTIAL) ROLE FOR DESIGN TIME - +
  • 4.
    • > responsibility for:
    • the “technical” definition of the solutions
    • the “attractiv eness ” of solutions
    INCREASING (POTENTIAL) ROLE OF DESIGN emphasis on prevention emphasis on soci o- cultural dimension
  • 5. DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABILITY: IS A DESIGN PRACTICE, EDUCATION AND RESEARCH THAT, IN ONE WAY OR ANOTHER, CONTRIBUTES TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
  • 6. WHAT DO THE DESIGN COMMUNITY (IN GENERAL) KNOWS OF DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABILITY?
  • 7. cardboard seat HOW MANY (IN THE DESIGN COMMUNITY) WOULD THINK IT IS WITH A LOW ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT?
  • 8. Savonarola seat walnut-wood, so far 500 years life span MADE WITHOUT ANY CONCERN FOR THE ENVIRONMENT, BUT …
  • 9. = …………………………………………………………… .. time/function + + + + + + + … + + + + + + + …
  • 10. Chadwick , Stumpf Aeron, Herman Miller seat steel and plastics, 12 years warranty even in use commodatum DESIGNED TODAY WITH A RIGHT CONCERN FOR THE ENVIRONMENT
  • 11. pen, biodegradable material (from corn starch) HOW MANY (IN THE DESIGN COMMUNITY) WOULD THINK IT IS WITH A LOW ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT?
  • 12. Pen, MONTBLANC DESIGNED WITHOUT ANY CONCERN FOR THE ENVIRONMENT, BUT …
  • 13. = …………………………………………………………… ............. time/function + + + + + + + … + + + + + + + …
  • 14. “ Natural” materials HOW MANY (IN THE DESIGN COMMUNITY) WOULD THINK THEY ARE ALWAYS WITH A LOW ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT? Asbestos (amianto) is a natural material! (and one of the most cancerogenic!)
  • 15. HOW MANY COULD CORRECTLY DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABILITY (AND TEACH IT)? “ njatural” materials “ natural” materials how many persons within the design community would evalaute correctly the environmantal sustaianbility ? ?
  • 16. ... TODAY FEW WHTIN THE DESIGN COMMUNITY ARE “EQUIPPED” WITH A SOLID KNOWLEDGE-BASE AND KNOW-HOW (METHODS AND TOOLS) ON DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABILITY … TODAY THE DESIGN COMMUNITY (AS A WHOLE) IS STILL MORE PART OF THE PROBLEM THEN PART OF THE SOLUTION! THE TRUTH IS …
  • 17. low impact mat./energies design for social equity and cohesion system design for eco-efficiency Product Life Cycle Design ecodesign EVOLUTION OF THE ( POTENTIAL ) ROLE OF DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABILITY : (in industrially mature contexts) widening the “object” to be designed
  • 18.
    • 1. LOW ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT MATERIALS/ENERGIES
    . NON-TOXIC . “NATURAL” . RECYCLABLE . RENEWABLE . BIO-DEGRADABLE
  • 19.
    • 2. PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE DESIGN (ECODESIGN)
    an extended design horizon from product design to the design of the product LIFE CYCLE stages the design “reference” from product design to product’s “ FUNCTION ” design
  • 20. LIFE CYCLE APPROACH use service manufac. assemb. finish collection resource’s achieving mater. energy produc. package trasp. storage USE PRODUCTION DISPOSING PREPRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION landfill incineration composting recycling reuse comp. reuse remanufactoring biosphere geosphere other product’s life cycle
  • 21.
    • FUNCTIONAL APPROACH
    • IS NOT THE PRODUCT TO BE DESIGNED ( ASSESSED ) BUT, THE WHOLE OF THE PROCESSES ASSOCIATED WITH THE PRODUCT AND FULFILLMENT OF A GIVEN FUNCTION
  • 22. several have been developed for product life cycle design (according to ISO/ TR 14062:2002 Environmental management - Integrating environmental aspects into product design and development) METHODS/TOOLS … UNEP-TUD (D4S) POLIMI-DIS (MPDS)
  • 23.
    • PROMOTE (EVEN) SUSTAINABLE SYSTEM INNOVATION
    … BUT SUSTAINABILITY ASK FOR A RADICAL CHANGE RADICAL INNOVATIONS (DISCONTINUITY)
  • 24. 3. (PRDUCT-SERVICE) SYSTEM DESIGN FOR ECO-EFFICENCY
  • 25. DEFINITIONS OF PRODUCTS-SERVICES SYSTEMS autors (country) year definition Goedkoop, van Halen, te Riele, Rommens (The Netherland) 1999 a Product Service System (or combination of products and services) is a set of marketable products and services jointly capable of fulfilling a need for a client. [...] The PSS may lead to a benefit for environmment in connection with the creation of a (new) business Mont (Sweeden) 2001 PSS is a system of products, services, networks of actors and supporting infrastructure that continuously seeks to be competitive, satisfy customer needs and have a lower impact of traditional business models UNEP- Manzini, Vezzoli (world-wide) 2002 result of an innovative strategy that shifts the center of the business design and sale of products only (physical) systems offer products and services that are jointly capable of satisfying a given application Brandsotter (Austria) 2003 PSS is a product of material and intangible services designed and combined so that both jointly are able to satisfy a specific need of a user. In addition a PSS may reach sustainability targets UE, MEPPS (AA. VV.) 2005 result of an innovation strategy focused on the design and sale of a system of products and services that are jointly capable of fulfilling a specific customer demand (Cranfield) Evans et al. (UK) 2007 PSS is an integrated offering of a product and a service that provides a value. When using a PSS offers the opportunity to decouple economic success from material consumption and thus reduce the environmental impact of economic activity UNEP-Tischner, Vezzoli (world-wide) 2009 system of products and services (and infrastructure), jointly cope with the needs and demands of customers in a more efficient and better value for both businesses and customers, compared to only offer products [...]. PSS can decouple the creation of value from the consumption of materials and energy and thus significantly reduce the environmental impact in the life cycle of traditional systems of product
  • 26. “ designing and providing a system of products and services (and related infrastructure) which are jointly capable of fulfilling client needs or demands more efficiently and with higher value for both companies and customers than purely product based solutions. […] PSS could decouple the creation of value from consumption of materials and energy and thus significantly reduce the life-cycle environmental load of current product systems.” [UNEP, Tischner, Vezzoli, 2009] PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEM: A DEFINITION free pdf: http://www.d4s-sbs.org/
  • 27.
    • AN EXAMPLE OF
    • ECO-EFFICENT SYSTEM INNOVATION
  • 28.
    • ARISTON + ENEL : PAY-PER-USE
    • payment is based on number of washes and includes: delivery of a washing machine at home ( not owned ), electricity supply ( not directly paid ), maintenance, up-grading and end-of-life collection.
    the innovative interaction between the two companies and the client, make the companies’ interest to design and provide (and design) high efficient, long lasting, reusable and recyclable washing machines
  • 29.
    • SYSTEM INNOVATION: CHARACTERISTSICS
    • WIN-WIN POTENTIAL: SYSTEM ECO-EFFICIENCY
    • innovation in which is the company/companies’ economic and competitive interest that leads to an environmental impact reduction (system eco-efficiency)
    • STAKEHOLDERS’ INTERACTIONS INNOVATION
    • radical innovation, not so much as technological one, but rather as innovative interactions /partnership/services among the stakeholders of a particular satisfaction system
  • 30. SYSTEM DESIGN FOR ECO-EFFICIENCY: A DEFINITION “ the design for eco-efficiency of the system of products and services that are together able to fulfil a particular demand of (customer) “ satisfaction ”, as well as the design of the interaction of the stakeholders directly and indirectly linked to that “satisfaction” system (or value production system) ” [VEZZOLI, 2010]
  • 31.
    • A. “SATISFACTION-SYSTEM” APPROACH
    • design the satisfaction of a particular demand (satisfaction unit)
    • B. “STAKEHOLDER CONFIGURATION” APPROACH
    • design the interactions of the stakeholder of a particular satisfaction-system
    • C. “SYSTEM ECO-EFFICIENCY” APPROACH
    • design the interactions of the stakeholder (offer model) leading them for economic-competitive reasons towards the innovation reducing the environmental impact
    SYSTEM DESIGN FOR ECO-EFFICIENCY: NEW APPROACHES/SKILLS
  • 32. some methods/tools developed to orientat e system design towards eco-efficent solutions: [for such an new skills] NEW METHODS/TOOLS SusProNet, Network on sustainable PSS development [see Tukker &Tischner, 2006] Design4Sustainability Step by step approach [see Tischner & Vezzoli, 2009] HiCS, Highly Customerised Solutions [see Manzini et al. 2004] MEPSS, MEthodology for Product Service System development [see van Halen et al. 2005] ProSecCo, Product Service Co-design [2005] METODI Storyboard Offering diagram Interaction table SDO toolkit System assessment Solution elements Diagnosis module Implementation module Blu Opportunity module portfolio diagram STRUMENTI DESIGN
  • 33. METHODS/TOOLS BY LeNS: METHOD FOR SYSTEM DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABILITY (MSDS) STRATEGIC ANALYSIS EXPLORING OPPORTUNITIES SYSTEM CONCEPT DESIGN SYSTEM DESIGN (AND ENGIN.) COMMUNICATION MSDS PHASES/PROCESSES ANALYSIS OF THE PROJECT PROMOTERS ANALYSIS OF THE REFERENCE CONTEXT ANALYSIS OF BEST PRACTICES ANALYSIS OF THE REFERENCE STRUCTURE DEFINITION OF SUSTAINABILITY DESIGN PRIORITIES IDEAS GENERATION ORIENTED TO SUSTAINABILITY DEVELEPMENT OF THE SUSTAINABILITY DESIGN ORIENTING SCENARIO - VISIONS/CLUSTERS/IDEAS VISIONS, CLUSTERS AND IDEAS SELECTION SYSTEM CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT ENV., SOC. & ECON. CHECK SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT (EXECUTIVE LEVEL) ENV., SOC. & ECON. CHECK DOCUMENTS EDITING SDO toolkit: environmental system design orientation on-line use, free access: www.sdo-lens.polomi.it free download open: www.lens.polimi.it > tools
  • 34. where various forms of social inequality are directly addressed in the design process 4. DESIGN FOR SOCIAL EQUITY
  • 35. MAIN APPROACHES OF DESIGN FOR SOCIAL EQUITY AND COHESION . product design for low-income contexts and basics needs (design for BOP, etc.) . system (stakeholder interaction) design joining eco-efficiency with social equity and cohesion . … of lacally-based and network-structured enterprises/initiatives . … of path for local autonomy
  • 36. WORKING HYPOTHESIS : SYSTEM INNOVATION IS AN OPPORTUNITY EVEN FOR EMERGING AND LOW-INCOME CONTEXTS LeNS book: “ PSS design for Sustainability ”, Greenleaf, 2011 (to be published)] “ a Product-Service System innovation may act as an eco-efficient business opportunity to facilitate the process of social-economical development in emerging and low-income contexts - by jumping over the stage characterised by individual consumption/ownership of mass produced goods - towards a “satisfaction-based”, low resource-intensity, distributed service-economy” [UNEP, 2009 free http://www.d4s-sbs.org
  • 37.
    • AN EXAMPLE OF
    • SOCIO-ETHICAL + ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILE SYSTEM INNOVATIONS
  • 38. environmentally sustainable because it uses the solar energy + socioethically sustainable because give to poor people access to useful services + it is economically sustainable because in a business for TSSFA company. SOLAR HOME KITS, Brasil TSSFA company offers to Brasilian rural people a solar home kits that include the hardware to generate solar energy, the installation service and products that use the electricity, e.g. lighting and electrical outlets. Customers sign a three-year service contract (all of the tangible inputs are owned by the provider) .
  • 39.
    • A. “SATISFACTION-SYSTEM” APPROACH
    • design the satisfaction of a particular demand (satisfaction unit) and all its related products and services
    • B. “STAKEHOLDER CONFIGURATION” APPROACH
    • design the interactions of the stakeholder of a particular satisfaction-system
    • C. “SYSTEM SUSTAINABILITY” APPROACH
    • design such a stakeholder interactions (offer model) that continuously seek after both eco-efficient and socio-ethical new beneficial solutions
    SYSTEM DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABILITY: NEW APPROACH AND SKILLS
  • 40. some methods/tools developed to orientat e system design towards sustainable solutions: [for such a new skills] NEW METHODS/TOOLS … MEPSS, UE RESEARCH van Halen, Vezzoli & Wimmer, Methodology for product service system innovation, Van Gorcum, Assen, The Netherlands, 2005 D4S, UNEP RESEARCH Tischner, Vezzoli, Product-Service Systems; Tools and cases Design for Sustainability, UNEP/TU Delft, 2009 UNEP, RESEARCH UNEP - TUD, Design for Sustainability: A Practical Approach for Developing Economies , UNEP-DTI, 2006
  • 41. METHODS/TOOLS BY LeNS: METHOD FOR SYSTEM DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABILITY (MSDS) STRATEGIC ANALYSIS EXPLORING OPPORTUNITIES SYSTEM CONCEPT DESIGN SYSTEM DESIGN (AND ENGIN.) COMMUNICATION MSDS PHASES/PROCESSES ANALYSIS OF THE PROJECT PROMOTERS ANALYSIS OF THE REFERENCE CONTEXT ANALYSIS OF BEST PRACTICES ANALYSIS OF THE REFERENCE STRUCTURE DEFINITION OF SUSTAINABILITY DESIGN PRIORITIES IDEAS GENERATION ORIENTED TO SUSTAINABILITY DEVELEPMENT OF THE SUSTAINABILITY DESIGN ORIENTING SCENARIO - VISIONS/CLUSTERS/IDEAS VISIONS, CLUSTERS AND IDEAS SELECTION SYSTEM CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT ENV., SOC. & ECON. CHECK SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT (EXECUTIVE LEVEL) ENV., SOC. & ECON. CHECK DOCUMENTS EDITING SDO toolkit: socioethical system design orientation on-line use, free access: www.sdo-lens.polomi.it free download open: www.lens.polimi.it > tools
  • 42. new research frontier … low impact mat./energies design for social equity and cohesion system design for eco-efficiency Product Life Cycle Design ecodesign SUSTAINABILITY IN DESIGN ROLE : STATE OF THE ART (in industrially mature contexts) CONSOLIDATION (research achievements on knowledge-base and know-how) (education and practice) DISSEMINATION 100% 100% 0 widening the “object” to be designed … aim at
  • 43. DESIGN KNOWLEDGE-BASE AND KNOW-HOW IN SYSTEM DESIGN FOR BOTH ECO-EFFICENCY AND SOCIAL EQUITY AND COHESION IN THIS COURSE (SYSTEM DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABILITY) WE WILL SEE:
  • 44. new research frontier … low impact mat./energies design for social equity and cohesion system design for eco-efficiency Product Life Cycle Design ecodesign SYSTEM DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABILITY CONSOLIDATION (research achievements on knowledge-base and know-how) (education and practice) DISSEMINATION 100% 100% 0 widening the “object” to be designed … aim at
  • 45. … BUT SUSTAINABILITY REQUIRE A DIFFUSED ( RADICAL) CHANGE DIFFUSED INNOVATION PROMOTE SUSTAINABLE (SYSTEM) INNOVATION FEASABLE AND “ATTRACTIVE”
  • 46. A “PLURALISM OF AESTHETICS FOR SUSTAINABILITY” arise from the sustainability’s (new) values that take the expressions in a multiplicity of forms AN AESTHETIC FOR SUSTAINABILITY? A “ICONIC-ENVIRONMENTALIST AESTHETIC”? a mass of “green-recycled-panda” products? the aesthetic has a fundamental role!
  • 47. AN NEW AESTHETIC FOR PRODUCTS as well as SERVICES AND INTERACTIONS BETWEEN SOCIO-ECONOMIC STAKAHOLDERS
  • 48. DESIGNER: A SOCIO-CULTURAL “INNOVATOR”? A DESIGNER MAY … … observe emerging/new types of demands (coherent with sustainability) and transforming them into products, services and systems … A DESIGNER MAY … … induce new quality criteria (coherent with sustainability) throughout the offer of (more) attractive products, services and systems